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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27285, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596124

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a type of herpes zoster infection involving geniculate ganglion and facial nerve. Unilateral facial palsy, otalgia, and painful vesicular rash on the auricle and external auditory canal are the typical symptoms. Although postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating complication of herpes zoster infection, PHN following Ramsay Hunt syndrome has rarely been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old immunocompetent female patient visited our pain clinic, for left-sided refractory otalgia (PHN) that persisted for 3 months after she was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Although facial palsy and tinnitus had recovered within 2 to 4 weeks after symptom onset, the patient had been experiencing a persistent and severe otalgia radiating to mandibular angle, temporal and upper cervical area of neuropathic nature. DIAGNOSES: The patient's pain persisted despite conservative medication and administration of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block, facial nerve block, and great auricular nerve block several times. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with the application of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) to the great auricular nerve. OUTCOMES: The patient experienced significant pain reduction more than 50% on a numeric rating scale after 2 weeks of PRF treatment. LESSONS: Chronic otalgia might be a type of PHN after Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cervical nerve involvement. PRF treatment to the great auricular nerve can be a therapeutic option for refractory otalgia following Ramsay Hunt syndrome.


Assuntos
Dor de Orelha/terapia , Herpes Zoster da Orelha Externa/terapia , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada , Orelha/inervação , Dor de Orelha/etiologia , Feminino , Herpes Zoster da Orelha Externa/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933915, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of bone conduction hearing aids in children under 2 years old who have congenital microtia and atresia. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study involved 42 children under 2 years old with congenital microtia and atresia who were divided into 2 groups: 21 with unilateral defect and 21 with bilateral defect. All children were provided with bone conduction hearing aids on a softband. Air and bone auditory thresholds were assessed by auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The LittlEARS questionnaire was used to evaluate auditory development at baseline and after 6 months of hearing aids use. Behavioral observation audiometry (BOA) was used to assess auditory thresholds and compare aided and unaided hearing. RESULTS After 6 months of hearing aid use, the total score of the LittlEARS questionnaire in children with unilateral defect was 24±5.60, while children with bilateral defect achieved a result of 26.29±6.17. Hearing thresholds in both groups with bone conduction hearing aids improved significantly and approached the normal level. CONCLUSIONS Our results confirm that bone conduction hearing aids provide an effective method of auditory rehabilitation for children with conductive and mixed hearing loss caused by microtia and atresia. Using bone conduction hearing aids in such children is crucial for proper hearing, speech, and language development.


Assuntos
Condução Óssea/fisiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/terapia , Microtia Congênita/terapia , Orelha/anormalidades , Auxiliares de Audição , Audiometria/métodos , Anormalidades Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Microtia Congênita/fisiopatologia , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(6): 526-533, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545861

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of patients with unilateral microtia and aural atresia is complex. Recent literature suggests significant strides in hearing habilitation and ear reconstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: Several options of hearing management are available and are associated with improved outcomes. Timelines for hearing habilitation and ear reconstruction vary by institution. We offer our timeline as a reference. Three dimensional (3D) printed models are increasingly used for training and reconstruction. Bioprinting is on the horizon, though safety and effectiveness studies are pending. Lastly, application of qualitative methods has provided a foundation on which to improve communication between physicians and patients and their families. Better understanding of the patient and family experiences will provide opportunities to target interventions to improve care. SUMMARY: Current developments include expanding options for hearing management, changing approaches to timing of atresiaplasty, utilization of 3D printed models, and focus on patient and family experience to improve reconstructive outcomes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas , Microtia Congênita , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Microtia Congênita/cirurgia , Orelha/cirurgia , Audição , Testes Auditivos , Humanos
4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 577: 32-37, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500233

RESUMO

4,8-Sphingadienines (SD), metabolites of glucosylceramides (GlcCer), are sometimes determined as key mediators of the biological activity of dietary GlcCer, and cis/trans geometries of 4,8-SD have been reported to affect its activity. Since regulating excessive activation of mast cells seems an important way to ameliorate allergic diseases, this study was focused on cis/trans stereoisomeric-dependent inhibitory effects of 4,8-SD on mast cell activation. Degranulation of RBL-2H3 was inhibited by treatment of 4-cis-8-trans- and 4-cis-8-cis-SD, and their intradermal administrations ameliorated ear edema in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, but 4-trans-8-trans- and 4-trans-8-cis-SD did not. Although the activation of mast cells depends on the bound IgE contents, those stereoisomers did not affect IgE contents on RBL-2H3 cells after the sensitization of anti-TNP IgE. These results indicated that 4-cis-8-trans- and 4-cis-8-cis-SD directly inhibit the activation of mast cells. In conclusion, it was assumed that 4,8-SD stereoisomers with cis double bond at C4-position shows anti-allergic activity by inhibiting downstream pathway after activation by the binding of IgE to mast cells.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anafilaxia Cutânea Passiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antialérgicos/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Orelha/patologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Etanolaminas/química , Etanolaminas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucosilceramidas/química , Glucosilceramidas/metabolismo , Glucosilceramidas/farmacologia , Humanos , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Estereoisomerismo
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(9): 829-833, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has impacted on presentations to ENT first-on-call services. METHODS: All appointments to a rapid access triage clinic from 1 June to 31 August in 2019 and 2020 were reviewed retrospectively and their reasons for consultation classified. A binomial proportion test was used to determine whether the proportions of consultations per presentation differed significantly between years. This analysis was repeated with the number of unique patients per presenting complaint. RESULTS: The proportions of nine reasons for consultation differed significantly between 2019 and 2020, including an increase in otitis media and nasal trauma presentations, and a decrease in otitis externa and tonsillitis presentations. Reattendances caused some variation in the frequency of certain diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a shift in the presentations to first-on-call services, which may be a result of changes in patient behaviour and access to healthcare services.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Otorrinolaringopatias/epidemiologia , Orelha/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/epidemiologia , Corpos Estranhos/terapia , Humanos , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Otite Externa/terapia , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Otite Média/terapia , Otorrinolaringopatias/diagnóstico , Otorrinolaringopatias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilite/epidemiologia , Tonsilite/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 68(1): e1-e7, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technological advancements have facilitated the demand for electronic systems to track and measure progress during exercise activities. Electronic devices with music applications, such as iPods and smartphones, are popular during gym sessions as they support the ambiance to one's exercise programme. Earphones are the popular choice for the transmission of music to the gym user's ear. There is a direct correlation between the cardiovascular health and the aural health because of the effect of increased blood supply to the auditory system. Therefore, this research study explores the ear hygiene of gym users. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at determining the ear hygiene and middle-ear status of gym users who wore earphones whilst exercising. METHOD: A purposive sampling method was adopted. Data were collected in two phases: phase 1 via a questionnaire and phase 2 included an otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed. RESULTS: Fifty-four participants were included. Ear hygiene was not a priority for all gym users. The results revealed that 87% of the participants randomly cleaned their ears; however, 59% were cleaning their earphones. The middle ear assessment indicated that 17% of the participants presented with pathological indicators. Participants requested for the implementation of educational programmes pertaining to infection control measures for proper ear hygiene. CONCLUSION: There is a dearth of health and wellness educational programmes that include ear hygiene practices, necessitating the development of prevention and promotion programmes for this niche area in audiology. The need for guidelines pertaining to ear hygiene practices amongst gym users is vital to ensure that the auditory system is monitored and protected when individuals participate in exercise sessions.


Assuntos
Audiologia , Testes de Impedância Acústica , Orelha , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Higiene , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(1): 338-348, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394315

RESUMO

Background: Fetal ear length measurement has been associated with some clinical values: sonographic marker for chromosomal aneuploidy and for biometric estimation of fetal gestational age. Objectives: To establish a baseline reference value for fetal ear length and to assess relationship between fetal ear length and gestational age. Methods: Ear length measurements were obtained prospectively from fetuses in 551 normal singleton pregnancies of 15 to 41 weeks gestation. Normal cases were defined as normal sonographic findings during examination plus normal infant post-delivery. The relationship between gestational age (GA) in weeks and fetal ear length (FEL) in millimeters were analyzed by simple linear regression. Correlation of FEL measurements with GA, biparietal diameter (BPD), Head circumference (HC), Abdominal Circumference (AC), Femur Length (FL) and maternal age (MA) were also obtained. Results: Linear relationships were found between FEL and GA (FEL=0.872GA-2.972). There was a high correlation between FEL and GA (r = 0.837; P = .001). Good linear relationship and strong positive correlation were demonstrated between FEL and BPD, AC, HC, and FL (p<0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study provides normal baseline reference value for FEL. The study also showed good linear relationship and good correlation between FEL and fetal biometric measurements.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Orelha/embriologia , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Valores de Referência
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 573: 55-61, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388455

RESUMO

Mammary epithelial cells are the only cells in the mammary glands that are capable of lactation and they are ideal for studying cellular and molecular biology mechanisms during growth, development and lactation of the mammary glands. The limiting factors in most of the currently available mammary epithelial cells are low cell viability, transgenerational efficiency and lactation function that renders them unsuitable for subsequent studies on mammary gland's cellular and lactation mechanisms and utilizing them as bioreactors. Hence, new methods are required to obtain mammary epithelial cells with high transgenerational efficiency and lactation function. In this study, transdifferentiation of goat ear fibroblasts (GEFs) into goat mammary epithelial cells (CiMECs) was induced in only eight days by five small molecule compounds, including 500 µg/mL VPA, 10 µM Tranylcypromine, 10 µM Forskolin, 1 µM TTNPB, 10 µM RepSox. Morphological observation, marker genes comparison, specific antigen expression and comparison of gene expression levels by transcriptome sequencing between the two types of cells that led to the primary deduction that CiMECs have similar biological properties to goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and comparatively more lactation capacity. Therefore, we establish a novel reprogramming route to convert fibroblasts into CiMECs under fully chemically conditions. This study is expected to provide an in vitro platform for understanding cellular mechanisms such as mammary epithelial cells' fate determination and developmental differentiation, and also to find a new way to obtain a large number of functional mammary epithelial cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Retinoides/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tranilcipromina/farmacologia , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Animais , Benzoatos/química , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colforsina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Orelha , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabras , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/química , Piridinas/química , Retinoides/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Tranilcipromina/química , Ácido Valproico/química
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256481

RESUMO

Objective: To study the characteristics of wideband tympanometry(WBT) and its application value in the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion(OME) in young children. Methods: We compared wideband acoustic energy absorbance(EA) under peak pressure in young children with OME(190 ears) and healthy control subjects(121 ears) from Ninth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine between January 2018 and June 2020. Both groups were divided into three groups, 1-6 months, 7-36 months and 37-72 months. SPSS 20.0 statistical software was used to analyze and compare the EA parameters between OME children of different months and the control group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of WBT in young children with OME. Results: There were significant differences in EA among three OME groups from 500 Hz to 2 000 Hz(P<0.05).Compared with the control groups, EA of 1-6 m OME group decreased significantly below 4 000 Hz(P<0.05), EA of 7-36 m OME group decreased significantly at 545-1 600 Hz(P<0.05), EA of 37-72 m OME group decreased significantly above 545 Hz(P<0.05).ROC curve indicated that EA at 1 000 Hz had the greatest diagnostic value (AUC was 0.890), followed by 1 500 Hz and the range of 500-2 000 Hz (AUC was 0.883 and 0.881, respectively).EA at 1 000 Hz with a cutoff value of 0.55 had the best diagnostic sensitivity of 90.8%, which was higher than conventional tympanometry (85.8%). The maximum AUC (0.932) could be obtained by combining EA, peak pressure and admittance amplitude of 226 Hz tympanometry as predictors. Conclusions: EA is significantly decreased in young children with OME. Compared with the conventional single frequency tympanometry, WBT is more accurate in the diagnosis of OME in young children, and the prediction accuracy would be better if combined with 226 Hz tympanometry.


Assuntos
Otite Média com Derrame , Otite Média , Testes de Impedância Acústica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Orelha , Humanos , Otite Média com Derrame/diagnóstico
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300585

RESUMO

The number of wheat ears is an essential indicator for wheat production and yield estimation, but accurately obtaining wheat ears requires expensive manual cost and labor time. Meanwhile, the characteristics of wheat ears provide less information, and the color is consistent with the background, which can be challenging to obtain the number of wheat ears required. In this paper, the performance of Faster regions with convolutional neural networks (Faster R-CNN) and RetinaNet to predict the number of wheat ears for wheat at different growth stages under different conditions is investigated. The results show that using the Global WHEAT dataset for recognition, the RetinaNet method, and the Faster R-CNN method achieve an average accuracy of 0.82 and 0.72, with the RetinaNet method obtaining the highest recognition accuracy. Secondly, using the collected image data for recognition, the R2 of RetinaNet and Faster R-CNN after transfer learning is 0.9722 and 0.8702, respectively, indicating that the recognition accuracy of the RetinaNet method is higher on different data sets. We also tested wheat ears at both the filling and maturity stages; our proposed method has proven to be very robust (the R2 is above 90). This study provides technical support and a reference for automatic wheat ear recognition and yield estimation.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Triticum , Orelha , Aprendizagem , Aprendizado de Máquina
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299012

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) represents a severe global burden on physical, physiological and mental health. Innate immune cell basophils are essential for provoking allergic inflammation in AD. However, the roles of novel immunoregulatory cytokine IL-37 in basophils remain elusive. We employed in vitro co-culture of human basophils and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and an in vivo MC903-induced AD murine model to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of IL-37. In the in vitro model, IL-37b significantly decreased Der p1-induced thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) overexpression in HaCaT cells and decreased the expression of TSLP receptor as well as basophil activation marker CD203c on basophils. IL-37 could also reduce Th2 cytokine IL-4 release from TSLP-primed basophils ex vivo. In the in vivo model, alternative depletion of basophils ameliorated AD symptoms and significantly lowered the Th2 cell and eosinophil populations in the ear and spleen of the mice. Blocking TSLP alleviated the AD-like symptoms and reduced the infiltration of basophils in the spleen. In CRISPR/Cas9 human IL-37b knock-in mice or mice with direct treatment by human IL-37b antibody, AD symptoms including ear swelling and itching were significantly alleviated upon MC903 challenge. Notably, IL-37b presence significantly reduced the basophil infiltration in ear lesions. In summary, IL-37b could regulate the TSLP-mediated activation of basophils and reduce the release of IL-4. The results, therefore, suggest that IL-37 may target TSLP-primed basophils to alleviate AD.


Assuntos
Basófilos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Basófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo , Orelha/patologia , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Interleucina-1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Regulação para Cima
13.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 35(4): 182-190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115736

RESUMO

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major problem throughout the world and getting worse because of population increase and aging. The cost of treatment increases as the population of people with CLBP increases. This study aimed to examine the effect of auricular acupressure (AA) on pain and disability in elders with chronic low back pain. The randomized, single-blinded, and placebo-controlled study was conducted on 51 elders with CLBP in South Korea from June 2019 to August 2019. The experimental group (n = 26) received AA on low back pain-related points, whereas the placebo control group (n = 25) received AA on points unrelated to low back pain. Participants received 6 weeks of AA in weekly cycles. Collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 25. Statistically significant differences between the 2 groups emerged in the visual analog scale (P < .001), pain threshold (P < .001), and Oswestry Disability Index (P < .001). This study showed that 6 weeks of AA improved CLBP and pain-related disability. Therefore, AA can be used as a noninvasive and self-managed alternative intervention for CLBP in older adults.


Assuntos
Acupressão/métodos , Orelha/inervação , Dor Lombar/terapia , Acupressão/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição da Dor/métodos , República da Coreia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12001, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099817

RESUMO

Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) ATCC 12228 was incubated with 2% polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8 Laurate to yield electricity which was measured by a voltage difference between electrodes. Production of electron was validated by a Ferrozine assay. The anti-Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) activity of electrogenic S. epidermidis was assessed in vitro and in vivo. The voltage change (~ 4.4 mV) reached a peak 60 min after pipetting S. epidermidis plus 2% PEG-8 Laurate onto anodes. The electricity produced by S. epidermidis caused significant growth attenuation and cell lysis of C. acnes. Intradermal injection of C. acnes and S. epidermidis plus PEG-8 Laurate into the mouse ear considerably suppressed the growth of C. acnes. This suppressive effect was noticeably reversed when cyclophilin A of S. epidermidis was inhibited, indicating the essential role of cyclophilin A in electricity production of S. epidermidis against C. acnes. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that skin S. epidermidis, in the presence of PEG-8 Laurate, can mediate cyclophilin A to elicit an electrical current that has anti-C. acnes effects. Electricity generated by S. epidermidis may confer immediate innate immunity in acne lesions to rein in the overgrowth of C. acnes at the onset of acne vulgaris.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/terapia , Antibiose/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ciclofilina A/genética , Propionibacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Acne Vulgar/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Orelha/microbiologia , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Lauratos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Propionibacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia
15.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(9): 1375-1381, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and etiological analysis in patients with congenital unilateral hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Children with permanent congenital unilateral hearing loss born between 2007 and 2018. Patients were referred after universal newborn hearing screening or by a colleague to confirm the diagnosis and perform etiological examinations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hearing loss type, severity, and evolution linked with the results of etiological testing. RESULTS: In the 121 included children, aural atresia is the leading cause of congenital unilateral hearing loss (32%), followed by structural anomalies (19%) and cCMV (13%), whereas 24% remained idiopathic after etiological work-up. Severity is mainly moderately severe (33% with 56-70 dB hearing loss, majority aural atresia) or profound (31% with > 90 dB hearing loss, predominantly cochlear nerve deficiency). Syndromic features were present in 26%. Although discussed with all parents, only 26% of the children regularly used hearing amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss is mainly caused by aural atresia, which proportion in congenital unilateral hearing loss proved higher than previously reported. Cochlear nerve deficiency and cCMV are the predominant etiologies of congenital unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Etiological work-up in affected patients is mandatory as it might impact the approach, and syndromic features should be actively searched for.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Perda Auditiva Unilateral , Criança , Orelha , Perda Auditiva Condutiva , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 268: 118238, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127220

RESUMO

Tacrolimus is a natural macrolide that exhibits an anti-proliferative action by T-lymphocytic cells inhibition. Hence, it was tested as a potential topical treatment to improve and control psoriatic plaques. In this study, for the first time the lipophilic tacrolimus in chitosan nanoparticles was used to achieve the desired response and dermal retention of the drug using a modified ionic gelation technique. The hydrophobic drug, tacrolimus, was successfully encapsulated into the synthesized positively-charged particles (140.8 nm ± 50.0) and EE of (65.5% ± 1.3). Local skin deposition of the drug was significantly enhanced with 82.0% ± 0.6 of the drug retained in the skin compared to 34.0% ± 0.9 from tarolimus® ointment. An outstanding response to the prepared formula was the enhanced hair growth rate in the treated animals, which can be considered an excellent sign of the skin recovery from the induced psoriatic plaques after only three days of treatment.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Orelha/patologia , Imiquimode , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Tacrolimo/química
17.
J Am Acad Audiol ; 32(6): 386-392, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cartilage conduction hearing aids (CCHAs) were newly devised and spread fast in Japan since their launch in 2017. However, little knowledge is available for this new device. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge of CCHAs and suggest their indication. RESEARCH DESIGN: Correlational study. STUDY SAMPLE: A total 256 patients were registered. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The fitting of CCHAs was surveyed in nine institutions. The outcomes were assessed by audiometric tests. The patients were classified into seven groups, depending on the ear conditions. The clinical characteristics, assessment results, and purchase rates were compared among the groups. The assessment results of CCHAs were also compared with those of previously used hearing aids. RESULTS: Most patients who used CCHAs were classified into the bilateral closed (aural atresia or severe stenosis) ear (n = 65) or unilateral closed ear (n = 124) groups. The patients in these groups achieved good benefits that resulted in a high purchase rate. The bilateral continuous otorrhea group also supported a high purchase rate, although the benefits of CCHAs were not always excellent. In contrast, the purchase rate was poor in the patients who could use air conduction hearing aids (ACHAs) without absolute problems. As for using a CCHA as a contralateral routing of signals hearing aid, the benefits depended on the patients. CONCLUSIONS: CCHAs are considered as a great option not only to the patients with closed ears but also to those who had difficulties in ACHAs usage.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Audiometria , Condução Óssea , Cartilagem , Orelha , Perda Auditiva Condutiva , Humanos
18.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(6): 2479-2487, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148133

RESUMO

The estimation of the time since death is an important task in forensic medicine that mainly relies on body cooling in the early post-mortem period. The rectum has been traditionally used to determine the central core temperature after death, though the external auditory canal has been proposed as an alternative site by several authors. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of four body temperature-based methods (Henssge's rectal nomogram, Henssge's brain nomogram, and Baccino's both interval and global formulae based on ear temperature) to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI calculations were carried out based on ear and rectal temperature measurements performed with a reference metal probe on 100 inpatient bodies with an average PMI of 4.5 ± 2.5 h. For practical purposes, ear temperature measurements were applied to Henssge's brain nomogram. All methods could be applied to 81 cases, since high body temperatures prevented the rectal nomogram method from being used in most of the remaining cases. The actual PMI was within the time interval (95% CI) provided by the rectal nomogram method in 72.8% of cases, and in 63.0% to 76.5% of cases when using ear temperature-based methods. The proportions of adequate estimates did not differ statistically between the different methods. When the methods failed to provide a reliable time interval, all except the brain nomogram tended to underestimate the PMI. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup of normothermic patients at the time of death (n = 63), confirming that the PMI calculations had not been biased by the inclusion of patients with thermoregulation disorders. Our findings are in accordance with the published literature which suggests that ear temperature-based methods are as reliable as those based on rectal temperature for estimating the early PMI and that they may be used as quick, simple, and non-invasive methods at the scene, although caution should be taken in interpreting their results given their high error rates. However, further research including field studies is recommended to confirm their practical relevance in forensic casework.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Orelha/fisiologia , Medicina Legal/métodos , Reto/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11980, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099789

RESUMO

Ultraviolet irradiation induces melanin accumulation, which can be reduced by the use of chemical whitening products. However, the associated safety concerns of such products have prompted the search for natural and harmless alternatives. This study aimed to identify a natural acidic formulation to reduce skin pigmentation. The metabolite propionic acid (CH3CH2COOH, PA) was the most abundant fatty acid in the filtrate from Pluronic F68 (PF68) fermentation of Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) and reduced the DOPA-positive melanocytes by significantly inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity via binding to the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2). Moreover, 4 mM PA treatment did not alter melanocyte proliferation, indicating that it is an effective solution for hyperpigmentation, causing no cellular damage. The reduced DOPA-positive melanocytes and tyrosinase activity were also observed in mice ear skin tissue injected with a mixture of C. acnes and PF68, supporting that the inhibition of melanogenesis is likely to be mediated through fermentation metabolites from C. acnes fermentation using PF68 as a carbon source. Additionally, PA did not affect the growth of its parent bacteria C. acnes, hence is a potent fermentation metabolite that does not disrupt the balance of the skin microbiome.


Assuntos
Melaninas/síntese química , Propionatos/metabolismo , Propionibacterium acnes/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Orelha , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação , Melanócitos/citologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Processos Fotoquímicos , Propionatos/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/efeitos da radiação , Pele , Pigmentação da Pele , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
J Comp Pathol ; 185: 30-44, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119229

RESUMO

American Cocker Spaniels (ACSs) develop aural ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia more often than dogs of other breeds. Data on the cause and development of these breed characteristic histopathological changes are lacking. We performed video-otoscopic examinations and dermatological work-up on 28 ACSs, obtained aural biopsies from each dog and assessed the statistical associations between the presence of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia and disease history, clinical or microbiological findings and underlying cause of otitis externa (OE). Histological lesions of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia were observed in aural biopsies from 6/13 clinically healthy ears and 13/15 ears with OE from 19/28 examined dogs. Nine of 28 dogs had histologically normal ceruminous glands (odds ratio [OR] 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-36.6). Bacterial growth in microbiological culture of aural exudate (OR 14.1, 95% CI 2.1-95.3) was associated with ceruminous glandular changes, whereas previous history of OE, cutaneous findings or underlying allergies were not. Pedigree analysis and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) were performed on 18 affected and eight unaffected dogs based on histopathological diagnosis. While the GWAS indicated a tentative, but not statistically significant, association of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia with chromosome 31, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this preliminary result. Based on our results, ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia may also precede clinical signs of OE in ACSs and a genetic aetiological component is likely Further studies with larger cohorts are warranted to verify our preliminary results.


Assuntos
Glândulas Apócrinas/patologia , Doenças do Cão , Otite Externa , Animais , Cruzamento , Dilatação Patológica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Orelha/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hiperplasia/veterinária , Otite Externa/veterinária , Estados Unidos
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