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2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221938, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350206

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects are extraordinarily diverse, yet are found in only one-third of insect orders. This skew may result from barriers to plant colonization, coupled with phylogenetic constraint on plant-colonizing adaptations. The plant-penetrating ovipositor, however, is one trait that surmounts host plant physical defences and may be evolutionarily labile. Ovipositors densely lined with hard bristles have evolved repeatedly in herbivorous lineages, including within the Drosophilidae. However, the evolution and genetic basis of this innovation has not been well studied. Here, we focused on the evolution of this trait in Scaptomyza, a genus sister to Hawaiian Drosophila, that contains a herbivorous clade. Our phylogenetic approach revealed that ovipositor bristle number increased as herbivory evolved in the Scaptomyza lineage. Through a genome-wide association study, we then dissected the genomic architecture of variation in ovipositor bristle number within S. flava. Top-associated variants were enriched for transcriptional repressors, and the strongest associations included genes contributing to peripheral nervous system development. Individual genotyping supported the association at a variant upstream of Gαi, a neural development gene, contributing to a gain of 0.58 bristles/major allele. These results suggest that regulatory variation involving conserved developmental genes contributes to this key morphological trait involved in plant colonization.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Animais , Drosophilidae/genética , Herbivoria/genética , Filogenia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Drosophila/genética , Genômica
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274292, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197946

RESUMO

The schizophoran superfamily Ephydroidea (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) includes eight families, ranging from the well-known vinegar flies (Drosophilidae) and shore flies (Ephydridae), to several small, relatively unusual groups, the phylogenetic placement of which has been particularly challenging for systematists. An extraordinary diversity in life histories, feeding habits and morphology are a hallmark of fly biology, and the Ephydroidea are no exception. Extreme specialization can lead to "orphaned" taxa with no clear evidence for their phylogenetic position. To resolve relationships among a diverse sample of Ephydroidea, including the highly modified flies in the families Braulidae and Mormotomyiidae, we conducted phylogenomic sampling. Using exon capture from Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and transcriptomics to obtain 320 orthologous nuclear genes sampled for 32 species of Ephydroidea and 11 outgroups, we evaluate a new phylogenetic hypothesis for representatives of the superfamily. These data strongly support monophyly of Ephydroidea with Ephydridae as an early branching radiation and the placement of Mormotomyiidae as a family-level lineage sister to all remaining families. We confirm placement of Cryptochetidae as sister taxon to a large clade containing both Drosophilidae and Braulidae-the latter a family of honeybee ectoparasites. Our results reaffirm that sampling of both taxa and characters is critical in hyperdiverse clades and that these factors have a major influence on phylogenomic reconstruction of the history of the schizophoran fly radiation.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Ácido Acético , Animais , Drosophilidae/genética , Filogenia
4.
Environ Entomol ; 51(5): 989-997, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124736

RESUMO

Annona senegalensis Pers. is a shrub of tropical countries that, during the fruiting period, harbor many insects. All parts of the plant are used and exploited in traditional medicine, food, and firewood. Our study aimed at evaluating the diversity of insects associated with the different phenological stages of A. senegalensis fruits in two phytogeographic zones of Burkina Faso. Sampling was carried out on flowers, green fruits, ripe fruits, and decayed fruits of A. senegalensis. For the first time, a total of 48 insects species belonging to 6 orders and 23 families were identified. These orders were Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. Our data indicated that the diversity of insect species varies according to the stages of development of the fruit (P = 0.017) and according to the site (P = 2.2e-16). Among these insects, Curculionidae (Endaeus spp.) predominate on flowers, are known to be pollinators, and Formicidae (Messor galla Mayr, [Hymenoptera: Formicidae], Trichomyrmex abyssinicus Forel, [Hymenoptera: Formicidae], and Crematogaster sp.) and Tettigometridae (Hilda undata Walker, [Hemiptera: Tettigometridae]) are suspected to have mutualistic relationships on green fruits. Potential pests belonging to the Scarabaeidae (Pachnoda spp., Polybaphes spp., and Xeloma Maura Boheman, [Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]), Drosophilidae (Zaprionus indianus Gupta, [Diptera: Drosophilidae]), and Nitidulidae (Carpophilus nepos Murray, [Coleoptera: Nitidulidae]) are associated with ripe and decayed fruits. The data in this study highlight the diversity in terms of pollinators that ensure the fruit production and Formicidae known to protect A. senegalensis against potential pests. These data provide valuable information in terms of valuation of this plant.


Assuntos
Annona , Annonaceae , Besouros , Drosophilidae , Hemípteros , Himenópteros , Magnoliopsida , Animais , Burkina Faso , Insetos , Frutas
5.
Dev Genes Evol ; 232(5-6): 89-102, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939093

RESUMO

The origin, diversification, and secondary loss of sexually dimorphic characters are common in animal evolution. In some cases, structurally and functionally similar traits have evolved independently in multiple lineages. Prominent examples of such traits include the male-specific grasping structures that develop on the front legs of many dipteran insects. In this report, we describe the evolution and development of one of these structures, the male-specific "sex brush." The sex brush is composed of densely packed, irregularly arranged modified bristles and is found in several distantly related lineages in the family Drosophilidae. Phylogenetic analysis using 250 genes from over 200 species provides modest support for a single origin of the sex brush followed by many secondary losses; however, independent origins of the sex brush cannot be ruled out completely. We show that sex brushes develop in very similar ways in all brush-bearing lineages. The dense packing of brush hairs is explained by the specification of bristle precursor cells at a near-maximum density permitted by the lateral inhibition mechanism, as well as by the reduced size of the surrounding epithelial cells. In contrast to the female and the ancestral male condition, where bristles are arranged in stereotypical, precisely spaced rows, cell migration does not contribute appreciably to the formation of the sex brush. The complex phylogenetic history of the sex brush can make it a valuable model for investigating coevolution of sex-specific morphology and mating behavior.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Drosophilidae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Filogenia , Drosophilidae/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220308, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673862

RESUMO

The accumulation of trehalose has been suggested as a mechanism underlying insect cross-tolerance to cold/freezing and drought. Here we show that exposing diapausing larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata to dry conditions significantly stimulates their freeze tolerance. It does not, however, improve their tolerance to desiccation, nor does it significantly affect trehalose concentrations. Next, we use metabolomics to compare the complex alterations to intermediary metabolism pathways in response to three environmental factors with different ecological meanings: environmental drought (an environmental stressor causing mortality), decreasing ambient temperatures (an acclimation stimulus for improvement of cold hardiness), and short days (an environmental signal inducing diapause). We show that all three factors trigger qualitatively similar metabolic rearrangement and a similar phenotypic outcome-improved larval freeze tolerance. The similarities in metabolic response include (but are not restricted to) the accumulation of typical compatible solutes and the accumulation of energy-rich molecules (phosphagens). Based on these results, we suggest that transition to metabolic suppression (a state in which chemical energy demand is relatively low but need for stabilization of macromolecules is high) represents a common axis of metabolic pathway reorganization towards accumulation of non-toxic cytoprotective compounds, which in turn stimulates larval freeze tolerance.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Secas , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento , Insetos , Larva/fisiologia , Trealose
7.
Acta Trop ; 233: 106565, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709923

RESUMO

Thelazia callipaeda is a zoonotic nematode parasitizing the eyes of many hosts species, primarily dogs. To date Phortica variegata and Phortica okadai are the only known vectors of this nematode in Europe and China, respectively. In this study we investigated the role played by a third species, Phortica oldenbergi, as vector of T. callipaeda in Europe. Drosophilid flies of this species were collected in central Italy and maintained in laboratory. One hundred forty P. oldenbergi were experimentally infected with T. callipaeda L1 recovered from field collected gravid females belonging to haplotype 1, which is that detected in several countries in Europe. Seventy-four (i.e., 60 females and 14 males) specimens died at 5 days post infection (d.p.i.) (±1) and scored negative for T. callipaeda larvae at the dissection. Sixty-six (i.e., 46 females and 20 males) P. oldenbergi survived and were dissected at 21 d.p.i. From those, T. callipaeda L3 were detected in the proboscis of two females (3.0%). Overall, at the molecular analysis, 11.4% (n = 16/140; 13 females and 3 males) scored positive for the presence of T. callipaeda DNA. Data herein reported brings further insights on the biology of T. callipaeda by adding P. oldenbergi as a new potential intermediate host under experimental conditions. The role of this drosophilid in the transmission cycle of T. callipaeda needs to be confirmed under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Drosophilidae , Infecções por Spirurida , Thelazioidea , Animais , Cães , Drosophilidae/genética , Feminino , Insetos Vetores , Larva , Masculino , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/genética
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 200, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some species of drosophilid flies belonging to the genus Phortica feed on ocular secretions of mammals, acting as biological vectors of the zoonotic eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda. This study describes an effective breeding protocol of Phortica variegata and Phortica oldenbergi in insectary conditions. METHODS: Alive gravid flies of P. oldenbergi, P. variegata and Phortica semivirgo were field collected in wooded areas of Lazio region (Italy) and allowed to oviposit singularly to obtain isofamilies. Flies were maintained in ovipots (200 ml) with a plaster-covered bottom to maintain high humidity level inside. Adult feeding was guaranteed by fresh apples and a liquid dietary supplement containing sodium chloride and mucin proteins, while larval development was obtained by Drosophila-like agar feeding medium. The breeding performances of two media were compared: a standard one based on cornmeal flour and an enriched medium based on chestnut flour. All conditions were kept in a climatic chamber with a photoperiod of 14:10 h light:dark, 26 ± 2 °C and 80 ± 10% RH. RESULTS: From a total of 130 field-collected Phortica spp., three generations (i.e. F1 = 783, F2 = 109, F3 = 6) were obtained. Phortica oldenbergi was the species with highest breeding performance, being the only species reaching F3. Chestnut-based feeding medium allowed higher adult production and survival probability in both P. oldenbergi and P. variegata. Adult production/female was promising in both species (P. oldenbergi: 13.5 F1/f; P. variegata: 4.5 F1/f). CONCLUSIONS: This standardized breeding protocol, based on controlled climatic parameters and fly densities, together with the introduction of an enriched chestnut-based feeding medium, allowed to investigate aspects of life history traits of Phortica spp. involved in the transmission of T. callipaeda. Obtaining F3 generation of these species for the first time paved the road for the establishment of stable colonies, an essential requirement for future studies on these vectors in controlled conditions.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias , Infecções por Spirurida , Thelazioidea , Animais , Cruzamento , Drosophila , Feminino , Loa , Mamíferos
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613123

RESUMO

The Zygothrica genus group has been shown to be speciose, with a high number of cryptic species. DNA barcoding approaches have been a valuable tool to uncover cryptic diversity in this lineage, as recently suggested for the Neotropical Mycodrosophila projectans complex, which seems to comprise at least three different species. The aim of this study was to confirm the subdivision of the M. projectans complex while shedding some light on the patterns and processes related to its diversification. In this sense, the use of single and multi-locus datasets under phylogenetic, distance, coalescence, and diagnostic nucleotide approaches confirmed the presence of at least three species under the general morphotype previously described as M. projectans. Only a few subtle morphological differences were found for the three species in terms of aedeagus morphology and abdominal color patterns. Ecologically, sympatry and syntopy seem to be recurrent for these three cryptic species, which present widely overlapping niches, implying niche conservatism. This morphological and ecological similarity has persisted though cladogenesis within the complex, which dates back to the Miocene, providing an interesting example of morphological conservation despite ancient divergence. These results, in addition to contrasting patterns of past demographic fluctuations, allowed us to hypothesize patterns of allopatric or parapatric diversification with secondary contact in Southern Brazil. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was generally high within species, suggesting that migration may encompass an adaptive response to the restrictions imposed by the ephemerality of resources.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Animais , Brasil , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Simpatria
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390108

RESUMO

Drosophila saltans group belongs to the subgenus Sophophora (family Drosophilidae), and it is subdivided into five subgroups, with 23 species. The species in this group are widely distributed in the Americas, primarily in the Neotropics. In the literature, the phylogenetic reconstruction of this group has been performed with various markers, but many inconsistencies remain. Here, we present a phylogenetic reconstruction of the saltans group with a greater number of species, 16 species, which is the most complete to date for the saltans group and includes all subgroups, in a combined analysis with morphological and molecular markers. We incorporated 48 morphological characters of male terminalia, the highest number used to date, and molecular markers based on mitochondrial genes COI and COII. Based on the results, which have recovered the five subgroups as distinct lineages, we propose a new hypothesis regarding the phylogenetic relationships among the subgroups of the saltans group. The relationships of the species within the sturtevanti and elliptica subgroups were well supported. The saltans subgroup showed several polytomies, but the relationship between the sibling species D. austrosaltans and D. saltans and their close relation with D. nigrosaltans were well supported in the molecular and total evidence analyses. The morphological analysis additionally supported the formation of the clade D. nigrosaltans-D. pseudosaltans. The observed polytomies may represent synchronous radiations or have resulted from speciation rates that have been too fast relative to the pace of substitution accumulation.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Drosophilidae , Animais , Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Drosophilidae/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Masculino , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 5093(2): 169-194, 2022 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390811

RESUMO

By integrating morphological and molecular evidences, seven new species of the Scaptodrosophila coracina species group and one new species of uncertain affinity to this genus from China are recognized and described: S. angustifolia sp. nov., S. apunctata sp. nov., S. latifoliacea sp. nov., S. longiciliata sp. nov., S. melanovittata sp. nov., S. polytricapillum sp. nov., S. undulata sp. nov. and S. curvata sp. nov. A key to the examined species is provided. Intra- and interspecific, pairwise p-distances with DNA barcodes (partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI, i.e., cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) are calculated and summarized. In addition, S. zebrina Liu Chen, 2018 from Yunnan, China is recognized as junior homonym of S. zebrina (Bezzi, 1928) and renamed as S. zebromyia nom. nov.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Animais , China , DNA , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 5120(4): 586-594, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391147

RESUMO

The gigantea group is one of the six species groups of the genus Colocasiomyia Meijere, 1914 (Diptera, Drosophilidae). All the nine known species of this group breed on inflorescence/infructescence of host plants of the subfamily Monsteroideae (Araceae) and are geographically restricted to the Oriental region: seven species found exclusively from Rhaphidophora spp. in southern China, and the remaining two from Sabah (host plant: Scindapsus coriaceus) in Borneo or from West Java (host plant: Epipremnum pinnatum). In the present paper, a new member of the gigantea group, C. daiae sp. nov., is described, with adult specimens and eggs collected from inflorescences of Scindapsus maclurei in Hainan, China and larvae and pupae reared from field-collected eggs in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Araceae , Dípteros , Drosophilidae , Animais , Drosophilidae/genética , Inflorescência , Larva , Melhoramento Vegetal
13.
Zootaxa ; 5106(1): 1-80, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391282

RESUMO

This checklist contains taxonomic information and distributions for 720 drosophilid species, including all species descended from the most recent common ancestor of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae and all adventive species present in the Hawaiian Islands. The ancestor of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae colonized the archipelago roughly 25 million years ago and now includes 689 described taxa. This includes species placed in the genus Scaptomyza (273 spp), only some of which are Hawaiian endemics (148 spp), and all endemic Hawaiian Drosophila (416 spp). There are also 33 adventive species that have been introduced to Hawaii in the past ~200 years. Taxonomic placement, to the level of species subgroup, and all references related to replacement names and synonyms are included. This is the first comprehensive list to be published in over a decade and includes many recent changes and additions to the fauna, including 130 new species names. This checklist will serve as the basis for future revisionary work on the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae, particularly the genus Scaptomyza.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Animais , Drosophila , Hawaii , Filogenia
14.
Zootaxa ; 5116(3): 334-350, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391331

RESUMO

Two uncommon genera of Steganinae (Drosophilidae) are herein studied based on material from the Neotropical Region, Pseudiastata Coquillett and Hyalistata Wheeler. Additional records for Pseudiastata Coquillett are provided, including the redescription of the species Pseudiastata brasiliensis Costa Lima, originally described in 1937. An update to the morphological nomenclature is also proposed, as well as a lectotype and some paralectotype designations. Moreover, the genus Hyalistata Wheeler, for which two new species are described (Hyalistata cerradensis sp. nov. and Hyalistata emas sp. nov.) is first recorded in Brazil. We present photographs and detailed illustrations of the terminalia of all species described here.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Drosophilidae , Animais
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(3)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048974

RESUMO

Island radiations present natural laboratories for studying the evolutionary process. The Hawaiian Drosophilidae are one such radiation, with nearly 600 described species and substantial morphological and ecological diversification. These species are largely divided into a few major clades, but the relationship between clades remains uncertain. Here, we present new assembled transcriptomes from 12 species across these clades, and use these transcriptomes to resolve the base of the evolutionary radiation. We recover a new hypothesis for the relationship between clades, and demonstrate its support over previously published hypotheses. We then use the evolutionary radiation to explore dynamics of concordance in phylogenetic support, by analyzing the gene and site concordance factors for every possible topological combination of major groups. We show that high bootstrap values mask low evolutionary concordance, and we demonstrate that the most likely topology is distinct from the topology with the highest support across gene trees and from the topology with highest support across sites. We then combine all previously published genetic data for the group to estimate a time-calibrated tree for over 300 species of drosophilids. Finally, we digitize dozens of published Hawaiian Drosophilidae descriptions, and use this to pinpoint probable evolutionary shifts in reproductive ecology as well as body, wing, and egg size. We show that by examining the entire landscape of tree and trait space, we can gain a more complete understanding of how evolutionary dynamics play out across an island radiation.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/genética , Drosophilidae/genética , Hawaii , Filogenia , Asas de Animais
16.
Fly (Austin) ; 16(1): 37-61, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641736

RESUMO

The genus Scaptomyza is one of the two Drosophilidae genera with Hawaiian endemic species. This genus is an excellent model for biogeographic studies since it is distributed throughout the majority of continents, including continental islands, the Hawaiian Islands, and many other remote oceanic islands. This genus currently comprises 273 described species, 148 of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. However, most descriptions were published before efforts to standardizing the morphological terminology across the Diptera were made in the 1980's. Since research groups developed their own set of terminologies independently, without considering homologies, multiple terms have been used to refer to the same characters. This is especially true for the male terminalia, which have remarkable modifications within the family Drosophilidae. We reviewed the Scaptomyza literature, in addition to other studies across the Drosophilidae and Diptera, compiled the English synonyms, and provided a visual atlas of each body part, indicating how to recognize the morphological characters. The goal of the present study is to facilitate species identification and propose preferred terms to be adopted for future Scaptomyza descriptions.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Animais , Masculino , Filogenia
17.
J Med Entomol ; 59(1): 328-336, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748016

RESUMO

Lachryphagous males of Phortica variegata (Fallén, 1823) are gaining increasing attention in Europe, as they act as vectors of the nematode Thelazia callipaeda Railliet & Henry, 1910, causal agent of thelaziosis, an emergent zoonotic disease. Currently, there are no effective control strategies against the vector, and surveillance and monitoring rely on time-consuming and nonselective sampling methods. Our aim was to improve the knowledge about the population dynamics and the chemical ecology of the species. A total of 5,726 P. variegata flies (96.4% males and 3.6% females, mostly gravid) were collected in field experiments during June-September of 2020 in an oak forest in northern Spain. Our results indicate that 1) by means of sweep netting a significantly higher number of captures were found both around the collector´s body and in the air than at ground level; 2) a positive relationship was detected between the abundance of Phortica flies and temperature, with two significant peaks of abundance at 24 and 33°C; 3) the blend of red wine and cider vinegar was the most attractive bait; 4) yellow traps captured fewer flies compared to black and transparent traps; and 5) a significant reduction toward vinegar and wine was detected in presence of the phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol. In addition, all the males (n = 690) analyzed by both molecular detection and dissection resulted negative for the presence of T. callipaeda larvae. Overall, these findings provide a better understanding of the vector in terms of monitoring and management strategies.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães/parasitologia , Drosophilidae/parasitologia , Drosophilidae/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Thelazioidea , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150254, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798758

RESUMO

Although the toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides has been demonstrated in several studies, the information on metabolism, behavior, and health risk remains limited and has raised concerns about its potential toxicity. Thus, in this study we assessed the effects of nitenpyram using different sublethal concentrations (one-third and one-tenth of the acute LC50 values) on various developmental and metabolic parameters from gene expression regulation in Drosophila melanogaster (model system used worldwide in ecotoxicological studies). As a result, nitenpyram sublethal concentrations prolonged the developmental time for both pupation and eclosion. Additionally, nitenpyram sublethal concentrations significantly decreased the lifespan, pupation rate, eclosion rate, and production of eggs of D. melanogaster. Moreover, the mRNA expression of genes relevant for development and metabolism was significantly elevated after exposure. Mixed function oxidase enzymes (Cyp12d1), (Cyp9f2), and (Cyp4ae1), hemocyte proliferation (RyR), and immune response (IM4) genes were upregulated, whereas lifespan (Atg7), male mating behavior (Ple), female fertility (Ddc), and lipid metabolism (Sxe2) genes were downregulated. These findings support a solid basis for further research to determine the hazardous effects of nitenpyram on health and the environment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophilidae , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophilidae/metabolismo , Feminino , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Reprodução , Transcriptoma
19.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963012

RESUMO

The diversity of herbivorous insects is attributed to their propensity to specialize on toxic plants. In an evolutionary twist, toxins betray the identity of their bearers when herbivores coopt them as cues for host-plant finding, but the evolutionary mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. We focused on Scaptomyza flava, an herbivorous drosophilid specialized on isothiocyanate (ITC)-producing (Brassicales) plants, and identified Or67b paralogs that were triplicated as mustard-specific herbivory evolved. Using in vivo heterologous systems for the expression of olfactory receptors, we found that S. flava Or67bs, but not the homologs from microbe-feeding relatives, responded selectively to ITCs, each paralog detecting different ITC subsets. Consistent with this, S. flava was attracted to ITCs, as was Drosophila melanogaster expressing S. flava Or67b3 in the homologous Or67b olfactory circuit. ITCs were likely coopted as olfactory attractants through gene duplication and functional specialization (neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization) in S. flava, a recently derived herbivore.


Assuntos
Drosophilidae , Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophilidae/genética , Herbivoria/genética , Mostardeira , Óleos Vegetais , Receptores Odorantes/genética
20.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 26: 100651, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879962

RESUMO

Thelazia callipaeda is a vector borne zoonotic nematode transmitted by drosophilid flies of Phortica genus. It has been reported in humans from different parts of India including North Eastern region. Only one case of canine ocular thelaziosis has been reported from southern India while no case has yet been reported from the rest of the country. This communication reports the first case of canine ocular thelaziosis from Nagaland and the entire North East region of India along with the morphological characters and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Drosophilidae , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias , Infecções por Spirurida , Thelazioidea , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária
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