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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 31-36, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999676

RESUMO

Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been revealed to play not only a significant role in quinolone resistance but also this drug resistance can spread from one bacterium to another. There is limited data regarding the prevalence of PMQR are available from Bangladesh. So, the aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes among clinical isolates of ciprofloxacin resistant Proteus spp. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2018 to June 2019. Fourty (40) Proteus spp. was isolated from 300 culture positive samples. Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris were identified by culture and biochemical test. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by disc-diffusion technique. Quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS and aac(6')-1b-cr) among ciprofloxacin resistant Proteus spp. were detected by PCR. Thirty (75%) ciprofloxacin resistant isolates were detected during disk-diffusion technique. Among them, quinolone resistance genes were found positive 11(36.67%) for aac(6')-Ib-cr, 6(20%) for qnrA, 5(16.67%) for qnrD, 4(13.33%) for qnrS and 3(10%) for qnrB genes. Co-existance of qnrA + aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrD + qnrS were found in 3(10%) wound swab & pus and urine samples respectively followed by qnrA + qnrB in 2(6.67%) wound swab and pus and qnrA+qnrS in 1(3.33%) urine sample. The results of this study showed presence of high (66.67%) percentage of PMQR genes as well as high (30%) rate of co-carriage of the two genes among Proteus spp. isolates. The incidence of PMQR genes was found to be high which could be due to the increased prescription of fluoroquinolones. Thus, there is a need for rational usage of fluoroquinolones.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Proteus , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 94-98, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999686

RESUMO

Among the quinolones, fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents used for treating many clinical infections including Salmonellosis. Although high level of resistance to fluoroquinolones remains low in Salmonella but reduced susceptibility is increasing worldwide. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) of qnr type (qnrA, B and S) has been identified now a day in several enterobacterial species including Salmonella spp. This cross-sectional study was held at department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from March 2019 to February 2020. This study was conducted to determine the current quinolone resistance pattern and to detect the presence of qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes among Salmonella isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of 36 Salmonella isolates were done by disc diffusion method. MIC of ciprofloxacin was detected by agar dilution method. Then amplification with specific primers of qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes were performed for all Salmonella isolates. The present study observed 80.5% resistance to nalidixic acid, 33.3% to ciprofloxacin and 19.4% to ofloxacin by disc diffusion method. qnr A gene was detected in 2(5.5%) isolates, where as qnrS was detected in 5 (13.8%) isolates. None of the isolates was positive for qnrB gene. All the qnrA positive isolates showed resistance to Ciprofloxacin (MIC=128µg/ml) and Ofloxacin. In conclusion, presence of qnr genes in the study isolates is alarming, because, rapid dissemination might occur due to conjugative plasmid mediated horizontal transfer.


Assuntos
Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Salmonella/genética
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 180-185, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999700

RESUMO

Rapid spread of multidrug resistant microorganisms is a matter of great concern throughout the glove including Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the causative organisms for urinary tract infection (UTI) and their sensitivity patterns to antibiotics. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients admitted with UTI (n=60) at a tertiary level hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2019 to September 2019. Data were collected through clinical record reviews. Data of all these 60 cases were analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the 60 patients, culture and sensitivity report was available for 42 patients. Therefore, data were further analyzed for these 42 cases. Median age of patients was 35 years and 80% were female. The main organisms isolated from urine culture of UTI patients were E. coli (64%), Klebsiella (12%) and Enterococci species (10%). Susceptibility to antibiotics was analyzed only for E. coli (n=27) since the number of isolates of other organisms were small. E. coli was found to be resistant to most of the first- and second-line antibiotics, such as Amoxicillin (100%), Amoxyclav (72%), Co-trimoxazole (89%), Nalidixic acid (78%), Ceftazidim (94%), Ceftriaxone (73%), Cefuroxime (100%), Ciprofloxacin (59%), Cephotaxime (80%), Cefixime (100%) and Moxifloxacin (100%). E. coli was the predominant organism responsible for UTI and was resistant to most of the first- and second-line antibiotics. Immediate action is needed to develop empirical guideline for empirical management of UTI and establish surveillance system for monitoring.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 131, 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000007

RESUMO

There is a rapid rise in the incidence of quinolone resistant bacteria in Nigeria. Most studies in Nigeria have focused on isolates from the clinical settings, with few focusing on isolates of environmental origin. This study aimed to investigate the antibiogram and carriage of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes by quinolone-resistant isolates obtained from a pool of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) recovered from sewage leaking out of some surface-leaking sanitary sewers in a University community in Nigeria. Isolation of E. coli from the sewage samples was done on CHROMagar E. coli, after enrichment of the samples was done in Brain Heart Infusion broth amended with 6 µg/mL of cefotaxime. Identification of presumptive E. coli was done using molecular methods (detection of uidA gene), while susceptibility to antibiotics was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Detection of PMQR genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-lb-cr, qepA and oqxAB) was carried out using primer-specific PCR. A total of 32 non-repetitive cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were obtained from the sewage, with 21 being quinolone-resistant. The quinolone-resistant isolates showed varying level of resistance to the tested antibiotics, with imipenem being the only exception with 0% resistance. The PMQR genes: aac(6')-lb-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and qepA and oqxAB were detected in 90.5%, 61.9%, 47.6%, 38.1%, 4.8% and 0% respectively of the isolates. The findings of this study showed a high level of resistance to antibiotics and carriage of PMQR genes by quinolone-resistant E. coli obtained from the leaking sanitary sewers, suggesting a potential environmental and public health concern.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 135, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024941

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens, and a causative agent of a variety of infections in humans and animals. Most studies concentrated on characterization of staphylococcus isolates and its antimicrobial resistance from various illness of veterinary importance, but there is no specific study that is available on isolates from reproductive tract of small ruminants and especially its semen. Hence, in the current study, a total of 48 semen samples were collected from healthy bucks of different breeds to investigate the occurrence of S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of the Staphylococcus isolates were determined to assess the adverse effects of them on buck fertility. The bacterial isolates were tentatively confirmed as Staphylococcus spp. based on the Gram's staining, growth on Mannitol salt agar and catalase test. Overall, 75% (n = 36) of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. from the total 48 buck semen ejaculates from different breeds and among them 23 (63.89%) were coagulase-negative (CoNS) and 13 (36.11%) were coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) strains. The species identified by molecular characterization are S. aureus, S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, and S. epidermidis from buck semen. Further, these isolates exhibited varying degrees of multidrug resistance genotypically as well as phenotypically. The presence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes may pose a potential threat to reproductive health of animals, the animal handlers and livestock keepers, while simultaneously highlighting the need for vigilant monitoring of these isolates at the time of semen cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sêmen , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 22, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As antibiotic resistance creates a significant global health threat, we need not only to accelerate the development of novel antibiotics but also to develop better treatment strategies using existing drugs to improve their efficacy and prevent the selection of further resistance. We require new tools to rationally design dosing regimens from data collected in early phases of antibiotic and dosing development. Mathematical models such as mechanistic pharmacodynamic drug-target binding explain mechanistic details of how the given drug concentration affects its targeted bacteria. However, there are no available tools in the literature that allow non-quantitative scientists to develop computational models to simulate antibiotic-target binding and its effects on bacteria. RESULTS: In this work, we have devised an extension of a mechanistic binding-kinetic model to incorporate clinical drug concentration data. Based on the extended model, we develop a novel and interactive web-based tool that allows non-quantitative scientists to create and visualize their own computational models of bacterial antibiotic target-binding based on their considered drugs and bacteria. We also demonstrate how Rifampicin affects bacterial populations of Tuberculosis bacteria using our vCOMBAT tool. CONCLUSIONS: The vCOMBAT online tool is publicly available at https://combat-bacteria.org/ .


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149859, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464800

RESUMO

The global emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among pathogens is a major public health crisis that might soon lead to a post-antibiotic era. Klebsiella pneumoniae, included in the World Health Organization list of critical priority pathogens, is an emerging threat to global health owing to the rapid rise of convergent AMR and hypervirulent strains. Comprehensive epidemiology of AMR-hypervirulent determinants in K. pneumoniae from Low-and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is still lacking. As part of rapid risk assessment, an in-silico approach was employed to characterize the AMR and hypervirulence determinants in K. pneumoniae from LMICs. Genomic data of 2432 K. pneumoniae strains were obtained from 33 LMICs representing 4 continents; Asia (n = 12), Africa (n = 18), N. America (n = 2) and Europe (n = 1). All the analysed strains were multiple-drug resistant and 13.6% of them were hypervirulent as well. The co-existence of antibiotic resistant genes conferring concomitant resistance towards life-saving drugs (carbapenems, colistin, fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin) were also observed among the strains, thereby challenging the efficacy of current treatment strategies. The emergence of convergent strains of K. pneumoniae carrying both multi-drug resistance and hypervirulence-associated genes in 12 LMICs is highlighted in this study. Asian region was identified as the major hotspot for convergent strains, especially being confined to 3 countries (India, Pakistan and Vietnam), further exacerbating the situation. This represents a major challenge to disease treatment and public health management in the LMICs. Regular surveillance for emergence of convergence and necessary interventions in the high-risk regions are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Paquistão , Virulência
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150687, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597551

RESUMO

The emergence of novel plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance genes tet(X) in the Enterobacteriaceae has increased public health risk for treating severe bacterial infections. Despite growing reports of tet(X)-positive isolates detected in animal sources, the epidemiological association of animal- and environment-derived isolates with human-derived isolates remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of tet(X4)-positive Escherichia coli isolates collected in a hospital in Guangdong province, China. A total of 48 tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates were obtained from 1001 fecal samples. The tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates were genetically diverse but certain strains that belonged to ST48, ST10, and ST877 etc. also have clonally transmitted. Most of the tet(X4) genes from these patient isolates were located on conjugative plasmids that were successfully transferred (64.6%) and generally coexisted with other antibiotic resistance genes including aadA, floR, blaTEM and qnrS. More importantly, we found the IncX1 type plasmid was a common vector for tet(X4) and was prevalent in these patient-derived strains (31.3%). This plasmid type has been detected in animal-derived strains from different species in different regions demonstrating its strong transmission ability and wide host range. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that certain strains of patient and animal origin were closely related indicating that the tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates were likely to have cross-sectorial clonal transmission between humans, animals, and farm environments. Our research greatly expands the limited epidemiological knowledge of tet(X4)-positive strains in clinical settings and provides definitive evidence for the epidemiological link between human-derived tet(X4)-positive isolates and animal-derived isolates.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 1-5, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580009

RESUMO

The Urogenital Sub-committee and the Surveillance Committee of the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology conducted the second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis. In this second surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 26 hospitals and clinics from May 2016 to July 2017. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 41 isolates; the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and solithromycin were 2 µg/ml (2 µg/ml), 1 µg/ml (0.5 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.25 µg/ml), 0.125 µg/ml (0.063 µg/ml), 0.125 µg/ml (0.125 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.25 µg/ml), 0.031 µg/ml (0.031 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.125 µg/ml), and 0.016 µg/ml (0.008 µg/ml), respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any strains resistant to fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. In addition, the MIC of solithromycin was favorable and lower than that of other antimicrobial agents. However, the MIC of azithromycin had a slightly higher value than that reported in the first surveillance report, though this might be within the acceptable margin of error. Therefore, the susceptibility of azithromycin, especially, should be monitored henceforth.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis , Uretrite , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Uretrite/epidemiologia
10.
Surg Clin North Am ; 102(1): 159-167, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800384

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a public health concern. A critical care clinician is faced with a clinical dilemma of using the appropriate treatment without compromising the antibiotic armamentarium. Postoperative and trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) pose a unique challenge of mounting a systemic inflammatory response, which makes it even more difficult to differentiate inflammation from infection. The decision for type of empirical therapy should be individualized to the patient and local ecology data and resistance profiles. After initiation of empirical therapy, deescalation should be done once microbiology data are available. Antibiotic stewardship programs are essential in the ICU.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114101, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800768

RESUMO

Manure from food animals exposed to antibiotics is often used as soil fertiliser, potentially releasing antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) with diverse antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) into the soil. To determine the impact of chicken litter application on the soil resistome, Enterococcus spp. isolated from chicken litter and soil samples collected before and after the soil amendment were characterised, using whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Nineteen Enterococcus spp. isolates from the three sources were sequenced on Illumina Miseq platform to ascertain the isolates' resistome, mobilome, virulome, clonality, and phylogenomic relationships. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed eight novel sequence types (STs) (ST1700, ST1752, ST1753, ST1754, ST1755, ST1756, ST1004, and ST1006). The isolates harboured multiple resistance genes including those conferring resistance to inter alia macrolides-lincosamide-streptogramin (erm(B), lnu(B), lnu(G), lsaA, lsaE, eat(A), msr(C)), tetracycline (tet(M), tet(L), tet(S)), aminoglycosides (aac(6')-Ii, aac(6')-Iih, ant(6)-Ia, aph(3')-III, ant(9)-Ia), fluoroquinolones (efmA, and emeA), vancomycin (VanC {VanC-2, VanXY, VanXYC-3, VanXYC-4, VanRC}), and chloramphenicol (cat). The litter-amended soil harboured new ARB (particularly E. faecium) and ARGs (ant(6)-Ia, aac(6')-Ii, aph(3')-III), lnu(G), msr(C), and eat(A), efmA) that were not previously detected in the soil. The identified ARGs were associated with diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as insertion sequences (IS6, ISL3, IS256, IS30), transposons (Tn3 and Tn916) and plasmids (repUS43, repUS1, rep9b, and rep 22). Twenty-eight virulence genes encoding adherence/biofilm formation (ebpA, ebpB, ebpC), antiphagocytosis (elrA) and bacterial sex pheromones (Ccf10, cOB1, cad, and camE), were detected in the genomes of the isolates. Phylogenomic analysis revealed a close relationship between a few isolates from litter-amended soil and the chicken litter isolates. The differences in the ARG and ARB profiles in the soil before and after the litter amendment and their association with diverse MGEs indicate the mobilisation and transmission of ARGs and ARB from the litter to the soil.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Enterococcus , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Plasmídeos , Solo , África do Sul
12.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103901, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809933

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a zoonotic microorganism and rarely reported in duck production chain. This study aimed to investigate prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of C. perfringens at different stages of a duck production chain. In total, 319 samples were collected from a large-scale rearing and slaughter one-stop enterprise in Weifang, China, of which 42.95% of samples were positive for C. perfringens. All isolates were genotype A. Cpe and cpb2 genes were found in 2.54% and 24.87% of the isolates, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 55.47% of the isolates resistant to at least 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) results showed that 65 representative isolates were divided into 47 sequences types (STs), 33.85% of them were included into four clonal complexes (CC). Some of isolates from breeding and slaughtering stages were distributed in the same CC or ST, indicating duck products may be contaminated by C. perfringens originated from the breeding stage. Part of duck isolates were distributed in the same CC as human isolates and systemically close with human isolates. The high contamination rates of duck products, the isolates with multi-drug antibiotic resistance or the cpe gene, and the close relationship between strains from human and ducks, indicated potential public health risks, not only control measures at slaughtering stage but also at rearing stage should be considered to reduce this risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium perfringens , Patos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/classificação , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
13.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103917, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809942

RESUMO

Cereal-associated lactobacilli resist antimicrobial plant secondary metabolites. This study aimed to identify multi-drug-resistance (MDR) transporters in isolates from mahewu, a Zimbabwean fermented cereal beverage, and to determine whether these MDR-transporters relate to resistance against phenolic compounds and antibiotics. Comparative genomic analyses indicated that all seven mahewu isolates harbored multiple MATE and MFS MDR proteins. Strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Limosilactobacillus fermentum encoded for the same gene, termed mahewu phenolics resistance gene mprA, with more than 99% nucleotide identity, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Strains of Lp. plantarum were more resistant than strains of Lm. fermentum to phenolic acids, other antimicrobials and antibiotics but the origins of strains were not related to resistance. The resistance of several strains exceeded EFSA thresholds for several antibiotics. Analysis of gene expression in one strain each of Lp. plantarum and Lm. fermentum revealed that at least one MDR gene in each strain was over-expressed during growth in wheat, sorghum and millet relative to growth in MRS5 broth. In addition, both strains over-expressed a phenolic acid reductase. The results suggest that diverse lactobacilli in mahewu share MDR transporters acquired by lateral gene transfer, and that these transporters mediate resistance to secondary plant metabolites and antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Grão Comestível , Genes MDR , Lactobacillus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Zimbábue
14.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 268-273, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635618

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the major causes of food-borne infections. We investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates collected in Korea between January 2016 and December 2017. In total, 669 Salmonella isolates were collected from clinical specimens at 19 university hospitals. Serotyping was performed according to the Kauffmann-White scheme, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using Sensititre EUVSEC plates or disk diffusion. Among the strains, C (39.8%) and B (36.6%) were the most prevalent serogroups. In total, 51 serotypes were identified, and common serotypes were S. enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- (16.7%), S. Enteritidis (16.1%), S. Bareilly (14.6%), S. Typhimurium (9.9%), and S. Infantis (6.9%). The resistance rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 32.6%, 12.1%, and 8.4%, respectively. The resistance rates to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were 8.1% and 3.0%, respectively, while 5.4% were multidrug-resistant. S. enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Enteritidis were highly prevalent, and there was an increase in rare serotypes. Multidrug resistance and ciprofloxacin resistance were highly prevalent. Periodic investigations of Salmonella serotypes and antimicrobial resistance are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , República da Coreia , Salmonella/genética , Sorogrupo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150936, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678365

RESUMO

Aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. However, it remains unclear how the microbiome responds to press disturbance events in these ecosystems. We examined the impact of the world's largest mining disaster (Brazil, 2015) on sediment microbiomes in two disturbed rivers compared to an undisturbed river during 390 days post-disturbance. The diversity and structure of the virulome and microbiome, and of antibiotic and metal resistomes, consistently differed between the disturbed and undisturbed rivers, particularly at day 7 post-disturbance. 684 different ARGs were predicted, 38% were exclusive to the disturbed rivers. Critical antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), e.g., mcr and ereA2, were significantly more common in the disturbed microbiomes. 401 different ARGs were associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), 95% occurred in the disturbed rivers. While plasmids were the most common MGEs with a broad spectrum of ARGs, spanning 16 antibiotic classes, integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and integrons disseminated ARGs associated with aminoglycoside and tetracycline, and aminoglycoside and beta-lactam, respectively. A significant increase in the relative abundance of class 1 integrons, ICEs, and pathogens was identified at day 7 in the disturbed microbiomes, 72-, 14- and 3- fold higher, respectively, compared with the undisturbed river. Mobile ARGs associated with ESKAPEE group pathogens, while metal resistance genes and virulence factor genes in nonpathogenic hosts predominated in all microbiomes. Network analysis showed highly interconnected ARGs in the disturbed communities, including genes targeting antibiotics of last resort. Interactions between copper and beta-lactam/aminoglycoside/macrolide resistance genes, mostly mobile and critical, were also uncovered. We conclude that the mud tsunami resulted in resistome expansion, enrichment of pathogens, and increases in promiscuous and mobile ARGs. From a One Health perspective, mining companies need to move toward more environmentally friendly and socially responsible mining practices to reduce risks associated with pathogens and critical and mobile ARGs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Macrolídeos , Tsunamis
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 111-117, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932441

RESUMO

Genomic changes in Mycoplasma pneumoniae caused by adaptation to environmental or ecologic pressures are poorly understood. We collected M. pneumoniae from children who had confirmed pneumonia in Taiwan during 2017-2020. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare these isolates with a worldwide collection of current and historical clinical strains for characterizing population structures. A phylogenetic tree for 284 strains showed that all sequenced strains consisted of 5 clades: T1-1 (sequence type [ST]1), T1-2 (mainly ST3), T1-3 (ST17), T2-1 (mainly ST2), and T2-2 (mainly ST14). We identified a putative recombination block containing 6 genes (MPN366‒371). Macrolide resistance involving 23S rRNA mutations was detected for each clade. Clonal expansion of macrolide resistance occurred mostly within subtype 1 strains, of which clade T1-2 showed the highest recombination rate and genome diversity. Functional characterization of recombined regions provided clarification of the biologic role of these recombination events in the evolution of M. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Macrolídeos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S , Recombinação Genética
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 180-187, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932455

RESUMO

Although restricting over-the-counter (OTC) antimicrobial drug sales is recommended globally, no data track its effect on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria. We evaluated the effect of a national policy restricting OTC antimicrobial sales, put in place in November 2010, on AMR in a metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. We reviewed associations between antimicrobial sales from private pharmacies and AMR in 404,558 Escherichia coli and 5,797 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates using a dynamic regression model based on a Bayesian approach. After policy implementation, a substantial drop in AMR in both bacterial species followed decreased amoxicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole sales. Conversely, increased ciprofloxacin sales were associated with increased ciprofloxacin resistance, and extended spectrum ß-lactamases-positive E. coli isolates and azithromycin sales increases after 2013 were associated with increased erythromycin resistance in S. pneumoniae isolates. These findings suggest that restricting OTC antimicrobial sales may influence patterns of AMR, but multifaceted approaches are needed to avoid unintended consequences.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Políticas
18.
Vet Ital ; 57(2)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971499

RESUMO

The prevalence of Salmonella in dogs and cats was investigated and analysed for serotyping, susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs and risk factors assessment. In total, 151 faecal samples from 103 and 48 healthy and nonhealthy (diarrheic) cats and dogs, respectively were examinated. Salmonellae were confirmed by laboratory and biomedical characteristics and further serotyped then subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Risk factors that are typically associated with the shedding of salmonellae were assessed using Fisher's exact tests. Salmonella was detected in 18% (n=27/151) of pets. Most of the positive samples 85%(n=23/27) were from healthy cats and 7.4% (n=2/27) from healthy dogs and 7.4% (n = 2/27) from a diarrhoeic cat and diarrhoeic dog. Only one sample from each diarrhoeic cat and diarrhoeic dog were positive for Salmonella. total, 25 salmonellae (93% of strains) were serotyped as S. Thompson mostly originated form healthy cats (n = 23/25). All were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and expressed ed only resisted an overall intermediate susceptibility patterns to ciprofloxacin. Also, multidrug resistant S. Kentucky and S. Minnesota were identified from a diarrhoeic and an healthy dog, respectively. This is the first isolation report of Salmonella from cats and dogs in Libya. It indeed represents a public health concern wich requires further monitoring.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Líbia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Prevalência , Salmonella , Sorogrupo
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(12)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919511

RESUMO

Introduction. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic, foodborne gastrointestinal pathogen that has the potential to cause severe clinical outcomes, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). STEC-HUS is the leading cause of renal failure in children and can be fatal. Over the last decade, STEC clonal complex 165 (CC165) has emerged as a cause of STEC-HUS.Gap Statement. There is a need to understand the pathogenicity and prevalence of this emerging STEC clonal complex in the UK, to facilitate early diagnosis, improve clinical management, and prevent and control outbreaks.Aim. The aim of this study was to characterize CC165 through identification of virulence factors (VFs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants in the genome and to integrate the genome data with the available epidemiological data to better understand the incidence and pathogenicity of this clonal complex in the UK.Methodology. All isolates belonging to CC165 in the archives at the UK public health agencies were sequenced and serotyped, and the virulence gene and AMR profiles were derived from the genome using PHE bioinformatics pipelines and the Centre for Genomic Epidemiology virulence database.Results. There were 48 CC165 isolates, of which 43 were STEC, four were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and one E. coli. STEC serotypes were predominately O80:H2 (n=28), and other serotypes included O45:H2 (n=9), O55:H9 (n=4), O132:H2 (n=1) and O180:H2 (n=1). All but one STEC isolate had Shiga toxin (stx) subtype stx2a or stx2d and 47/48 isolates had the eae gene encoding intimin involved in the intimate attachment of the bacteria to the human gut mucosa. We detected extra-intestinal virulence genes including those associated with iron acquisition (iro) and serum resistance (iss), indicating that this pathogen has the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. Unlike other STEC clonal complexes, a high proportion of isolates (93%, 40/43) were multidrug-resistant, including resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim.Conclusion. The clinical significance of this clonal complex should not be underestimated. Exhibiting high levels of AMR and a combination of STEC and extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence profiles, this clonal complex is an emerging threat to public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261970, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965260

RESUMO

Fluro(quinolones) is an important class of antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medicine. Resistance to fluro(quinolones) can be acquired by either chromosomal point mutations or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). There is a lack of studies on the prevalence of PMQR in organisms from environmental sources in Bangladesh. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PMQR genes in E. coli from various water sources and analysed associations between multi-drug resistance (MDR) and resistance to extended spectrum ß-lactam antibiotics. We analysed 300 E. coli isolates from wastewaters of urban live-bird markets (n = 74) and rural households (n = 80), rural ponds (n = 71) and river water samples (n = 75) during 2017-2018. We isolated E. coli by filtering 100 ml of water samples through a 0.2µm cellulose membrane and incubating on mTEC agar media followed by identification of isolated colonies using biochemical tests. We selected one isolate per sample for detection of PMQR genes by multiplex PCR and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion. Clonal relatedness of PMQR-positive isolates was evaluated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR). About 66% (n = 199) of E. coli isolates harbored PMQR-genes, predominantly qnrS (82%, n = 164) followed by aac(6')-lb-cr (9%, n = 17), oqxAB (7%, n = 13), qnrB (6%, n = 11) and qepA (4%, n = 8). Around 68% (n = 135) of PMQR-positive isolates were MDR and 92% (n = 183) were extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing of which the proportion of positive samples was 87% (n = 159) for blaCTX-M-1' 34% (n = 62) for blaTEM, 9% (n = 16) for blaOXA-1, blaOXA-47 and blaCMY-2, and 2% (n = 4) for blaSHV. Further, 16% (n = 32) of PMQR-positive isolates were resistant to carbapenems of which 20 isolates carried blaNDM-1. Class 1 integron (int1) was found in 36% (n = 72) of PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. PMQR genes were significantly associated with ESBL phenotypes (p≤0.001). The presence of several PMQR genes were positively associated with ESBL and carbapenemase encoding genes such as qnrS with blaCTXM-1 (p<0.001), qnrB with blaTEM (p<0.001) and blaOXA-1 (p = 0.005), oqxAB and aac(6')-lb-cr with blaSHV and blaOXA-1 (p<0.001), qnrB with blaNDM-1 (p<0.001), aac(6')-lb-cr with blaOXA-47 (p<0.001) and blaNDM-1 (p = 0.002). Further, int1 was found to correlate with qnrB (p<0.001) and qepA (p = 0.011). ERIC-PCR profiles allowed identification of 84 of 199 isolates with 85% matching profiles which were further grouped into 33 clusters. Only 5 clusters had isolates (n = 11) with identical ERIC-PCR profiles suggesting that PMQR-positive E. coli isolates are genetically heterogeneous. Overall, PMQR-positive MDR E. coli were widely distributed in aquatic environments of Bangladesh indicating poor wastewater treatment and highlighting the risk of transmission to humans and animals.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
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