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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54991

RESUMO

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have produced this second joint report to update the situation on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications for health, society and the economy. This report defines potential scenarios for control of the pandemic in the short term as well as long-term action recommended to strengthen the response capacity of countries with regard to the health needs of their populations and determinants in the context of a transformative recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Economia , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Problemas Sociais , Seguridade Social , Capital Social
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMO

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Economia , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Problemas Sociais , Seguridade Social , Capital Social
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360222

RESUMO

The situation of labour inclusion of people with disabilities in Spain is still too negative, in spite of the different efforts carried out by public and private sector. Previous research points to social discrimination as one of the main causes of the situation. Ilunion Hotels is one of the most important hotel companies in Spain focused on labour inclusion of people with disabilities. The objective of this paper is to explore the social inclusion case of Ilunion Hotels of the Costa del Sol, the actions that they have developed to improve the labour integration of this collective, based on a behavioral economics theoretical model (with a high relevance of the influence of social stigma, stress theories and coping to stress responses). We look into the specific situation of two of the three hotels developed as Special Employment Centres (sheltered employment contexts defined by Spanish legislation) and the possible impact of their Support Units for Professional Activity. Case study methodology is considered the most appropriate, according to the research objective, supported by semi-structured interviews with the hotel managers. The results show that, although Special Employment Centres are effective in improving labour integration in the short term and could contribute to change the long-term social perspectives about workers with disabilities, they could be also reinforcing the social stigma existing in the ordinary market.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Economia Comportamental , Economia , Emprego , Humanos , Espanha , Recursos Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444085

RESUMO

Based on an analysis of the life trajectories of 2510 conscripts and their families from a Spanish rural area in the period 1835-1977, this paper studies the development of the fertility transition in relation to height using bivariate analyses. The use of heights is an innovative perspective of delving into the fertility transition and social transformation entailed. The results confirm that the men with a low level of biological well-being (related to low socio-economic groups) were those who started to control their fertility, perhaps due to the effect that increased average family size had on their budget. The children of individuals who controlled their fertility were taller than the children of other families. Therefore, the children of parents who controlled their fertility experienced the largest intergenerational increase in height (approximately 50% higher). This increase could be due to the consequence of a greater investment in children (Becker's hypothesis) or a greater availability of resources for the whole family (resource dilution hypothesis).


Assuntos
Economia , Fertilidade , Criança , Demografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
5.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346994

RESUMO

The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/história , Influenza Humana/história , Pandemias/história , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Vacinas contra COVID-19/história , Negação em Psicologia , Economia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Higiene/história , Vacinas contra Influenza/história , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Militares/história , I Guerra Mundial
6.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54574

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify how patterns of family economic support help alleviate the cumulative effects of inequal-ity, with focus on the financial support that children give their elderly parents.Methods. This paper uses data from two cross-sections, 2001 and 2012, of the Mexican Health and Aging Study for the 50 years and older population. Analysis includes descriptive statistics to estimate differences in economic support based on family and individual characteristics; and a multinomial probit regression model, in each cross-section, to analyze the amount of money received for economic help and the associated characteristics.Results. Economic help received was significantly reduced, both in proportion, from 20% to 10% between 2001 and 2012, and in the amount received, with differences by income quintile. In 2001, 14.9% of those in the lowest quintile (Q1) would move to Q4–Q5 with children’s help; in 2012, this was 9.1%. The adjusted probability of receiving any amount of money from children decreased from 0.511 in 2001 to 0.340 in 2012.Conclusions. In Mexico, economic inequality in the 50 years and older population remains a constant. Eco-nomic help received from children varied by income quintile and plays an important role for those in the lowest income groups. More research is needed to understand the patterns of intergenerational exchanges as these cohorts of older adults continue to age and as future cohorts are entering old age with more pronounced changes than the current cohorts experienced over this critical decade.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar la manera en que los modelos de apoyo económico familiar contribuyen a aliviar los efectos acumulativos de la desigualdad, haciendo especial hincapié en el apoyo financiero que los hijos brin-dan a sus padres ancianos.Métodos. Esta investigación emplea datos de dos secciones transversales, del 2001 y del 2012, del estudio mexicano de salud y envejecimiento en una población de 50 años o más. El análisis incluye estadísticas descriptivas para calcular las diferencias de apoyo económico de acuerdo con las características individ-uales y familiares; y un modelo de regresión probit multinomial en cada corte transversal para analizar la cantidad de dinero que se ha recibido a modo de ayuda económica y las características asociadas.Resultados. Entre el 2001 y el 2012, la ayuda económica recibida se redujo significativamente, tanto en la proporción, de 20% a 10%, como en la cantidad recibida, con diferencias según el quintil de ingresos. En el 2001, un 14,9% de las personas en el quintil más bajo (Q1) podían llegar a los quintiles Q4–Q5 con la ayuda de sus hijos; en el 2012, un 9,1% de las personas. La probabilidad ajustada de recibir cualquier cantidad de dinero de los hijos disminuyó de 0,511 en el 2001 a 0,340 en el 2012.Conclusiones. En México, la desigualdad económica en la población de 50 años o más sigue siendo una constante. La ayuda económica recibida por parte de los hijos ha variado según el quintil de ingresos y desempeña un papel esencial para las personas en los grupos de ingresos más bajos. Es necesario investi-gar más para comprender los modelos de los intercambios intergeneracionales a medida que estas cohortes de personas mayores envejecen y las futuras cohortes entran en la vejez con cambios más acusados que los que han sufrido las cohortes actuales durante este decenio crítico.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar como os padrões de auxílio econômico dos familiares contribuem para diminuir os efeitos cumulativos da desigualdade, com enfoque no auxílio financeiro dos filhos aos pais idosos.Métodos. Este artigo se baseia em dados obtidos no Estudo de Envelhecimento e Saúde realizado em coortes transversais da população com 50 anos de idade ou mais no México, em 2001 e 2012. Estatísticas descritivas foram calculadas para estimar diferenças no auxílio financeiro segundo características individuais e familiares. Um modelo de regressão logística multinomial “probit” foi usado em cada iteração do estudo para analisar a quantia recebida na ajuda econômica e as características associadas.Resultados. Entre 2001 e 2012, houve uma redução significativa da ajuda econômica, tanto em termos pro-porcionais (de 20% a 10%) quanto em termos da quantia recebida, com diferenças por quintil de renda. Em 2001, 14,9% das pessoas no quintil de renda mais baixo (Q1) ascendiam aos quintis Q4–Q5 com a ajuda dos filhos; em 2012, este percentual caiu para 9,1%. Entre 2001 e 2012, a probabilidade ajustada de receber uma quantia em dinheiro dos filhos diminuiu de 0,511 para 0,340.Conclusões. A desigualdade econômica na população com 50 anos ou mais no México é persistente. A ajuda econômica recebida dos filhos variou segundo o quintil de renda e é importante nas faixas de menor renda. Outros estudos são necessários para entender os padrões de intercâmbio intergeracional, já que estes idosos continuam envelhecendo e as coortes futuras avançam em idade e se defrontarão com transfor-mações ainda maiores que as enfrentadas pelas coortes atuais ao longo desta década crucial.


Assuntos
Família , Dinâmica Populacional , Economia , México , Família , Dinâmica Populacional , Economia , México , Família , Dinâmica Populacional , Economia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299805

RESUMO

Over the past decades, both the quantity and quality of food supply for millions of people have improved substantially in the course of economic growth across the developing world. However, the number of undernourished people has resumed growth in the 2010s amid food supply disruptions, economic slowdowns, and protectionist restrictions to agricultural trade. Having been common to most nations, these challenges to the food security status of the population still vary depending on the level of economic development and national income of individual countries. In order to explore the long-run determinants of food supply transformations, this study employs five-stage multiple regression analysis to identify the strengths and directions of effects of agricultural production parameters, income level, price indices, food trade, and currency exchange on supply of calories, proteins, and fats across 11 groups of agricultural products in 1980-2018. To address the diversity of effects across developing nations, the study includes 99 countries of Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa categorized as low-income, lower-middle-income, and upper-middle-income economies. It is found that in low-income countries, food supply parameters are more strongly affected by production factors compared to economic and trade variables. The effect of economic factors on the food supply of higher-value food products, such as meat and dairy products, fruit, and vegetables, increases with the rise in the level of income, but it stays marginal for staples in all three groups of countries. The influence of trade factors on food supply is stronger compared to production and economic parameters in import-dependent economies irrelevant of the gross national income per capita. The approach presented in this paper contributes to the research on how food supply patterns and their determinants evolve in the course of economic transformations in low-income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Economia , Humanos , Pobreza , Estudos Retrospectivos , Verduras
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206389

RESUMO

The current U.S food system has managed to provide abundant food at a relatively low cost, even as the population increases. However, this unfettered growth is reaching maximum yields as demand for greater food production competes with other uses of agricultural lands. Extant ecological factors such as water scarcity are reducing food productivity, and competition for resources to produce food is becoming more apparent. This research examines public policy preferences of U.S. west coast citizens for the management of agricultural resources through the use of random household surveys. Results suggest overall support among respondents for food policies using regulatory, tax incentive, and voluntary outreach approaches. Multivariate analyses revealed that some social-demography, knowledge, environmental values, political ideology, and environmental efficacy variables were significant predictors of public opposition and support for food policies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Dinâmica Populacional , Crescimento Demográfico , Política Pública
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 282: 114035, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's suicide is a serious public health issue in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This study explored whether institutional discrimination against women, as manifested in formal and informal laws, is relevant to country's income-level variability in women's suicide mortality. It also examined which discriminatory laws are associated with LMIC women's suicides. METHODS: Scores on laws discriminating against women, across 176 countries, were obtained from the Gender, Institutions and Development Database. Male-to-female (M/F) 2017 suicide ratios were the index of women's propensity for suicide. The mediating role of laws discriminating against women on the association between country's income level and M/F suicide ratio was analysed by bootstrapping method. Regression analyses examined which discriminatory laws were associated with LMIC women's suicide rates. RESULTS: LMIC had significantly smaller M/F suicide ratios than high-income countries. Institutional discrimination mediated the association between country's income-level and M/F suicide ratio (total effect: ß = -0.13, 95% CI [ -0.26, -0.01]; direct effect: ß = -0.06, 95% CI [ -0.20, 0.08]; indirect effect: ß = -0.07, 95% CI [ -0.15, -0.02]). In LMIC, higher levels of discrimination against women in laws about access to productive and financial resources (ß = -0.69, p < 0.001), civil liberties (ß = -0.60, p < 0.001), and in family law (ß = -0.57, p < 0.001) were associated with smaller M/F suicide ratios after controlling for male suicide rates and sex ratios at birth. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high suicide rates recorded among women in LMIC might be related to the higher level of institutional discrimination women experience in these countries. In LMIC, where, by law, women had restricted access to productive and financial assets and to justice, and/or unequal rights with regard to citizenship, household-responsibilities, divorce, and inheritance, M/F suicide ratios were lower-that is, women's suicide rates were higher. Suicide theory, research, and prevention targeting women should incorporate social-context and social-justice perspectives.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Direitos da Mulher , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072902

RESUMO

Due to the wishes of the elderly and the traditional family culture in China, family care is the main way of providing for the aged, and women's care is the main way. This is not conducive to the protection of women's employment rights and the realization of self-worth under the background of increasing women's autonomy. Based on the latest data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey Database (CHNS), this paper uses ordinary least squares (OLS) and the instrumental variable method of control endogeneity to analyze the influence of family care activities on the labor participation rate of married women. The innovation of this paper is to introduce family bargaining power into this kind of model for the first time, and further analyze the heterogeneity from the perspective of bargaining power differences. The empirical results show that the family elderly care activities have an obstacle effect on married women's participation in employment, and the family members with strong bargaining power will significantly hinder employment, so this paper puts forward policy recommendations in line with the actual situation, hoping to provide theoretical support for the improvement of the social security system for the elderly.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Classe Social , Idoso , China , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Direitos da Mulher
11.
Health Policy ; 125(8): 972-980, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090724

RESUMO

Testing is widely seen as one core element of a successful strategy to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic and many countries have increased their efforts to provide testing at large scale. As most democratic governments refrain from enacting mandatory testing, a key emerging challenge is to increase voluntary participation. Using behavioural economics insights complemented with data from a novel survey in the US and a survey experiment in Luxembourg, we examine behavioural factors associated with the individual willingness to get tested (WTT). In our analysis, individual characteristics that correlate positively with WTT include age, altruism, conformism, the tendency to abide by government-imposed rules, concern about contracting COVID-19, and patience. Risk aversion, unemployment, and conservative political orientation correlate negatively with WTT. Building on and expanding these insights may prove fruitful for policy to effectively raise people's propensity to get tested.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Economia , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cognition ; 214: 104747, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971529

RESUMO

Adults infer that resources that become scarce over time are in higher demand, and use this "demand inference" to guide their own economic decisions. However, it is unclear when children begin to understand and use economic demand. In six experiments, we investigated the development of demand inference and demand-based economic decisions in 4- to 10-year-old children and adults in the United States. In Experiments 1-5, we showed children two boxes with the same number of compartments but containing different numbers of face-down stickers and varied the information provided about how those differences arose (e.g. that other children had taken the stickers). In separate experiments, we asked children to buy or trade to get a sticker for themselves or to predict what other children would do. We also asked them which set of stickers they thought the other children had preferred to assess their ability to make a demand inference separately from their own choice. Across experiments, children were able to make a demand inference about children's past preferences by 6 years of age. However, children did not use this demand information when making choices for themselves or when predicting what another child would select in the future. In Experiment 6, we adapted the task for adults and found that adult participants inferred that the set containing fewer resources was in higher demand, and selected the higher demand resource for themselves at rates significantly above chance. The overall pattern of results suggests a dissociation between economic inference and economic decisions during early-to-middle childhood. We discuss implications for our understanding of the development of economic reasoning.


Assuntos
Economia , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946837

RESUMO

This paper aims to measure disparities among the variables associated with Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 defined by the United Nations (UN) in the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia. In the terms of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, LDCs are countries with profound economic and social inequalities. The indicator was constructed using a set of variables associated with SDG3: Good Health and Wellbeing. Applying Pena's DP2 distance method to the most recent data available (2018) enables regional ordering of Asia's LDCs based on the values of these variables. The index integrates socioeconomic variables that permit examination of the impact of each individual indicator to determine territorial disparities in terms of the partial indicators of SDG3. "Maternal education," "Proportion of women who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use, and reproductive health care," and "Gender parity index in primary education" are the most important variables in explaining spatial disparities in good health and wellbeing in the LDCs of Asia.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Ásia , Economia , Feminino , Objetivos , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Anesthesiology ; 134(6): 841-844, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791750

RESUMO

From September 2019 to August 2020, the author served as a senior economist on the Council of Economic Advisers, a government agency charged with providing economic analysis and advice to the President of the United States and senior government officials. Working with the Council yielded many useful lessons on how anesthesiologists can influence healthcare policy. First, because the President has wide latitude over many areas of health policy that directly impact patient care and anesthesiologists' working environment, anesthesiologists should focus their efforts on influencing policymakers within the executive branch of government in addition to influencing lawmakers. Second, policymakers are busy and typically do not have a technical background, so anesthesiologists must learn how to communicate with them succinctly and at an appropriate level. Finally, because policymakers often need analysis quickly, anesthesiologists must meet these needs even if the underlying analysis is rougher and less precise that what would normally be needed for peer review.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Anestesiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Economia , Humanos , Organizações , Estados Unidos
15.
San Salvador; Fundación Nacional para el Desarrollo; 1a; abril 2021. 20 p. (SV).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB | ID: biblio-1292600

RESUMO

For El Salvador and the rest of the world, 2020 has been difficult to face with a pandemic that has exacerbated fiscal, economic and social problems. The problems are due to confinement, restrictions on the mobility of citizens and the closure of borders in order to stop the spread of the virus. Despite the fact that these measures are for the benefit of citizens' health, they have as a counterpart a cost that the Government assumes in the fiscal sphere, since there have been sharp falls in tax revenues and excessive expenses. The private sector is also seriously affected by the reduction in economic activity, the drop in sales, and business closures. At the end of 2020, a report is made on budget execution. The analysis is carried out on a monthly basis, visualizing the sources of financing that have been used; Likewise, public spending is analyzed by economic classifier, which reflects the execution of current spending, capital spending, financial applications, and spending on special contributions.


Assuntos
Vírus , Orçamentos , Saúde , Economia , Governo , Pandemias
17.
Value Health ; 24(4): 539-547, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health economics analysis plans (HEAPs) currently lack consistency, with uncertainty surrounding appropriate content. We aimed to develop a list of essential items that should be included in HEAPs for economic evaluations conducted alongside randomized trials. METHODS: A list of potential items for inclusion was developed by examining existing HEAPs. An electronic Delphi survey was conducted among professional health economists. Respondents were asked to rate potential items from 1 (least important) to 9 (most important), suggest additional items, and comment on proposed items (round 1). A second survey (round 2) was emailed to participants, including the participant's own scores from round 1 along with summary results from the whole panel; participants were asked to rerate each item. Consensus criteria for inclusion in the final list were predefined as >70% of participants rating an item 7-9 and <15% rating it 1-3 after round 2. A final item selection meeting was held to scrutinize the results and adjudicate on items lacking consensus. RESULTS: 62 participants completed round 1 of the survey. The initial list included 72 potential items; all 72 were carried forward to round 2, and no new items were added. 48 round 1 respondents (77.4%) completed round 2 and reached consensus on 53 items. At the final meeting, the expert panel (n = 9) agreed that 58 items should be included in the essential list, moved 9 items to an optional list, and dropped 5 items. CONCLUSIONS: Via expert consensus opinion, this study identified 58 items that are considered essential in a HEAP.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Consenso , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/organização & administração , Técnica Delfos , Economia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-04-09.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53562

RESUMO

Los impuestos selectivos sobre las bebidas azucaradas representan una política eficaz y basada en la evidencia para prevenir las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Junto con los impuestos selectivos sobre los productos tabacaleros y sobre las bebidas alcohólicas, constituyen una herramienta para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, y la Organización Mundial de la Salud los recomienda para modificar los factores de riesgo comportamentales vinculados con la obesidad y las ENT, según se indica en el plan de acción mundial de la OMS. Se ha dicho que los impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas representan una ganancia triple para los gobiernos, puesto que: 1) mejoran la salud de la población, 2) generan ingresos y 3) pueden reducir a largo plazo los correspondientes costos de atención de salud y pérdidas de productividad. La tributación de las bebidas azucaradas se ha puesto en marcha en más de 73 países de todo el mundo. En la Región de las Américas, 21 Estados Miembros de la OPS aplican impuestos selectivos a nivel nacional sobre dichas bebidas y siete jurisdicciones de Estados Unidos de América las gravan con impuestos locales. Si bien el número de países que aplican impuestos selectivos nacionales sobre las bebidas azucaradas en la Región es prometedor, la mayoría de esos impuestos se podría ampliar para mejorar su incidencia en el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y en la salud. En esta publicación se presentan algunos conceptos económicos relacionados con la justificación del uso de impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas, así como con los costos relacionados con la obesidad; algunas consideraciones clave sobre el diseño de impuestos, incluidos los tipos, bases y tasas correspondientes; una descripción del posible ingreso tributario y su asignación a fines específicos; la evidencia sobre la medida en que se prevé que dichos impuestos incidan en los precios y la demanda de las bebidas gravadas y su sustitución por bebidas no gravadas; y la respuesta a algunas preguntas frecuentes sobre los efectos económicos de la tributación de las bebidas azucaradas.


Assuntos
Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Indústria do Açúcar , Fatores de Risco , Doença Crônica , Economia , América
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852593

RESUMO

The implementation of large-scale containment measures by governments to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus has resulted in large impacts to the global economy. Here, we derive a new high-frequency indicator of economic activity using empirical vessel tracking data, and use it to estimate the global maritime trade losses during the first eight months of the pandemic. We go on to use this high-frequency dataset to infer the effect of individual non-pharmaceutical interventions on maritime exports, which we use as a proxy of economic activity. Our results show widespread port-level trade losses, with the largest absolute losses found for ports in China, the Middle-East and Western Europe, associated with the collapse of specific supply-chains (e.g. oil, vehicle manufacturing). In total, we estimate that global maritime trade reduced by -7.0% to -9.6% during the first eight months of 2020, which is equal to around 206-286 million tonnes in volume losses and up to 225-412 billion USD in value losses. We find large sectoral and geographical disparities in impacts. Manufacturing sectors are hit hardest, with losses up to 11.8%, whilst some small islands developing states and low-income economies suffered the largest relative trade losses. Moreover, we find a clear negative impact of COVID-19 related school and public transport closures on country-wide exports. Overall, we show how real-time indicators of economic activity can inform policy-makers about the impacts of individual policies on the economy, and can support economic recovery efforts by allocating funds to the hardest hit economies and sectors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Comércio/economia , Quarentena/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Economia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Navios/economia
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