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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e066101, 2023 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy is one of the major barriers to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several interventions have targeted higher medication adherence, yet most do not result in sustained adherence. Routinisation has emerged as a potential method for mitigating this problem, but requires high motivation during the relatively long habit formation phase. This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of behavioural economics-based incentives and text messages to support the routinisation of the medication-taking behaviour for promoting long-term medication adherence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will recruit and randomly assign 60 adult patients seeking care for hypertension at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles to one of the three groups, Control (n=20), Messages (n=20) and Incentives (n=20) in a 1:1:1 ratio. All participants will receive information about the importance of routinisation and will select an existing behavioural routine ('anchor') to which they will tie their pill-taking to, and the corresponding time. Additionally, participants in the Messages group will receive daily text messages reminding them of the importance of routines, while those in the Incentives group will receive daily text messages and conditional prize drawings. The interventions will be delivered over three months. Participants will be followed for six months post-intervention to measure behavioural persistence. Surveys will be administered at baseline, month-3 and month-9 visits. Primary outcomes include: (1) electronically measured mean medication adherence during the intervention period and (2) post-intervention period; and (3) mean timely medication adherence based around the time of the participants' anchor during the intervention period, and (4) post-intervention period. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Cedars-Sinai Institutional Review Board (Study ID: Pro00057764). Findings will be published in scientific peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04029883.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Economia Comportamental , Adulto , Humanos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Los Angeles , Projetos Piloto , Adesão à Medicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Behav Processes ; 205: 104817, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592650

RESUMO

Behavioral economic demand models quantify the extent to which an organism defends its consumption of a commodity. Commodity purchase tasks permit humans a quick yet psychometrically sound approach to assessing commodity demand for various retail products. Operant behavioral economic literature suggests economy type (open vs closed) can significantly alter demand, yet this effect is largely undocumented in the commodity purchase task literature. In this study, we leveraged the market pressures for retail goods (hand lotion and sanitizer; paper towels and toilet paper; soda and water) resulting from SARS-CoV-2 into a natural experiment comparing within-subject demand across two time-points during the pandemic using a crowdsourced approach. Results suggest that hypothetical commodity purchase tasks are sensitive to extra-experimental market pressures (e.g., scarcity due to the closing of economies), adding additional confidence to the self-report nature of purchase task responding and providing further construct validity to these approaches.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Economia Comportamental
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1717, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720949

RESUMO

While altruism has been studied from a variety of standpoints, none of them has proven sufficient to explain the richness of nuances detected in experimentally observed altruistic behavior. On the other hand, the recent success of behavioral economics in linking expectation formation to key behaviors in complex societies hints to social expectations having a key role in the emergence of altruism. This paper proposes an agent-based model based upon the Bush-Mosteller reinforcement learning algorithm in which agents, subject to stimuli derived from empirical and normative expectations, update their aspirations (and, consequently, their future cooperative behavior) after playing successive rounds of the Dictator Game. The results of the model are compared with experimental results. Such comparison suggests that a stimuli model based on empirical and normative expectations, such as the one presented in this work, has considerable potential for capturing the cognitive-behavioral processes that shape decision-making in contexts where cooperative behavior is relevant.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Motivação , Algoritmos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Economia Comportamental
4.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 37(1): 156-165, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Behavioral economics suggest that cannabis reinforcing value (cannabis demand) may be influenced by external, contextual factors such as the social reward that might accompany cannabis use and the presence of opportunity costs (e.g., a next-day responsibility that cannabis use might adversely impact). The present study examined the effect of social context and opportunity cost on cannabis demand and explored whether relations were moderated by cannabis use severity. METHOD: Adults with past-week cannabis use recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 310; 53.5% female, 79.4% White) completed four purchase tasks, in which participants reported how much cannabis they would purchase across escalating prices, to index cannabis demand under varying contexts: (a) solitary, typical responsibilities; (b) social, typical responsibilities; (c) solitary, substantial responsibilities; and (d) social, substantial responsibilities. RESULTS: The presence of peers significantly increased demand intensity (consumption at zero price) and Omax (maximum expenditure) relative to the solitary conditions. Substantial responsibilities significantly decreased intensity, breakpoint (price at which consumption is fully suppressed), and Pmax (price at which maximum expenditure occurs) and increased elasticity (greater price sensitivity). Demand was most inelastic in the social, typical responsibilities condition relative to other conditions. Cannabis use severity was associated with less elastic demand in the solitary, typical responsibilities condition. Those with higher cannabis use severity reported larger differences in demand intensity and Omax between solitary and social conditions, and in demand elasticity between typical and substantial responsibility conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with previous research illustrating social and opportunity costs as determinants of cannabis use behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cannabis , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Economia Comportamental , Recompensa , Meio Social
5.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 119(1): 169-191, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562640

RESUMO

Behavioral economics has been a fruitful area of research in substance use. Mathematical descriptions of how individuals temporally discount the value of a commodity have been correlated with substance use and mathematical descriptions of drug consumption decreasing as a function of price (i.e., demand) predict maladaptive substance use. While there is a logical assumption that temporal factors affect demand for a drug, little has been done to merge these models. Thus, the purpose of this study was to combine models of discounting and demand, extending Howard Rachlin's work and contributions to novel areas of study. Data from 85 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task that included price of and delay to cigarettes were analyzed. Multilevel modeling was used to determine descriptive accuracy of combined additive and multiplicative models of discounting and demand. Of the discounting models used in conjunction with the exponentiated demand equation, the Rachlin hyperboloid best described the delay dimension of consumption. The multiplicative version of the Rachlin equation applied to both delay and price outperformed other models tested. Therefore, existing models of discounting and demand can be extended to modeling consumption data from complex multidimensional experimental arrangements.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Economia Comportamental
6.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 119(1): 240-258, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541360

RESUMO

Howard Rachlin and his contemporaries pioneered basic behavioral science innovations that have been usefully applied to advance understanding of human substance use disorder and related health behaviors. We briefly summarize the innovations of molar behaviorism (the matching law), behavioral economics, and teleological behaviorism. Behavioral economics and teleological behaviorism's focus on final causes are especially illuminating for these applied fields. Translational and applied research are summarized for laboratory studies of temporal discounting and economic demand, cohort studies of alcohol and other drug use in the natural environment, and experimental behavioral economic modeling of health behavior-related public health policies. We argue that the teleological behavioral perspective on health behavior is conducive to and merges seamlessly with the contemporary socioecological model of health behavior, which broadens the contextual influences (e.g., community, economic, infrastructure, health care access and policy) of individuals' substance use and other health risk behaviors. Basic-to-applied translations to date have been successful and bode well for continued applications of basic science areas pioneered by Howard Rachlin and his contemporaries.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Economia Comportamental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 916224, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187648

RESUMO

Introduction: Sustained HIV viral suppression is the ultimate goal of HIV treatment. African American/Black and Latino persons with HIV (PWH) in the United States are less likely than their White peers to achieve and sustain viral suppression. To address these disparities, we developed a "low-touch" behavioral intervention drawing on motivational interviewing and behavioral economics. The intervention had three main components: (1) a motivational interviewing counseling session, (2) 16 weeks of automated text messages and quiz questions about HIV management, where participants earned points by answering quiz questions, and 3) a lottery prize, based on viral suppression status, number of points earned, and chance (max. $275). Materials and methods: The intervention was tested in a pre-test/post-test design. The present pilot study used mixed methods to explore the intervention's feasibility, acceptability, impact, and ways it could be improved. Participants engaged in a baseline assessment, qualitative interview, and two structured follow-up assessments over an 8-month period, and provided laboratory reports to document HIV viral load. We carried out descriptive quantitative analyses. Qualitative data were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. Data integration was carried out using the joint display method. Findings: Participants (N = 40) were 50 years old, on average (SD = 11), and approximately half (58%) were male. Close to two-thirds (68%) were African American/Black and 32% were Latino. Participants were diagnosed with HIV 22 years ago on average (SD = 8). The intervention was feasible (e.g., mean number of quiz questions answered = 13/16) and highly acceptable. While not powered to assess efficacy, the proportion with suppressed HIV viral load increased from baseline to follow-up (46% participants at the first, 52% participants at the second follow-up evidenced HIV viral suppression). In qualitative analyses, perspectives included that overall, the intervention was acceptable and useful, it was distinct from other programs, lottery prizes were interesting and appreciated but not sufficient to motivate behavior change, and the structure of lottery prizes was not sufficiently clear. Regarding data integration, qualitative data shed light on and extended quantitative results, and added richness and context. Conclusion: This low-touch intervention approach is sufficiently promising to warrant refinement and study in future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Entrevista Motivacional , Economia Comportamental , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
8.
Perspect Biol Med ; 65(3): 469-483, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093778

RESUMO

While shared decision-making (SDM) is generally considered to be the standard in current clinical practice, strict application of SDM can result in adverse outcomes in certain contexts. This article examines two illustrative cases-antibiotic over-prescription and decision-making at or near the end of life-to highlight how strictly applied SDM can result in suboptimal outcomes. The article continues to describe how strategies from libertarian paternalism, particularly default setting, framing, and nudging, can be valuable tools in supplementing strict applications of SDM, resulting in improved outcomes and patient care on both individual and societal levels.


Assuntos
Economia Comportamental , Participação do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Paternalismo
9.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(9): 473-476, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Because physicians' decisions drive health care costs and quality, there is growing interest in applying behavioral economics approaches, including behavioral nudges, to influence physicians' decisions. This paper investigates adoption of behavioral nudges by health system-affiliated physician organizations (POs), types of nudges being used, PO leader perceptions of nudge effectiveness, and implementation challenges. STUDY DESIGN: Mixed-methods study design (PO leader survey followed by in-depth qualitative interviews). Purposive sample of 30 health system-affiliated POs in 4 states; POs varied in size and quality performance. METHODS: We collected data between October 2017 and June 2019. The survey asked PO leaders to report their organization's use of 5 categories of nudges to influence primary and specialty physicians' actions. We conducted semistructured phone interviews to confirm survey responses, elicit examples of the nudges that POs reported using, understand how nudges were structured, and identify implementation challenges. We present descriptive tabulations of nudge use and effectiveness ratings. We applied thematic analysis to the interview data. RESULTS: Almost all POs in this study reported nudge use. Clinical templates, patient action lists, and altered order entry were most commonly used. However, PO leaders reported that nudge use was limited to a narrow range of clinical applications, not widespread across the organization, and mostly structured as suggestions rather than default actions or hard stops. CONCLUSIONS: Nudge use remains limited in practice. Opportunities exist to expand use of nudges to influence physician behavior; however, expanding use of behavioral nudges will require PO investment of resources to support their construction and maintenance.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Médicos , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Behav Med ; 45(6): 914-924, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116081

RESUMO

Behavioral economics suggests that individuals are likely to engage in a behavior if it is more reinforcing and readily available than other possible options. In real-world environments, sedentary behaviors are often more reinforcing and easily available than physical activities. In order to promote regular physical activity in an environment with sedentary alternatives, it is important to understand the proportion of overall reinforcement that is derived from physical activity (i.e., relative reinforcement, RR). Conceptually similar laboratory-research supports this notion, but applications to individual, real-world environments remain understudied. The current study used a novel survey-based approach to estimate the RR of common physical activities. Healthy adults (N = 348, M age = 39.0 ± 8.7) from the United States completed an online survey between April-May 2020, including a modified activity survey with ten physically active and ten sedentary activities. Regression analysis showed that total RR of physical activity was related to greater physical activity levels when controlling for enjoyment and other covariates. Four factors were identified (household, conditioning, sports, and outdoor activities) using exploratory structural equation modeling, but internal consistency was limited when items were constrained to each factor in the structural equation model. Previous laboratory findings on overall RR of physical activity were replicated with the survey-based measure, but further improvement for relative reinforcement of different sub-domains of physical activity is needed. Researchers and practitioners can use this survey to determine attractive physical activities on the individual level that can compete with sedentary leisure activities.


Assuntos
Economia Comportamental , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exercício Físico , Reforço Psicológico , Atividades de Lazer
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e058954, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127075

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a significant risk factor for diabetes mellitus. Time-restricted eating (TRE) is one type of diet showing positive effects on metabolic signal pathways. However, effects of TRE on cardiometabolic risk factors in humans are limited. Additionally, compliance with TRE remains problematic despite having intention to follow the diet control. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the efficacy of TRE with behavioural economic interventions or TRE alone relative to usual care, in reducing fasting plasma glucose (FPG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with IFG. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This parallel-group, open-label randomised controlled trial will be conducted at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Patients aged 18-65 years with IFG defined as FPG 100-125 mg/dL and body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 will be recruited between October 2021 and October 2022. Patients will be randomly allocated to three groups (1:1:1 ratio) as (1) TRE with behavioural economic interventions including financial incentives and text reminders, (2) TRE alone or (3) usual care. The number of participants will be 38 per group (a total of 114). The duration of the intervention will be 12 weeks. Primary outcome is FPG levels measured at 12 weeks after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are HbA1c, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C reactive protein. P value of <0.05 of two-sided test will be considered as statistical significance. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (MURA2021/389). All patients will be informed about the details of the study and sign written informed consent before enrollment in the study. Results from this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: TCTR20210520002.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Colesterol , Economia Comportamental , Jejum , Humanos , Insulina , Lipoproteínas HDL , Lipoproteínas LDL , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tailândia , Triglicerídeos
12.
Psicol. conduct ; 30(2): 411-426, Sept. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-208436

RESUMO

El propósito de la presente investigación es analizar el descuento temporalsexual en la conducta sexual de riesgo entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes. Seadministró la tarea de descuento temporal sexual del uso de condón con tressupuestos hipotéticos, así como un cuestionario para identificar sucomportamiento sexual de riesgo a 360 jóvenes, hombres y mujeres entre 16 y 33años de edad de México. Los resultados obtenidos indican adecuadaspropiedades psicométricas en a tarea de descuento sexual. Los hombres tienenuna menor demora en horas, días y meses para tener actividad sexual sin el usode condón en comparación con las mujeres. Para los hombres parece que eldescuento sexual es indiferente en su conducta sexual de riesgo. Las mujeresmostraron diferencias en el uso del condón y en el número de parejas sexuales,en dos de los tres tiempos de demora. Se espera contribuir en la comprensión deldescuento sexual para el desarrollo de intervenciones que promuevan unincremento del uso consistente del condón en jóvenes. (AU)


The purpose of this research is analyzing the sexual discount in risky sexualbehavior among young men and women. A condom sexual discounting task wasadministered with three hypothetical assumptions, as well as a questionnaire toidentify your risky sexual behavior in 360 youths, men and women between 16and 33 years old from Mexico. Men have a shorter delay in hours, days andmonths to have sexual activity without the use of a condom compared withwomen. For men sexual discount is indifferent to their risky sexual behavior. Thewomen showed differences in condom use and the number of sexual partners, intwo of the three delay conditions. These results may contribute to theunderstanding of sexual discount for interventions that promote an increase in condom use in young people. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Preservativos , Comportamento Sexual , Economia Comportamental , Inquéritos e Questionários , México
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954908

RESUMO

We provide a game-theoretical epidemiological model for the COVID-19 pandemic that takes into account that: (1) asymptomatic individuals can be contagious, (2) contagion is behavior-dependent, (3) behavior is determined by a game that depends on beliefs and social interactions, (4) there can be systematic biases in the perceptions and beliefs about the pandemic. We incorporate lockdown decisions by the government into the model. The citizens' and government's beliefs can exhibit several biases that we discuss from the point of view of behavioral economics. We provide simulations to understand the effect of lockdown decisions and the possibility of "nudging" citizens in the right direction by improving the accuracy of their beliefs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Economia Comportamental , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias
14.
Transl Behav Med ; 12(10): 1004-1008, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005849

RESUMO

Increasing vaccine utilization is critical for numerous diseases, including COVID-19, necessitating novel methods to forecast uptake. Behavioral economic methods have been developed as rapid, scalable means of identifying mechanisms of health behavior engagement. However, most research using these procedures is cross-sectional and evaluates prediction of behaviors with already well-established repertories. Evaluation of the validity of hypothetical tasks that measure behaviors not yet experienced is important for the use of these procedures in behavioral health. We use vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic to test whether responses regarding a novel, hypothetical behavior (COVID-19 vaccination) are predictive of later real-world response. Participants (N = 333) completed a behavioral economic hypothetical purchase task to evaluate willingness to receive a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine based on efficacy. This was completed in August 2020, before clinical trial data on COVID-19 vaccines. Participants completed follow-up assessments approximately 1 year later when the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available in June 2021 and November 2021 with vaccination status measured. Prediction of vaccination was made based on data collected in August 2020. Vaccine demand was a significant predictor of vaccination after controlling for other significant predictors including political orientation, delay discounting, history of flu vaccination, and a single-item intent to vaccinate. These findings show predictive validity of a behavioral economic procedure explicitly designed to measure a behavior for which a participant has limited-to-no direct prior experience or exposure. Positive correspondence supports the validity of these hypothetical arrangements for predicting vaccination utilization and advances behavioral economic methods.


A goal of behavioral science is to develop methods that can predict future behavior to inform preventive health efforts and identify ways people engage in positive health behaviors. Behavioral economic methods apply easy to use and rapid assessment tools to evaluate these mechanisms of health behavior engagement. Here, we show how similar methods can be applied to novel behaviors yet experienced like intentions to vaccinate against COVID-19. We find that responses on a behavioral economic task designed to measure vaccination likelihood closely corresponded to the likelihood of being vaccinated 1 year later. This prediction was above and beyond common predictors of vaccination including demographics like political orientation and age. These findings provide support for these novel methods in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically, and behavioral health, broadly.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Economia Comportamental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
15.
Trials ; 23(1): 656, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinic non-attendance rates are high across the African continent. Emerging evidence suggests that phone-based reminder messages could make a small but important contribution to reducing non-attendance. We will use behavioural economics principles to develop an SMS and voice reminder message to improve attendance rates in a school-based eye screening programme in Botswana. METHODS: We will test a new theory-informed SMS and voice reminder message in a national school-based eye screening programme in Botswana. The control will be the standard SMS message used to remind parents/guardians to bring their child for ophthalmic assessment. All messages will be sent twice. The primary outcome is attendance for ophthalmic assessment. We will use an automated adaptive approach, starting with a 1:1 allocation ratio. DISCUSSION: As far as we are aware, only one other study has used behavioural economics to inform the development of reminder messages to be deployed in an African healthcare setting. Our study will use an adaptive trial design, embedded in a national screening programme. Our approach can be used to trial other forms of reminder message in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 96528723 . Registered on 5 January 2022.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Seleção Visual , Botsuana , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistemas de Alerta
16.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 20(6): 803-817, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmaceutical policies are generally based on the assumption that involved stakeholders make rational decisions. However, behavioral economics has taught us that this is not always the case as people deviate from rational behavior in rather predictable patterns. This scoping review examined to what extent behavioral concepts have already been applied in the pharmaceutical domain and what evidence exists about their effectiveness, with the aim of formulating future applications and research hypotheses on policymaking for best-value biologicals. METHODS: A scoping literature review was conducted on the evidence of behavioral applications to pharmaceuticals. Scientific databases (Embase, MEDLINE, APA PsycArticles, and Scopus) were searched up to 20 October, 2021. RESULTS: Forty-four full-text scientific articles were identified and narratively described in this article. Pharmaceutical domains where behavioral concepts have been investigated relate to influencing prescribing behavior, improving medication adherence, and increasing vaccination uptake. Multiple behavioral concepts were examined in the identified studies, such as social norms, defaults, framing, loss aversion, availability, and present bias. The effectiveness of the applied interventions was generally positive, but depended on the context. Some of the examined interventions can easily be translated into effective policy interventions for best-value biological medicines. However, some applications require further investigation in a research context. CONCLUSIONS: Applications of behavioral economics to pharmaceutical policymaking are promising. However, further research is required to investigate the effect of behavioral applications on policy interventions for a more sustainable market environment for best-value biological medicines.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Formulação de Políticas
17.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(5): 409-414, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044119

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explored different behavioral economics (BE) mechanisms through which pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) initiation and adherence could be impacted and examined recent work using BE principles to further HIV prevention efforts. We also generated new intervention ideas based on existing HIV testing and ART adherence literature. RECENT FINDINGS: There is limited work that uses BE principles to design interventions to increase PrEP initiation and adherence, mostly involving financial incentives. The recent works highlighted involve financial incentives and demonstrate that key populations are open to accepting monetary incentives to increase PrEP initiation and improve adherence. However, there are mixed results on the long-term impacts of using incentives to modify behavior. While there are a few ongoing studies that utilize BE principles to increase PrEP use, there is need to develop studies that test these concepts, to promote PrEP initiation and adherence. We suggest methods of exploring non-incentives-based ideas to increase PrEP use in key populations.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Economia Comportamental , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2202070119, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881803

RESUMO

A contemporary research agenda in behavioral economics and neuroeconomics aims to identify individual differences and (neuro)psychological correlates of rationality. This research has been widely received in important interdisciplinary and field outlets. However, the psychometric reliability of such measurements of rationality has been presumed without enough methodological scrutiny. Drawing from multiple original and published datasets (in total over 1,600 participants), we unequivocally show that contemporary measurements of rationality have moderate to poor reliability according to common standards. Further analyses of the variance components, as well as a allowing participants to revise previous choices, suggest that this is driven by low between-subject variance rather than high measurement error. As has been argued previously for other behavioral measurements, this poses a challenge to the predominant correlational research designs and the search for sociodemographic or neural predictors. While our results draw a sobering picture of the prospects of contemporary measurements of rationality, they are not necessarily surprising from a theoretical perspective, which we outline in our discussion.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Economia Comportamental , Características Humanas , Psicometria , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 30(4): 415-423, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862135

RESUMO

Crowdsourcing platforms allow researchers to quickly recruit and collect behavioral economic measures in substance-using populations, such as cigarette smokers. Despite the broad utility and flexibility, data quality issues have been an object of concern. In two separate studies recruiting cigarette smokers, we sought to investigate the association between a practical quality control measure (accuracy on an instruction quiz), on internal consistency of number of cigarettes smoked per day and purchasing patterns of tobacco products in an experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM; Study 1), and in a cigarette purchase task (CPT; Study 2). Participants (N = 312 in Study 1; N = 119 in Study 2) were recruited from Amazon mechanical turk. Both studies included task instructions, a quiz, a purchase task, cigarette usage and dependence questions, and demographics. The results show that participants who answered all instruction items correctly: (a) reported the number of cigarettes per day more consistently (partial η² = 0.11, p < .001, Study 1; partial η² = 0.09, p = .016, Study 2), (b) demonstrated increased model fit among the cigarette demand curves (partial η² = 0.23, p < .001, Study 1; partial η² = 0.08, p = .002, Study 2), and purchased tobacco products in the ETM more consistently with their current usage. We conclude that instruction quizzes before purchase tasks may be useful for researchers evaluating demand data. Instruction quizzes with multiple items may allow researchers to choose the level of data quality appropriate for their studies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Produtos do Tabaco , Compreensão , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Fumantes
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2118548119, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867823

RESUMO

Are competent actors still trusted when they promote themselves? The answer to this question could have far-reaching implications for understanding trust production in a variety of economic exchange settings in which ability and impression management play vital roles, from succeeding in one's job to excelling in the sales of goods and services. Much social science research assumes an unconditional positive impact of an actor's ability on the trust placed in that actor: in other words, competence breeds trust. In this report, however, we challenge this assumption. Across a series of experiments, we manipulated both the ability and the self-promotion of a trustee and measured the level of trust received. Employing both online laboratory studies (n = 5,606) and a field experiment (n = 101,520), we find that impression management tactics (i.e., self-promotion and intimidation) can substantially backfire, at least for those with high ability. An explanation for this effect is encapsuled in attribution theory, which argues that capable actors are held to higher standards in terms of how kind and honest they are expected to be. Consistent with our social attribution account, mediation analyses show that competence combined with self-promotion decreases the trustee's perceived benevolence and integrity and, in turn, the level of trust placed in that actor.


Assuntos
Economia Comportamental , Percepção Social , Confiança , Atitude , Emprego , Humanos
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