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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(15): 6514-6524, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANN) and first-order Takagi-Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) are utilized to model the fluidized bed-drying process of Echium amoenum Fisch. & C. A. Mey. The moisture ratio evolution is calculated based on the drying temperature, airflow velocity and process time. Different ANN topologies are examined by evaluating the number of neurons (3 to 20), the activation functions and the addition of a second hidden layer. Different numbers (2 to 5) and shapes of membership functions are examined for the ANFIS, using the grid partitioning method. The models with the best performance in terms of prediction accuracy, as evaluated by the statistical indices, are compared with the best fit thin-layer model and the available data from the experimental cases of 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C temperatures at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 ms-1 airflow velocity. RESULTS: The best performed ANFIS model, comprised by 5-2-2 of π-shaped andtriangular membership functions for time, temperature and airflow velocityinputs respectively, was able to describe the moisture ratio evolution of E. amoenum more precisely than the best ANN topology, achieving higher values of coefficientof determination (R2 ), root mean square error (RMSE) and sum of squared errors(SSE). The best thin-layer model involving six adjustable parameters, managedto describe experimental data most accurately with R2 = 0.9996, RMSE = 0.0057and SSE = 7.3·10-4 . CONCLUSION: The results of the comparative study indicate that empirical regression models with increased numbers of adjustable parameters, constitute a simpler and more accurate modeling approach for estimating the moisture ratio of E. amoenum Fisch. & C. A. Mey under fluidized bed drying. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Echium/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Lógica Fuzzy , Temperatura , Água/análise
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9012-9024, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683118

RESUMO

Echium oil has great nutritional value as a result of its high content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω-3) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω-3). However, the comprehensive lipid profiling and exact structural characterization of bioactive polyunsaturated lipids in echium oil have not yet been obtained. In this study, we developed a novel pseudotargeted lipidomics strategy for comprehensive profiling and lipid structural elucidation of polyunsaturated lipid-rich echium oil. Our approach integrated untargeted lipidomics analysis with a targeted lipidomics strategy based on Paternò-Büchi (PB)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using 2-acetylpyridine (2-AP) as the reaction reagent, allowing for high-coverage lipid profiling and simultaneous determination of C═C locations in triacylglycerols (TGs), diacylglycerols (DGs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and sterol esters (SEs) in echium oil. A total of 209 lipid species were profiled, among which 162 unsaturated lipids were identified with C═C location assignment and 42 groups of ω-3 and ω-6 C═C location isomers were discovered. In addition, relative isomer ratios of certain groups of lipid C═C location isomers were revealed. This pseudotargeted lipidomics strategy described in this study is expected to provide new insight into structural characterization of distinctive bioactive lipids in food.


Assuntos
Echium , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Isomerismo , Lipidômica , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(5): 874-886, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393729

RESUMO

Echium arenarium Guss is a Mediterranean plant traditionally used in healing skin wound and it was reported exhibiting potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities. However, antitumoral activities of this plant have not yet been explored. Here we investigated for the first time, root (EARE) and aerial part (EAAPE) extracts of E. arenarium Guss to examine cytotoxicity and apoptosis activation pathway on U266 human multiple myeloma (MM) cell line. We demonstrated that EARE and EAAPE decreased U266 cell viability in a dose dependent manner. Based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, EARE was significantly two times more efficient (IC50 value 41 µg/ml) than EAAPE (IC50 value 82 µg/ml) considering 48 h of treatment. Furthermore, after 24 h of exposure to 100 µg/ml of EARE or EAAPE, cell cycle showed remarkable increase in sub-G1 population and a decrease of U266 cells proportion in G1 phase. In addition, EARE increased cell percentage in S phase. Moreover, analysis revealed that EAAPE or EARE induced apoptosis of U266 cells after 24 h of treatment. Interestingly, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3/7 were demonstrated in treated U266 cells. Phytochemical analysis of E. arenarium extracts showed that EARE exhibited the highest content of total phenolic content. Interestingly, six phenolic compounds were identified. Myricitrin was the major compound in EARE, followed by luteolin 7-O-glucoside, resorcinol, polydatin, Trans-hydroxycinnamic acid, and hyperoside. These findings proved that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway probably mediated the apoptotic effects of E. arenarium Guss extracts on U266 cells, and this will suggest several action plans to treat MM.


Assuntos
Echium , Mieloma Múltiplo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais
4.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 411-419, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448021

RESUMO

Echium seed oil is an alternative source of omega 3 fatty acids but it is highly susceptible to oxidation. A combination of three natural strategies was proposed in this study aiming to improve the oxidative stability of echium oil obtained by pressing (PO) or solvent extraction (PSO), kept in the storage condition for 180 days or during the consumption for 30 days. Our results showed that the reduction of temperature was sufficient to keep the oil stable during storage for both samples. During the consumption time, the best stability was achieved by adding a mixture of antioxidants, composed of sinapic (500 ppm), ascorbic (250 ppm), and citric (150 ppm) acids, and/or 20% of high oleic sunflower oil. The combined strategies promoted a 34 to 80% reduction of peroxide value and 0 to 85% reduction of malondialdehyde concentrations in the samples, showing to be a feasible and natural alternative to improve the oxidative stability of echium oil. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our study successfully applied an optimized combination of simple and low-cost strategies to enhance the chemical stability of echium seed oil. As the use of echium oil expands around the world, the oil industry and final consumers may benefit from our results to increase the oil shelf-life.


Assuntos
Echium/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111408, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038728

RESUMO

The fate of antibiotics and their effects on plant growth may be changed by the application of fertilizers. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sulfadiazine (SDZ), rice husk compost (RHC), rice husk biochar (RHB), and mycorrhiza (MR) on the growth attributes of Iranian Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey. A greenhouse experiment as a completely randomized design with six treatments of bio/organic-fertilizers (no bio-fertilizer (NF), RHB, RHC, MR, RHB+MR, and RHC+MR) and three levels of SDZ application (0, 100, and 200 mg kg-1) was performed for 7months with three replicates. Shoot and root SDZ concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) instrumentation. The results revealed that the application of RHC, RHB, and MR had a significant impact on the reduction of the toxicity effects of SDZ on plant properties. The lowest values of growth parameters belonged to the 200 mg kg-1 of SDZ with no bio-fertilizers, while the highest growth parameters were observed in the treatments of RHB+MR, and RHC+MR with no SDZ application. Also, chlorophyll pigments content was affected by used treatments and the lowest rates of chlorophyll a (4.24), chlorophyll b (2.99), and carotenoids (2.88) were related to the 200 mg kg-1 of SDZ with no biofertilizers application. The co-application of bio-fertilizers and SDZ (at both levels of 100 and 200 mg kg-1) decreased SDZ uptake by both shoot and root in comparison with the control. The same results were obtained with macro (NPK) and micro (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) nutrients uptake by the shoot in which the lowest values of nutrients uptake were observed in treatment of 200 mg kg-1 of SDZ with no bio-fertilizers. Furthermore, in the case of the effect of the used treatments on root colonization, the results showed that the lowest value (7.26%) belonged to the 200 mg kg-1 application of SDZ with no bio-fertilizers. Generally, this study demonstrated that bio-fertilizers could be considered as an effective strategy in controlling the negative effects of antibiotics on the growth properties and nutrients status of the plants grown in such contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Echium/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Sulfadiazina/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Echium/fisiologia , Poluição Ambiental , Fertilizantes , Irã (Geográfico) , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 650-656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876169

RESUMO

Light is considered a factor that influences the seed germination of many weed species, and it can signal whether the environmental conditions are favorable or are not favorable for germination. We aimed to study if there is an influence of light quality and dormancy overcoming in seed germination of Echium plantagineum L. We carried out a 2 x 6 factorial experiment, with and without dormancy overcoming with potassium nitrate followed by immersion in gibberellic acid; six light qualities, obtained through the light filters: blue, green, red, far-red, white light and absence of light. The evaluations performed were germination speed index (GSI), average germination time (AGT), germination at the four and 14 days after seeding (DAS), accumulated germination and relative frequency of germination. We observed significant interaction among the light qualities and seed dormancy overcoming or not for the studied variables. There was no significant effect of light qualities, in the evaluated variables, when performing dormancy overcoming, presenting germination above 90% in all the light qualities. However, without dormancy overcoming, we observed greater GSI, germination at four and 14 DAS for the red light filter with 5, 4, 29 and 45%, respectively. When the seeds were submitted to the absence of light, and without dormancy overcoming, there was only 7% of germination at 14 DAS. The seeds of E. plantagineum presented greater germination under incidence of red light, without dormancy overcoming, being classified as preferably positively photoblastics, provided that the dormancy is not overcome.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Echium , Germinação , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes
7.
Food Chem ; 342: 128384, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214040

RESUMO

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are secondary metabolites of plants, which are mostly found in the genus Senecio, Echium, Crotalaria, and Eupatorium. The presence of 1,2-unsaturated PA in foods is a concern to food regulators around the world because these compounds have been associated to acute and chronic toxicity, mainly in the liver. The intake foods with PA/PANO usually occur through accidental ingestion of plants and their derivatives, besides to products of vegetal-animal origin, such as honey. PA/PANO are transferred to honey by their presence in nectar, honeydew, and pollen, which are collected from the flora by bees. In addition to honey, other beekeeping products, such as pollen, royal jelly, propolis, and beeswax, are also vulnerable to PA contamination. In this context, this review provides information about chemical characteristics, regulation, and toxicity, as well as summarizes and critically discusses scientific publications that evaluated PA in honeys, pollens, royal jelly, and propolis.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/química , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Echium/química , Echium/metabolismo , Mel/análise , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Pólen/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Senécio/química , Senécio/metabolismo
8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 295, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Echium amoenum (EA) on the severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in comparison with placebo. METHODS: The present study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. A checklist questionnaire was completed by 120, 18 to 35-year-old, college students. And then, 84 eligible women (20 to 35 years old) were enrolled in the trial; they were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention (EA) and control (placebo), with 42 participants in each group. Participants in the intervention group received 450 mg capsules of EA per day (three times a day) from the 21st day of their menstrual cycle until the 3rd day of their next cycle for two consecutive cycles. The severity of PMS was measured and ranked using the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST). The generalized estimating equation was used to compare the total score of the severity of PMS between the two groups. RESULTS: Sixty-nine women with regular menstrual cycles suffering from PMS completed the study. The mean scores of the symptoms in the EA group were 35.3 and 16.1 (P ≤ 0.001) at baseline and after 2 months, respectively, while the mean scores of the symptoms in the placebo group were 31.0 and 28.3 (P = 0.09) at baseline and after 2 months, respectively. The evaluation of the first and the second follow-ups in the intervention group showed that, after being adjusted for age and body mass index (P ≤ 0.001), the mean scores of the premenstrual syndrome, using GEE analysis, have decreased to 6.2 and 11.6, respectively. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, in comparison with the placebo group, EA was found to be more effective in improving the symptoms of PMS, and is highly recommended for treatment of this syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT2015110822779N3 ; Registration date: 2015-11-27.


Assuntos
Echium , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Cápsulas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870736

RESUMO

To investigate the transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from feed to milk, rumen-cannulated dairy cows were intra-ruminally fed with 200 g/day of dried plant material of either ragwort (mixture of Jacobaea vulgaris and Senecio inaequidens), common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) or viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare) for a period of 4 days. PA levels in the plant materials were 3767, 2792 and 1674 µg g-1 respectively. Feed intake, milk yield and several blood parameters indicative for liver function were not influenced by the treatment. When fed ragwort, increased levels of PAs were detected in the milk, in particular jacoline and an unidentified cyclic diester, possibly a hydroxylated metabolite from retrorsine. The latter was the most important PA in milk from cows fed common groundsel. For viper's bugloss, echimidine was the most abundant identified PA but in addition several hydroxylated PA metabolites were detected. For ragwort, the overall PA transfer was estimated at 0.05% and 1.4% for jacoline (N-oxide). Transfer rates were similar for viper's bugloss (0.05%) but lower for common groundsel (0.01%). Only a small portion of the administered PAs was quantified in milk, urine and faeces, with an overall balance of 4.5%, 2.9% and 5.8%, for ragwort, common groundsel and viper's bugloss, respectively. Samples taken from the rumen indicated that the N-oxides were converted into the free bases, which was confirmed by in vitro studies with the same plant species incubated with ruminal fluid. These results confirm that the transfer of PAs to milk is relatively low but may be of concern for human health regarding the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties of these compounds. The transfer rate depends on the type of PAs present in the weeds. The incomplete balance of input vs output stresses the need to further investigate the metabolism and the potential transfer of metabolites into edible products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/análise , Senécio/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Echium/química , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Intoxicação por Plantas/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Urina/química
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(9): 6487-6496, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778988

RESUMO

Echium amoenum (EA), a popular medicinal plant in Persian medicine, has anxiolytic, antioxidant, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined whether GABA-ergic signaling is involved in the anxiolytic effects of EA in mice. Sixty BALB/c mice (25-30 g) were divided into six groups (n = 10) as follows: the (I) control group received 10 ml/kg normal saline (NS). In the stress groups, the animals underwent 14 consecutive days of restraint stress (RS), and received following treatments simultaneously; (II) RS + NS; (III) RS + Diaz (Diazepam); (IV) RS + EA; (V) RS + Flu (Flumazenil) + EA; (VI) RS + Flu + Diaz. Behavioral tests including the open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were performed to evaluate anxiety-like behaviors and the effects of the regimens. The plasma level of corticosterone and the hippocampal protein expressions of IL-1ß, TNF-α, CREB, and BDNF, as well as p-GABAA/GABAA ratio, were also assessed. The findings revealed that chronic administration of EA alone produced anxiolytic effects in both behavioral tests, while diazepam alone or in combination with Flu failed to decrease the anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, the p-GABAA/GABAA and p-CREB/CREB ratios, and protein levels of BDNF were significantly increased in the EA-received group. On the other hand, plasma corticosterone levels and the hippocampal IL-1ß and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased by EA. However, pre-treatment with GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) antagonist, Flu, reversed the anxiolytic and molecular effects of EA in the RS-subjected animals. Our findings confirmed that alternation of GABAAR is involved in the effects of EA against RS-induced anxiety-like behaviors, HPA axis activation, and neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Echium/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Diazepam/farmacologia , Flumazenil/administração & dosagem , Flumazenil/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Restrição Física , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(10): 729-735, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of administration of the formulated Persian herbal syrup on improving the symptoms of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). METHODS: This study was conducted in 70 patients with IBS-C, who were recruited from 3 medical centers in Mashhad, Iran, from November 2017 to August 2018. Seventy patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups including treatment and placebo groups by block randomization, 35 cases in each group. Patients in the treatment group received 15 mL of anti-IBS syrup, thrice daily for 6 weeks and followed up for 4 weeks. Placebo syrup was also prepared through similar instruction, BP syrup without plant extract was used. Primary outcome induding IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) questionnaire and secondary outcomes in terms of Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) questionnaires, the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) were completed and evaluated at weeks 6 and 10, respectively. Safety indices were collected at the end of the treatment and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 (CTCAE) was used to evaluate the adverse events. RESULTS: The response to treatment was 84.4% (27/32) in the treatment group and 46.4% (13/28) in the placebo group, respectively (P= 0.002). Compared with pre-treatment, a significant decrease was found on the IBS-SSS and BSFS scores after 6-week intervention in both groups (P<0.001). Moreover, IBS-SSS and BSFS scores in the treatment group were lower than the placebo group after the intervention (P=0.041). There was no significant difference in the anxiety and depression scores after treatment in both groups (P>0.05). Side effects reported in the treatment group included 2 cases of headache during the first week of the onset of the treatment, 1 case of drowsiness, 1 case of increase in menstrual bleeding, which did not result in discontinuation of the treatment. In the placebo group, 1 case of exacerbation of the disease was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-IBS syrup significantly reduced the severity of IBS symptoms compared to placebo. However, there was a need for further investigation regarding the anxiety and depression scores. (Registration No. IRCT2017061034446N1).


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Cassia , Método Duplo-Cego , Echium , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Food Chem ; 328: 127169, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485580

RESUMO

For a long time, honey has been recognized for its health-promoting properties and, consequently, has been used in traditional medicine worldwide. Apart from the beneficial bioactive compounds found in this food (e.g. polyphenols), molecules with potentially harmful effects may also be present, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aiming the quality assessment of honeys produced from Echium plantagineum L., a species known for its content in pyrrolizidine alkaloids, this work was focused in the search of these alkaloids and of polyphenols in one monofloral and two multifloral honeys, using chromatographic techniques. Additionally, their cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory potential were assessed in cellular models. Several polyphenols were determined, but no pyrrolizidine alkaloid was detected in the analysed honey samples. Honey extracts exhibited capacity to decrease NO levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like cells (RAW 264.7) up to 40% at concentrations of 0.25 mg/mL. Therefore, this work highlights the health benefits of these honey samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Echium , Mel/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pólen/química , Portugal , Células RAW 264.7
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 148: 768-776, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978479

RESUMO

To protect anthocyanins of Iranian borage extract (IBE) by encapsulation, maltodextrin (MD)/modified maize starch (MMS) combinations were used at four ratios (MD/MMS: 1/0, 1/0.25, 1/0.5, 1/1, w/w%). The microencapsulated powders with different ratios of wall material presented encapsulation efficacy between 93.1 and 97.4%. FTIR confirmed the cross-linking interaction between extract and MD/MMS wall. Increased thermal stability of extract was also indicated by DSC analysis. The stability of microstructures and crude extract at two conditions (5 and 40 °C) was evaluated by UV and HPLC methods during 60 days. The results of stability showed that encapsulation by treatment 4 (MD/MMS 1:1) improved the stability of anthocyanins 43.8% compared to crude extract. Additionally, microcapsule created in this treatment provided great antioxidant stability. The release in the simulated gastrointestinal tract revealed that the anthocyanins were chiefly retained inside the microparticles in the stomach, and were released in the intestine. The results demonstrated that the microencapsulation with MD and MMS by the spray-drying method can improve the stability, antioxidant and functional characteristics of borage extract, which could be useful in the food and pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Echium/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Amido/química , Cápsulas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Pós/química
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 410-420, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present research aimed to evaluate the nutritional, technological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of bologna sausages made with pork fat replaced with Echium oil. Three different treatments were processed, all of them with approximately 35% less sodium than a regular bologna-type sausage: Control (only pork backfat addition) and T25 and T50 (replacement of 25 and 50% of the added animal fat with Echium oil respectively). RESULTS: Proximate composition, texture profile analysis, fatty acid profile and microstructure were evaluated to characterize the products. In refrigerated storage, the following characteristics were assessed: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) index, objective color, pH value, microbiological counts and sensory acceptance. Both samples with Echium oil (T25 and T50) showed a healthier lipid profile, with high omega-3 content, mainly from α-linolenic and stearidonic fatty acids, consequently presenting better (P ≤ 0.05) values of nutritional indices than the Control. However, the replacement of 50% animal fat with Echium oil negatively affected (P ≤ 0.05) most of the technological characteristics and the sensory acceptance of bolognas. In contrast, the treatment with 25% replacement did not show significant differences in most of the evaluated parameters compared with the Control sample. CONCLUSION: Thus the replacement of 25% of pork backfat with Echium oil in bologna sausages can be recommended, representing a good balance between nutritional gains and sensory impairment. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Echium/química , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sódio/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Suínos , Paladar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 309: 125586, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670124

RESUMO

Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are important delivery systems of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA). We investigated the effect of sinapic acid esters concentration and chain length, the electrical charge of the emulsifier and emulsion pH on the oxidative stability of n-3 FA rich O/W emulsions. Echium oil was applied as n-3 FA source. A 24 factorial design was used to simultaneously evaluate these factors. Peroxide value, malondialdehyde, 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal were measured in the emulsions. pH and the electrical charge of the emulsifier modulated the antioxidant effectiveness of sinapic acid esters, while concentration was not relevant. The combination of positively charged emulsifier with neutral pH provided the best oxidative stability for echium oil emulsions. Our results also suggested that the increase of length chain of sinapic acid, from C4 to C12, reduced the secondary products of oxidation, when echium oil emulsions were prepared using negatively charged emulsifier under acidic conditions.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Echium/química , Emulsões , Ésteres , Oxirredução , Óleos Vegetais/química
16.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581725

RESUMO

The omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The primary dietary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) has not been shown to be a good source for EPA and DHA; however, stearidonic acid (SDA)-which is naturally contained in echium oil (EO)-may be a more promising alternative. This study was aimed at investigating the short-term n3 PUFA metabolism after the ingestion of a single dose of EO. Healthy young male subjects (n = 12) ingested a single dose of 26 g of EO after overnight fasting. Plasma fatty acid concentrations and relative amounts were determined at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after the ingestion of EO. During the whole examination period, the participants received standardized nutrition. Plasma ALA and SDA concentrations increased rapidly after the single dose of EO. Additionally, EPA and DPAn3 concentrations both increased significantly by 47% after 72 h compared to baseline; DHA concentrations also significantly increased by 21% after 72 h. To conclude, EO increases plasma ALA, SDA, EPA, DPAn3, and DHA concentrations and may be an alternative source for these n3 PUFAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Echium , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/sangue
17.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536564

RESUMO

Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum L. (Boraginaceae)), is an herbaceous annual native to Western Europe and northwest Africa. It has been recorded in Australia since the 1800's and is now a major weed in pastures and rangelands, but its introduction history is poorly understood. An understanding of its invasion pathway and subsequent genetic structure is critical to the successful introduction of biological control agents and for provision of informed decisions for plant biosecurity efforts. We sampled E. plantagineum in its native (Iberian Peninsula), non-native (UK) and invaded ranges (Australia and South Africa) and analysed three chloroplast gene regions. Considerable genetic diversity was found among E. plantagineum in Australia, suggesting a complex introduction history. Fourteen haplotypes were identified globally, 10 of which were co-present in Australia and South Africa, indicating South Africa as an important source population, likely through contamination of traded goods or livestock. Haplotype 4 was most abundant in Australia (43%), and in historical and contemporary UK populations (80%), but scarce elsewhere (< 17%), suggesting that ornamental and/or other introductions from genetically impoverished UK sources were also important. Collectively, genetic evidence and historical records indicate E. plantagineum in southern Australia exists as an admixture that is likely derived from introduced source populations in both the UK and South Africa.


Assuntos
Echium/genética , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Espécies Introduzidas , África do Sul , Austrália do Sul
18.
Planta Med ; 85(13): 1107-1113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382302

RESUMO

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are secondary plant constituents that became a subject of public concern because of their hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects. Due to disregardful harvesting and/or contamination with pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants, there is a high risk of ingesting these substances with plant extracts or natural products. The limit for the daily intake was set to 0.007 µg/kg body weight. If contained in an extract, cleanup methods may help to minimize the pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration. For this purpose, a material for depleting pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal preparations was developed based on the approach of molecular imprinting using monocrotaline. Molecular imprinted polymers are substances with specific binding characteristics, depending on the template used for imprinting. By means of group imprinting, only one molecule is used for creating selective cavities for many molecular pyrrolizidine alkaloid variations. Design of Experiment was used for the development using a 25 screening plan resulting in 64 polymers (32 MIPs/32 NIPs). Rebinding trials revealed that the developed material can compete with common cation exchangers and is more suitable for depleting pyrrolizidine alkaloids than C18- material. Matrix trials using an extract from Chelidonium majus show that there is sufficient binding capacity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids (80%), but the material is lacking in selectivity towards pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the presence of other alkaloids with similar functional groups such as berberine, chelidonine, and coptisine. Beyond this interaction, the selectivity could be proven for other structurally different compounds on the example of chelidonic acid.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Benzofenantridinas/isolamento & purificação , Berberina/análogos & derivados , Berberina/isolamento & purificação , Chelidonium/química , Echium/química
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(9): 2530-2541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echium plantagineum, a native of Europe and Africa, is a noxious invasive weed in Australia forming monocultural stands in pastures and rangelands. It produces a complex mixture of bioactive secondary metabolites, including toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), that protect the plant from insect and livestock herbivory and naphthoquinones (NQs), which suppress competition from weeds, insects and pathogens, and also influence invasion success. However, the extent to which allelochemical production is impacted by environmental factors, thereby influencing plant defense against pests, remains unclear. RESULTS: Following plant stress induced by drought, herbivory and high temperature, extracts of E. plantagineum shoots and roots were subjected to metabolic profiling by UPLC-MS-DAD- QToF mass spectrometry. Abundance of NQs, especially deoxyshikonin, shikonin and dimethylacrylshikonin, rapidly increased in roots exposed to elevated temperatures. Water withholding initially increased NQ abundance, but prolonged drought resulted in reduced total PAs and NQs. Intraspecific competition elevated the production of NQs, whereas simulated herbivory had no initial effect on NQs. Following herbivory, the abundance of the PA 3'-O-acetylechimidine-N-oxide in seedling shoots was increased. CONCLUSIONS: Differential accumulation of defense metabolites by E. plantagineum following exposure to various stressors suggested stress-dependent biosynthetic regulation, particularly with respect to NQ production, which was rapidly induced following drought, intraspecific competition and high temperature treatment, thereby positively impacting resistance or defense against herbivores, weeds and pathogens. We propose that trade-offs between above- and below-ground metabolism in E. plantagineum may facilitate allelochemical production in response to stress, rendering plants with an enhanced ability to defend against other neighboring plants, insects and microbes, with allelochemical production further facilitated by catabolic recycling following lengthier exposure to stress. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Echium/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200507

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that pollen products sold as nutritional supplements and used in apitherapy may contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) if bees collect pollen from PA-containing plants, such as Echium vulgare. In this study, the botanical origin of pollen from two observation sites was studied. Despite a high PA content in pollen samples that bees collected during E. vulgare's flowering period, bees were found to collect relatively few Echium pollen loads. Thus, the monitoring of pollen loads collected at the apiaries is unviable to estimate the risk of PA contamination in pollen or bee bread. In a second step, the stability of PAs in bee bread samples containing PAs at concentrations of 2538 ng/g and 98 ng/g was assessed over a period of five or six months, respectively. No significant PA reduction was observed in bee bread stored at 15 °C, but there were overall PA reductions of 39% and 33% in bee bread stored at 30 °C, reflecting hive conditions. While PA N-oxides decreased over time, other types of PAs remained relatively stable. Monitoring PAs in pollen products remains important to ensure consumer safety and should include echivulgarine (and its N-oxide), the major PA type found in pollen from E. vulgare.


Assuntos
Echium/química , Flores/química , Pólen/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/química , Animais , Abelhas/química
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