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1.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(3): 701-708, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Secondary metalworking carries exposure to relatively heavy levels of respirable particulate. We investigated the extent to which metalworking is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), an established inflammatory biomarker. METHODS: We studied 80 metalworking factory employees in Kazakhstan. Informed by industrial hygiene data, we categorized them into three groups: (1) machine operators (41%); (2) welders or assemblers (33%); and (3) all others, including administrative and ancillary staff (26%). Participants completed questionnaires covering occupational history, smoking, home particulate sources, respiratory symptoms, and comorbidities. We measured exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FeNO), and spirometric function. We used mixed-effects modeling to test the associations of occupational group with FeNO, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: The median age was 51.5 (interquartile range 20.5) years; 7% were women. Occupational group (p < 0.01), daily current cigarette smoking intensity (p < 0.05), and age (p < 0.05), each was statistically associated with FeNO. Welders, or assemblers (Group 2), who had intermediate particulate exposure, manifested significantly higher exhaled FeNO compared to machinists (Group 1, with the highest particulate exposure) and all others (Groups 3, the lowest particulate): adjusted Group 2 mean 44.8 ppb (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.8-55.9) vs. Group 1 24.6 ppb (95% 20.5-28.7) and Group 3, 24.3 ppb (95% CI 17.7-30.9). Secondhand smoking and height were not associated with FeNO. CONCLUSION: In a metalworking industrial cohort, welders/assemblers manifested significantly higher levels of FeNO. This may reflect respiratory tract inflammation associated with airborne exposures specific to this group.


Assuntos
Expiração , Óxido Nítrico , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Poeira , Feminino , Humanos , Espirometria , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267440, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511915

RESUMO

The dust produced by transportation roads is the primary source of PM2.5 pollution in opencast coal mines. However, China's opencast coal mines lack an efficient and straightforward construction scheme of monitoring and management systems and a short-term prediction model to support dust control. In this study, by establishing a PM2.5 and other real-time environmental information to monitor, manage, visualize and predict the Internet of things monitoring and prediction system to solve these problems. This study solves these problems by establishing an Internet of things monitoring and prediction system, which can monitor PM2.5 and other real-time environmental information for monitoring, management, visualization, and prediction. We use Lua language to write interface protocol code in the APRUS adapter, which can simplify the construction of environmental monitoring system. The Internet of things platform has a custom visualization scheme, which is convenient for managers without programming experience to manage sensors and real-time data. We analyze real-time data using a time series model in Python, and RMSE and MAPE evaluate cross-validation results. The evaluation results show that the average RMSE of the ARIMA (4,1,0) and Double Exponential Smoothing models are 12.68 and 8.34, respectively. Both models have good generalization ability. The average MAPE of the fitting results are 10.5% and 1.7%, respectively, and the relative error is small. Because the ARIMA model has a more flexible prediction range and strong expansibility, and ARIMA model shows good adaptability in cross-validation, the ARIMA model is more suitable as the short-term prediction model of the prediction system. The prediction system can continuously predict PM2.5 dust through the ARIMA model. The monitoring and prediction system is very suitable for managers of opencast coal mines to prevent and control road dust.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , China , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Previsões
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 848773, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521223

RESUMO

Agriculture workers report various respiratory symptoms owing to occupational exposure to organic dust (OD) and various gases. Previously, we demonstrated that pre-exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) alters the host response to OD and induces oxidative stress. Nrf2 is a master-regulator of host antioxidant response and exposures to toxicants is known to reduce Nrf2 activity. The OD exposure-induced lung inflammation is known to increase susceptibility to a secondary microbial infection. We tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure to OD or H2S leads to loss of Nrf2, loss of epithelial cell integrity and that activation of Nrf2 rescues this epithelial barrier dysfunction. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells or mouse precision cut-lung slices (PCLS) were treated with media, swine confinement facility organic dust extract (ODE) or H2S or ODE+H2S for one or five days. Cells were also pretreated with vehicle control (DMSO) or RTA-408, a Nrf2 activator. Acute exposure to H2S and ODE+H2S altered the cell morphology, decreased the viability as per the MTT assay, and reduced the Nrf2 expression as well as increased the keap1 levels in NHBE cells. Repeated exposure to ODE or H2S or ODE+H2S induced oxidative stress and cytokine production, decreased tight junction protein occludin and cytoskeletal protein ezrin expression, disrupted epithelial integrity and resulted in increased Klebsiella pneumoniae invasion. RTA-408 (pharmacological activator of Nrf2) activated Nrf2 by decreasing keap1 levels and reduced ODE+H2S-induced changes including reversing loss of barrier integrity, inflammatory cytokine production and microbial invasion in PCLS but not in NHBE cell model. We conclude that Nrf2 activation has a partial protective function against ODE and H2S.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Poeira , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos
4.
Can Respir J ; 2022: 3769134, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509892

RESUMO

Silicosis is a global problem, and it has brought about great burdens to society and patients' families. The etiology of silicosis is clear, preventable, and controllable, but the onset is hidden and the duration is long. Thus, it is difficult to diagnose it early and treat it effectively, leaving workers unaware of the consequences of dust exposure. As such, a lack of details in the work history and a slow progression of lung disease contribute to the deterioration of patients until silicosis has advanced to fibrosis. These issues are the key factors impeding the diagnosis and the treatment of silicosis. This article reviews the literature on the early identification, diagnosis, and treatment of silicosis as well as analyzes the difficulties in the diagnosis and the treatment of silicosis and discusses its direction of future development.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Silicose , Poeira , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Silicose/diagnóstico , Silicose/etiologia , Silicose/terapia
5.
J Toxicol Sci ; 47(5): 201-210, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527008

RESUMO

Air pollutants are important factors that contribute to the development and/or exacerbation of allergic inflammation accompanied by asthma, but experimental evidence still needs to be collected. Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is closely involved in the onset and progression of asthma. In this study, we examined the effects of particulate matter (PM) on IL-33 expression in macrophages. PM2.5 collected in Yokohama, Japan by the cyclone device significantly induced IL-33 expression in human THP-1 macrophages, and the induction was clearly suppressed by pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist CH-223191 or the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist TAK-242. PM2.5-induced IL-33 expression was significantly attenuated in AhR-knockout or TLR4-mutated macrophages, suggesting an important role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endotoxin in IL-33 stimulation. PM samples derived from tunnel dust slightly but significantly induced IL-33 expression, while road dust PM did not affect IL-33 expression. The PAH concentration in tunnel dust was higher than that in road dust. Tunnel dust or road dust PM contained less endotoxin than PM2.5 collected in Yokohama. These data suggest that the potency of IL-33 induction could depend on the concentration of PAHs as well as endotoxin in PMs. Caution regarding PAHs and endotoxin levels in air pollutants should be taken to prevent IL-33-induced allergic inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Asma , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poeira , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/genética , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5597, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379883

RESUMO

The aridification of Central Asia since the Eocene has widespread evidence, but climate-controlled environmental reorganizations during the Oligocene remain ambiguous. We employed environmental magnetic, mineralogical and geochemical methods on a latest Eocene to late Oligocene terrestrial sequence in Inner Mongolia, China, to examine how global climatic trends and regional factors influenced the evolution of moisture and weathering in the region. Highlighting the climatic influence, our weathering and rainfall proxy data document the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and global cooling during the early Oligocene semi-arid phase, which culminated in the Early Oligocene Aridification Event at 31 Ma. Moreover, for the first time in the terrestrial eastern Central Asian setting, we provide geochemical and geophysical evidence for a second major Oligocene aridification event nearly synchronous to the mid-Oligocene Glacial Maximum at around 28 Ma. These aridification events were interrupted by periods of increased rainfall and weathering and can be associated with the terminations of glacial events seen in marine oxygen isotope records.


Assuntos
Poeira , China
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1716-1724, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393795

RESUMO

Water-soluble ions and some trace gases during the Spring Festival in Ningbo were observed using an ion online gas composition and aerosol monitoring system. Combined with meteorological elements data, the source analysis and composition characteristics of water-soluble ions and trace gases were analyzed. The average concentration of ρ(PM2.5) during the observation period was 33.1 µg·m-3, and there was light pollution. The order of concentration of water-soluble ions was NO3->SO42->NH4+>K+>Cl->Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The secondary inorganic ions ρ(NO3-), ρ(SO42-), and ρ(NH4+) were the most water-soluble ions, which were 12.5, 10.5, and 7.2 µg·m-3, respectively. According to the PMF source analysis, firecracker combustion, secondary generation (background, industrial source), and dust sources were the major sources of fine particles during the observation period, and their contribution rates of PM2.5 were 21.9%, 64.5%, and 13.6%, respectively. When the secondary generation was the main pollution, NH4+ accounted for 92.2% of the cations. When firecracker combustion was the main pollution from New Year's Eve to the second day, the proportion of K+ions significantly increased. Dust sources were affected by regional transport from the northwest direction. When the dust source was the main pollution, the proportion of K++Ca2+and Na++Mg2+ increased.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases/análise , Férias e Feriados , Íons/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Água/análise
8.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266517, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395022

RESUMO

Coal dust is the main pollutant in coal mining areas. Such pollutants easily diffuse and are difficult to monitor, which increases the cost of environmental pollution control. Remote sensing technology can be used to dynamically monitor mining areas at a low cost, and thus, this is a common means of mining area management. According to the spectral characteristics of various ground objects in remote sensing images, a variety of remote sensing indexes can be constructed to extract the required information. In this study, the Wucaiwan open-pit coal mine was selected as the study area, and the Enhanced Coal Dust Index (ECDI) was established to extract the coal dust pollution information for the mining area. A new mining area pollution monitoring method was developed, which can provide technical support for environmental treatment and mining planning in Zhundong. The results of this study revealed the following: (1) Compared with the normalized difference coal index, the ECDI can expand the difference between the spectral information about the coal dust and the surrounding features, so it has a significant recognition ability for coal dust information. (2) From 2010 to 2021, the coal dust pollution in the study area initially increased and then decreased. With the continued exploitation of the coal mines in the study area, the coal dust pollution area increased from 14.77 km2 in 2010 to 69.49 km2 in 2014. After 2014, the local government issued various environmental pollution control policies, which had remarkable results. The coal dust pollution area decreased to 36.85 km2 and 17.85 km2 in 2018 and 2021, respectively. (3) There was a great deal of pollution around mines and roads, around which the pollution was more serious. Various factors, such as wind, coal type, and the mining, processing, and transportation modes, affect the distribution of the coal dust pollution.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Poluentes Ambientais , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Minerais
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2044, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440628

RESUMO

The Southern Ocean paleoceanography provides key insights into how iron fertilization and oceanic productivity developed through Pleistocene ice-ages and their role in influencing the carbon cycle. We report a high-resolution record of dust deposition and ocean productivity for the Antarctic Zone, close to the main dust source, Patagonia. Our deep-ocean records cover the last 1.5 Ma, thus doubling that from Antarctic ice-cores. We find a 5 to 15-fold increase in dust deposition during glacials and a 2 to 5-fold increase in biogenic silica deposition, reflecting higher ocean productivity during interglacials. This antiphasing persisted throughout the last 25 glacial cycles. Dust deposition became more pronounced across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Southern Hemisphere, with an abrupt shift suggesting more severe glaciations since ~0.9 Ma. Productivity was intermediate pre-MPT, lowest during the MPT and highest since 0.4 Ma. Generally, glacials experienced extended sea-ice cover, reduced bottom-water export and Weddell Gyre dynamics, which helped lower atmospheric CO2 levels.


Assuntos
Poeira , Água do Mar , Regiões Antárticas , Atmosfera , Poeira/análise , Oceanos e Mares
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457309

RESUMO

Bayesian hierarchical framework for exposure data compliance testing is highly recommended in occupational hygiene. However, it has not been used for coal dust exposure compliance testing in South Africa (SA). The Bayesian analysis incorporates prior information, which increases solid decision making regarding risk management. This study compared the posterior 95th percentile (P95) of the Bayesian non-informative and informative prior from historical data relative to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) and exposure categories, and the South African Mining Industry Code of Practice (SAMI CoP) approach. A total of nine homogenous exposure groups (HEGs) with a combined 243 coal mine workers' coal dust exposure data were included in this study. Bayesian framework with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation to draw a full P95 posterior distribution relative to the OEL was used to investigate compliance. We obtained prior information from historical data and employed non-informative prior distribution to generate the posterior findings. The findings were compared to the SAMI CoP. The SAMI CoP 90th percentile (P90) indicated that one HEG was compliant (below the OEL), while none of the HEGs in the Bayesian methods were compliant. The analysis using non-informative prior indicated a higher variability of exposure than the informative prior according to the posterior GSD. The median P95 from the non-informative prior were slightly lower with wider 95% credible intervals (CrI) than the informative prior. All the HEGs in both Bayesian approaches were in exposure category four (poorly controlled), with the posterior probabilities slightly lower in the non-informative uniform prior distribution. All the methods mainly indicated non-compliance from the HEGs. The non-informative prior, however, showed a possible potential of allocating HEGs to a lower exposure category, but with high uncertainty compared to the informative prior distribution from historical data. Bayesian statistics with informative prior derived from historical data should be highly encouraged in coal dust overexposure assessments in South Africa for correct decision making.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Teorema de Bayes , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos , África do Sul
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458893

RESUMO

The Radiation and Dust Sensor is one of six sensors of the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer onboard the Perseverance rover from the Mars 2020 NASA mission. Its primary goal is to characterize the airbone dust in the Mars atmosphere, inferring its concentration, shape and optical properties. Thanks to its geometry, the sensor will be capable of studying dust-lifting processes with a high temporal resolution and high spatial coverage. Thanks to its multiwavelength design, it will characterize the solar spectrum from Mars' surface. The present work describes the sensor design from the scientific and technical requirements, the qualification processes to demonstrate its endurance on Mars' surface, the calibration activities to demonstrate its performance, and its validation campaign in a representative Mars analog. As a result of this process, we obtained a very compact sensor, fully digital, with a mass below 1 kg and exceptional power consumption and data budget features.


Assuntos
Poeira , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Atmosfera
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6114, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414155

RESUMO

This paper investigates the characteristics and impact of a major Saharan dust storm during June 14th-19th 2020 on atmospheric radiative and thermodynamics properties over the Atlantic Ocean. The event witnessed the highest ever aerosol optical depth for June since 2002. The satellites and high-resolution model reanalysis products well captured the origin and spread of the dust storm. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measured total attenuated backscatter and aerosol subtype profiles, lower angstrom exponent values (~ 0.12) from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application-version 2 (MERRA-2) and higher aerosol index value from Ozone monitoring instrument (> 4) tracked the presence of elevated dust. It was found that the dust AOD was as much as 250-300% higher than their climatology resulting in an atmospheric radiative forcing ~ 200% larger. As a result, elevated warming (8-16%) was observed, followed by a drop in relative humidity (2-4%) in the atmospheric column, as evidenced by both in-situ and satellite measurements. Quantifications such as these for extreme dust events provide significant insights that may help in understanding their climate effects, including improvements to dust simulations using chemistry-climate models.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Talanta ; 244: 123426, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381498

RESUMO

Phytic acid (PA) functionalized magnetic adsorbents was synthesized through simple process. The functionalized sorbents are featured with core-shell structure, good magnetism, chemical stability, selectivity, and fast adsorption/desorption dynamics for the preconcentration of trace rare earth elements (REEs). With the aid of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection, the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@PA sorbents were employed for the separation and enrichment of 15 REEs from environmental water and atmospheric particulates with different sizes. Under the optimal conditions, the method presented an enrichment factor of 300-fold and low detection limits (0.002-1.1 ng/L) for 15 REEs, with the relative standard deviations of 1.4-4.4%. Environmental water samples were analyzed by the proposed method, and 15 REEs of 0.08-5.80 ng/L were found in local rainwater and river water. The REEs concentration in locally collected fine particulate matter was 0.01-0.93 ng/m3, 0.03-1.70 ng/m3 and 0.03-2.47 ng/m3 of REEs were found in inhalable particulate matter and total suspended particulate samples, respectively. The bioaccessibility of REEs in PM2.5 was evaluated by using Gamble's solution extraction, which was calculated to be 0.73-5.46%.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Ácido Fítico , Poeira , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Silício/química , Água
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 167, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several histological studies have documented airway inflammation and remodelling in the small airways of dust-exposed workers, little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors of small airway dysfunction (SAD) in pneumoconiosis. The present study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of spirometry-defined SAD in pneumoconiosis and assessed the risk factors for associated with SAD. METHODS: A total of 1255 patients with pneumoconiosis were invited to participate, of whom 1115 patients were eligible for final analysis. Spirometry was performed to assess SAD using the following three indicators: maximal mid-expiratory flow and forced expiratory flow 50% and 75%. SAD was defined as at least two of these three indicators being less than 65% of predicted value. Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the relationships between clinical variables and SAD. RESULTS: Overall, 66.3% of patients with pneumoconiosis had SAD, among never-smokers the prevalence of SAD was 66.7%. The proportion of SAD did not differ among the subtypes of pneumoconiosis. In addition, SAD was present across the patients with all stages of pneumoconiosis. Even among those with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥ 80% and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio ≥ 70%, 40.8% of patients had SAD. Patients with SAD were older than patients without SAD, more likely to be women and heavy smokers. Importantly, patients with SAD had more severe airflow obstruction, air trapping, and diffusion dysfunction. All patients with both pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had SAD. Based on multivariate analysis, overall, aged 40 years and older, female sex, heavy smoking, body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and pneumoconiosis stage III were significantly associated with increased risk of SAD. Among the never smokers, risk factors for SAD included female sex, BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2, pneumoconiosis stage II and stage III CONCLUSION: Spirometry-defined SAD is one of the common functional abnormalities caused by occupational dust exposure and should be taken into account when monitoring respiratory health of workers to guide the early precautions and management in pneumoconiosis.


Assuntos
Pneumoconiose , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Poeira , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(4): 507-511, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488551

RESUMO

In 2020, the mass concentration of PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang urban area was(80.30±71.43)µg/m3. The Spearman correlation analysis between metals and metalloids showed that Sb with Cd, Pb, Ni, Se, Cd with Pb, Ni, Se, Pb with Ni, Se, Ni with Se, and Se with Tl were positively correlated, with a coefficient greater than 0.5. The main sources of metals and metalloids of PM2.5 were traffic emissions, fuel combustion, metal smelting and dust. The HQ values of Pb, Hg and Mn for each population were less than 1, with lower non-carcinogenic risk. The R values of carcinogenic risk of Ni and Cd in each population were less than 1×10-6, which could be acceptable risk level for the population. The R values of carcinogenic risk of As and Cr in different populations were between 1×10-6 and 1×10-4, with potential carcinogenic risk, particularly higher in adult males.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Adulto , Cádmio , Carcinógenos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Masculino , Metaloides/análise , Medição de Risco
16.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure and increased body mass index (BMI) are associated with respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether the association of a respiratory burden score with changes in BMI as well as changes in occupational exposure to vapours, gas, dust and fumes (VGDF) varied in subjects with and without asthma and in both sexes over a 5-year period. METHODS: In a 5-year follow-up of a population-based study, 6350 subjects completed a postal questionnaire in 2013 and 2018. A respiratory burden score based on self-reported respiratory symptoms, BMI and frequency of occupational exposure to VGDF were calculated at both times. The association between change in respiratory burden score and change in BMI or VGDF exposure was assessed using stratified regression models. RESULTS: Changes in respiratory burden score and BMI were associated with a ß-coefficient of 0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07). This association did not vary significantly by sex, with 0.05 (0.03 to 0.07) for women and 0.06 (0.04 to 0.09) for men. The association was stronger among those with asthma (0.12; 0.06 to 0.18) compared with those without asthma (0.05; 0.03 to 0.06) (p=0.011). The association of change in respiratory burden score with change in VGDF exposure gave a ß-coefficient of 0.15 (0.05 to 0.19). This association was somewhat greater for men versus women, with coefficients of 0.18 (0.12 to 0.24) and 0.13 (0.07 to 0.19), respectively (p=0.064). The estimate was similar among subjects with asthma (0.18; -0.02 to 0.38) and those without asthma (0.15; 0.11 to 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Increased BMI and exposure to VGDF were associated with increased respiratory burden scores. The change due to increased BMI was not affected by sex, but subjects with asthma had a significantly larger change than those without. Increased frequency of VGDF exposure was associated with increased respiratory burden score but without statistically significant differences with respect to sex or asthma status.


Assuntos
Asma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asma/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Poeira , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439862

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pneumoconiosis in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2020, and to provide a basis for the formulation of prevention and control strategy. Methods: In April 2021 , the cases of pneumoconiosis were monitored by the Occupational Disease and Health Hazard Factors Monitoring Information System in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2020. The distribution of pneumoconiosis, the composition of diseases and the working years exposed to dust were analyzed. Results: All 1026 cases of pneumoconiosis were newly diagnosed in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2020, silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis were the main diseases (78.36% ,804/1026). Stage Ⅰ pneumoconiosis were 484 (47.17%,484/1026) cases. 359 (34.99%,359/1026) cases, 315 (30.70%,315/1026) cases and 252 (24.56%, 252/1026) cases had been diagnosed respectively in Xining City, Haidong City and Haixi Prefecture; 628 (61.21%,628/1026) cases and 418 (40.74%, 418/1026) cases engaged in mining industry and large-sized enterprise, respectively. The working years exposed to dust in silicosis cases were shorter than that in coal worker pneumoconiosis and other pneumoconiosis (P <0.05). Conclusion: The pneumoconiosis area and industry focus in Qinghai Province is obvious. The supervision and adninistration of small and micro scale employers should be strengthened to protect the health rights and interests of workers, especially for the key area and industry.


Assuntos
Antracose , Minas de Carvão , Pneumoconiose , Silicose , Antracose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Poeira , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Silicose/epidemiologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1839, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383203

RESUMO

India as a hotspot for air pollution has heavy black carbon (BC) and dust (DU) loadings. BC has been identified to significantly impact the Indian climate. However, whether BC-climate interactions regulate Indian DU during the premonsoon season is unclear. Here, using long-term Reanalysis data, we show that Indian DU is positively correlated to northern Indian BC while negatively correlated to southern Indian BC. We further identify the mechanism of BC-dust-climate interactions revealed during COVID-19. BC reduction in northern India due to lockdown decreases solar heating in the atmosphere and increases surface albedo of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), inducing a descending atmospheric motion. Colder air from the TP together with warmer southern Indian air heated by biomass burning BC results in easterly wind anomalies, which reduces dust transport from the Middle East and Sahara and local dust emissions. The premonsoon aerosol-climate interactions delay the outbreak of the subsequent Indian summer monsoon.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Carbono/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(8): 5224-5233, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385257

RESUMO

This study examined the isotopic composition of particulate bound mercury (PBM) in 10 Chinese megacities and explored the associated sources and transformation mechanisms. PBM in these cities was characterized by negative δ202Hg (mean: -2.00 to -0.78‰), slightly negative to highly positive Δ199Hg (mean: -0.04 to 0.47‰), and slightly positive Δ200Hg (mean: 0.02 to 0.06‰) values. The positive PBM Δ199Hg signatures were likely caused by physiochemical reactions in aerosols. The Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratio varied from 0.94 to 1.39 in the cities and increased with the increase in the corresponding mean Δ199HgPBM value. We speculate that, in addition to the photoreduction of oxidized Hg, other transformation mechanisms in aerosols (e.g., isotope exchange, complexation, and oxidation, which express nuclear volume effects) also shape the Δ199HgPBM signatures in the present study. These processes are likely enhanced in the presence of strong gas-particle partitioning of gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) and elevated levels of redox active metals (e.g., Fe), halides, and elemental carbon. Based on Δ200HgPBM data presented in this and previous studies, we estimate that large proportions (∼47 ± 22%) of PBM were sourced from the oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg followed by the partitioning of GOM onto aerosols globally, indicating the transformation of Hg(0) to PBM as an important sink of atmospheric Hg(0).


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Isótopos , Mercúrio/análise , Isótopos de Mercúrio/análise
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266671, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421131

RESUMO

To solve the problem of the inability of traditional spray dust removal technology to efficiently restrain dust diffusion at the heading face, a multilayer spiral fog curtain dust control method based on spirally arranged pneumatic nozzles is proposed. In this paper, the k-ɛ turbulence model and K-H droplet breakage model are used. First, different airflow fields are analyzed by simulating the simultaneous injection of different numbers of nozzles, and the motion law of airflow interaction is obtained. Taking the two-layer fog curtain as an example, a multiphysical field coupling numerical simulation of the two-layer spiral fog curtain applied in the field is carried out, and the variation law of its velocity field distribution and particle motion characteristics is analyzed. A similar experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the simulation results and the feasibility of the dust removal scheme. The simulation results show that the double helix arrangement will form a rotating airflow with the cutting arm as the axis to cover the whole roadway section and produce a double-layer spiral fog curtain. The water mist is fragmented into smaller fog droplets under the action of rotating airflow, which improves the dust catching effect of the fog curtain. Experiments show that the dust removal rate and efficiency of multilayer spiral fog curtains are obviously stronger than those of natural dust reduction and traditional spray. After 3 minutes, a dust concentration of approximately 470 mg/m3 can be reduced to less than 4 mg/m3. The average dust removal rates of total dust and exhaled dust were 2.600 mg/(m3.s) and 0.189 mg/(m3.s), respectively, and the dust removal efficiencies were 97.01% and 94.32%.


Assuntos
Poeira , Água , Simulação por Computador , Difusão
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