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1.
Rev Neurol ; 73(4): 135-139, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of disease is a recurring theme in Herge's famous saga, The Adventures of Tintin, and has been reflected in a number of publications. However, the appearance of neurological disease in the work has received little attention from scholars. DEVELOPMENT: A review was conducted of the neurological symptoms that appear in the work published from 1930 to 1976 and their interpretation from a neurological point of view. The possible neurological symptoms in the main characters of the series have been analysed. Head trauma, the neurological sequelae of alcohol and dementia could explain some of the characters' behaviour. This study outlines these cases and their probable interpretation from a neurological perspective. CONCLUSION: Hardly any analyses and interpretations have been carried out on the presence of neurological disease in The Adventures of Tintin series. The work can be used as an informative example of neurological disease.


TITLE: La neurología en Las aventuras de Tintín.Introducción. La presencia de la enfermedad es un hecho recurrente en la famosa saga del autor Hergé, Las aventuras de Tintín, que se ha reflejado en algunos trabajos publicados. No obstante, la aparición de la enfermedad neurológica en la obra ha sido un hecho poco analizado. Desarrollo. Revisión de los síntomas neurológicos en los álbumes publicados desde 1930 a 1976 y su interpretación desde un punto de vista neurológico. Se han analizado los posibles síntomas neurológicos en los principales personajes de la serie. El trauma craneal, las secuelas neurológicas del alcohol y la demencia podrían explicar algunos comportamientos de los personajes. En este trabajo se exponen éstos y su probable interpretación desde un punto de vista neurológico. Conclusión. La presencia de la enfermedad neurológica en la serie Las aventuras de Tintín ha sido poco analizada e interpretada. La obra puede usarse como ejemplo divulgativo de la enfermedad neurológica.


Assuntos
Obras de Ficção como Assunto , Literatura Moderna , Medicina na Literatura , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Neurologia , Alcoolismo , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Demência , Ecolalia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Transtornos Mentais , Neurologia/história
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(4): 1113-1122, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine echolalia and its related symptoms and brain lesions in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHODS: Forty-five patients with PPA were included: 19 nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (nfvPPA), 5 semantic variant PPA, 7 logopenic variant PPA, and 14 unclassified PPA patients. We detected echolalia in unstructured conversations. An evaluation of language function and the presence of parkinsonism, grasp reflex, imitation behaviour, and disinhibition were assessed. We also measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single-photon emission computed tomography. RESULTS: Echolalia was observed in 12 nfvPPA and 2 unclassified PPA patients. All patients showed mitigated echolalia. We compared nfvPPA patients with echolalia (echolalia group) to those without echolalia (non-echolalia group). The median age of the echolalia group was significantly lower than that of the non-echolalia group, and the echolalia group showed a significantly worse auditory comprehension performance than the non-echolalia group. In contrast, the performance of repetition tasks was not different between the two groups. The prevalence of imitation behaviour in the echolalia group was significantly higher than that in the non-echolalia group. The rCBFs in the bilateral pre-supplementary motor area and bilateral middle cingulate cortex in the echolalia group were significantly lower than those in the non-echolalia group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that echolalia is characteristic of nfvPPA patients with impaired comprehension. Reduced inhibition of the medial frontal cortex with release activity of the anterior perisylvian area account for the emergence of echolalia.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva , Afasia , Afasia Primária Progressiva não Fluente , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Afasia Primária Progressiva/epidemiologia , Ecolalia , Humanos , Idioma
6.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 29(1): 327-334, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004083

RESUMO

Purpose Although repetitive speech is a hallmark characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the contributing factors that influence repetitive speech use remain unknown. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if the language context impacts the amount and type of repetitive speech produced by children with ASD. Method As part of a broader word-learning study, 11 school-age children with ASD participated in two different language contexts: storytelling and play. Previously collected language samples were transcribed and coded for four types of repetitive speech: immediate echolalia, delayed echolalia, verbal stereotypy, and vocal stereotypy. The rates and proportions of repetitive speech were compared across the two language contexts using Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests. Individual characteristics were further explored using Spearman correlations. Results The children produced lower rates of repetitive speech during the storytelling context than the play-based context. Only immediate echolalia differed between the two contexts based on rate and approached significance based on proportion, with more immediate echolalia produced in the play-based context than in the storytelling context. There were no significant correlations between repetitive speech and measures of social responsiveness, expressive or receptive vocabulary, or nonverbal intelligence. Conclusions The children with ASD produced less immediate echolalia in the storytelling context than in the play-based context. Immediate echolalia use was not related to social skills, vocabulary, or nonverbal IQ scores. These findings offer valuable insights into better understanding repetitive speech use in children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Ecolalia/etiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecolalia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Narração , Jogos e Brinquedos
7.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-46808

RESUMO

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use echolalia, which means they repeat others’ words or sentences.


Assuntos
Ecolalia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista
9.
Estilos clín ; 22(2): 268-282, ago. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-891837

RESUMO

Neste artigo, abordamos a voz no autismo a partir da análise de autobiografias de autistas e de seus pais. Para esta finalidade, enfocamos manifestações como o mutismo, o grito gutural, o monólogo, a expressão irruptiva de palavras esporádicas, a ecolalia, uma língua privada não compartilhada, o recurso a intermediários como o gravador, a mimetização de voz de animais, o recurso a scripts de personagens Disney ou livros. Após descrevermos e sinalizarmos alguns aspectos importantes evidenciados nessa maneira singular de se relacionar com a voz, apontaremos algumas nuanças do funcionamento psíquico do autista.


In this paper, we analyse voice in autism based on the analysis of autobiographies written by autistics and their parents. For this purpose, we focus on manifestations such as mutism, guttural scream, monologue, the irruptive expression of sporadic words, echolalia, a private non-shared language, the use of intermediaries such as tape recorders, animal voice mimicry, Disney characters or books. After describing and signaling some importante aspects evidencied in this unique way of relating to the voice, we will point out some nuances of the psychic functioning of the autistic.


En este artículo trataremos de la voz en el autismo a partir del análisis de autobiografías de autistas y de sus padres. Para tal finalidad, abordamos manifestaciones como el mutismo, el grito gutural, el monólogo, la irrupción de palabras esporádicas, la ecolalia, una lengua privada no compartida, el recurso a intermediarios como el grabador, la mimetización de la voz de animales, el recurso a guiones de personajes de Disney o a libros. Tras describir e indicar algunos aspectos importantes puestos de manifiesto en esta manera singular de relacionarse con la voz, señalaremos algunos matices del funcionamiento psíquico del autista.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Voz , Ecolalia/psicologia , Mutismo/psicologia , Psicanálise , Autobiografias como Assunto
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(6): 1622-1634, 2017 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586822

RESUMO

Purpose: We present the first study of echolalia in deaf, signing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigate the nature and prevalence of sign echolalia in native-signing children with ASD, the relationship between sign echolalia and receptive language, and potential modality differences between sign and speech. Method: Seventeen deaf children with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) deaf children were video-recorded in a series of tasks. Data were coded for type of signs produced (spontaneous, elicited, echo, or nonecho repetition). Echoes were coded as pure or partial, and timing and reduplication of echoes were coded. Results: Seven of the 17 deaf children with ASD produced signed echoes, but none of the TD deaf children did. The echoic children had significantly lower receptive language scores than did both the nonechoic children with ASD and the TD children. Modality differences also were found in terms of the directionality, timing, and reduplication of echoes. Conclusions: Deaf children with ASD sometimes echo signs, just as hearing children with ASD sometimes echo words, and TD deaf children and those with ASD do so at similar stages of linguistic development, when comprehension is relatively low. The sign language modality might provide a powerful new framework for analyzing the purpose and function of echolalia in deaf children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Surdez/complicações , Ecolalia/complicações , Línguas de Sinais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/epidemiologia , Ecolalia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inteligência , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência
11.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 61(7): 707-718, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. METHODS: The study's participants were 26 individuals with WS and their parents. General cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Token Test and the Cookie Theft Picture test were used as speech-language measures. Five speech-language characteristics were evaluated from a 30-min conversation (clichés, echolalia, perseverative speech, exaggerated prosody and monotone intonation). The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 6-18) was used to assess behavioural problems. RESULTS: Higher single-word receptive vocabulary and narrative vocabulary were negatively associated with CBCL T-scores for Social Problems, Aggressive Behaviour and Total Problems. Speech rate was negatively associated with the CBCL Withdrawn/Depressed T-score. Monotone intonation was associated with shy behaviour, as well as exaggerated prosody with talkative behaviour. WS with perseverative speech and exaggerated prosody presented higher scores on Thought Problems. Echolalia was significantly associated with lower Verbal IQ. No significant association was found between IQ and behaviour problems. Age-associated effects were observed only for the Aggressive Behaviour scale. CONCLUSIONS: Associations reported in the present study may represent an insightful background for future predictive studies of speech-language, cognition and behaviour problems in WS.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Problema , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Ecolalia/etiologia , Ecolalia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Williams/complicações
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(2): 394-405, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701673

RESUMO

In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language-notably pronoun atypicality, pragmatic deficit, and echolalia-might conceal competencies and interactional processes that are largely invisible in mainstream research. Our findings offer a complex picture of children with autism in their use of language to communicate, interact and experience others. Such a picture also deepens our understanding of the interactional underpinnings of autistic children's speech. Finally, we describe how our findings offer fruitful suggestions for clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Comunicação , Ecolalia/psicologia , Idioma , Comportamento Verbal , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Criança , Ecolalia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Habilidades Sociais
16.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 24(4): 750-62, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26161804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Echolalia is a common element in the communication of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Recent contributions to the literature reflect significant disagreement regarding how echolalia should be defined, understood, and managed. The purpose of this review article is to give speech-language pathologists and others a comprehensive view of the available perspectives on echolalia. METHOD: Published literature from the disciplines of behavioral intervention, linguistics, and speech-language intervention is discussed. Special areas of focus include operational definitions, rationales associated with various approaches, specific procedures used to treat or study echolalic behavior, and reported conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Dissimilarities in the definition and understanding of echolalia have led to vastly different approaches to management. Evidence-based practice protocols are available to guide speech-language interventionists in their work with individuals with autism spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Ecolalia/diagnóstico , Ecolalia/terapia , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Linguística
17.
Autism ; 19(5): 517-26, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24916453

RESUMO

In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Antropologia , Comunicação , Ecolalia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Linguística
19.
J Child Lang ; 41(2): 275-304, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23469804

RESUMO

Echolalia is a pervasive phenomenon in verbal children with autism, traditionally conceived of as an automatic behavior with no communicative function. However, recently it has been shown that echoes may serve interactional goals. This article, which presents a case study of a six-year-old child with autism, examines how social interaction organizes autism echolalia and how repetitive speech responds to discernible interactional trajectories. Using linguistic, discourse, and acoustic analyses, we demonstrate that the child is able to mobilize echolalia to mark different stances, through the segmental and suprasegmental modulation of echoes. We offer an interpretive framework that deepens our understanding of the complex interactions that children with autism can engage in by using echoes, and discuss the implications of this perspective for current views of atypical language development in autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Comunicação , Ecolalia , Relações Interpessoais , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Acústica da Fala
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