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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113918, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731943

RESUMO

The need to reverse decades of species and ecosystem decline has created an imperative to understand the governance of recovery. To pursue this imperative, we ask a question at the centre of recovery governance: when is a commercial species recovered? To answer this question we conduct a case study of northern cod (Gadus morhua, NAFO subdivision 2J3KL), a species perhaps best known for the scale of its biological collapse and subsequent socioeconomic consequences. Northern cod has experienced recent biomass growth, raising the question of when the species can once again be the target of commercial fishing. We conducted 26 interviews with key stakeholders from Newfoundland and Labrador's fishing sector and identify three core discourses characterizing the governance of the northern cod recovery: (1) the biological recovery discourse, (2) the industrial recovery discourse, and (3) the community recovery discourse. We find these recovery discourses are composed of five dimensions: (i) epistemic orientation and inputs, (ii) emphasis on institutions and rules, (iii) framings of risk, (iv) stakeholder priorities, goals, and interests, and (v) different lessons learned from the collapse. Our findings suggest that the recovery of a commercial species is not determined only by biological metrics, but also how decision-makers view the value of different knowledge systems, what frames of risk they find most salient, and the lessons they glean from collapse on behalf of the societies they represent. Our discussion notes that co-productive approaches could supplement adaptive approaches as a potential strategy to reconcile competing discourses.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Gadus morhua , Animais , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113928, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731948

RESUMO

The overall vitality and quality of the coastline can be improved through ecological transformation; ecological status assessment can scientifically guide this modification by putting forward a transformation plan for the coastline. This study took the Shenzhen Bay area between Hong Kong and Shenzhen as the study area to build an index system and combined it with quantitative and qualitative methods by designing the code of data processing, calculation, and analysis through the MATLAB platform, with the goal being to put forward the directions and suggestions for coastline transformation based on the analysis of results. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) The key aspects of the ecological transformation of the Shenzhen Bay Coastline are water quality, coastal wetland restoration, landscape diversity, beach stability, and infrastructure improvement. (2) Actions to promote these aspects include overall shoreline control of water pollution, cultural landscape implantations, the improvement of existing infrastructure, and the restoration of selected beach sand regions, mangrove wetlands, and eroded shorelines. Suggestion includes the critical support which comes from the public needs for information acquisition and science education, in addition with the policy and management, all should be formulated into the transformation plan. The index system can be applied to other regions at home and abroad, and the results and conclusions based on the index system could also provide criteria for planning the ecological transformation process.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , China , Hong Kong
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113940, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731964

RESUMO

Forest conversion can drastically impact carbon (C) and nutrient processes and microbial stoichiometry, which will modify soil organic C (SOC) stock. However, SOC stock dynamics and its underlying mechanisms induced by long-term forest conversion remain unclear. Three well-protected plantations converted from natural forests for 36 years were compared, i.e., Cryptomeria fortunei (CF), Metasequoia glyptostroboides (MG) and Cunninghamia lanceolata (CL), with a natural forest (NF) as a control. SOC stock size and stability across three soil depths (0-10, 10-30 and 30-60 cm) were examined with aggregate-based method. Forest floors and fine roots were treated as C and nutrient inputs while soil respiration (Rs) was treated as C output. Soil microbial biomass C, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured to calculate microbial stoichiometry, as well as microenvironment and soil physicochemical properties. The relationships between SOC stock (size and stability) and these factors were explored using structural equation model. The results showed that microbial stoichiometry had strong or strict homeostasis at each soil depth. At 0-10 cm soil deep, SOC stock size varied with tree species (following the rank of CL > NF ≈ CF > MG) but its stability increased in all forest conversion types, regulated by forest floor quantity and quality associated with Rs; at 10-30 cm soil deep, the SOC stock sizes decreased in CF and MG, but SOC stock stability increased in MG, jointly driven by fine root quality and microenvironment; at 30-60 cm soil deep, SOC stock size decreased but its stability increased in MG, whereas both its size and stability had few changes in CF or CL, modified by soil physicochemical property associated with microbial stoichiometry and Rs. Overall, the effects of microbial stoichiometry and microenvironment on SOC stock were not pronounced. Thus, SOC stock size changed with soil depth and tree species but its stability tended to be steady at all depths varying with tree species. These results suggest that SOC stock size and stability are mainly determined by self-regulation process of forest ecosystems over more than three-decade after forest conversion, which will help us more accurately assess C sequestration strategies regarding long-term forest conversion.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Florestas
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113821, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731966

RESUMO

Despite significant advancements in modern agricultural practices, efficient handling of pesticides is a must as they are continuously defiling our terrestrial as well as aquatic life. During the last couple of decades, substantial efforts by various research groups have been devoted to find innovative solutions to remove pesticides from our environment in a greener way. In this regard, functionalized silica nanoparticles (NPs) have gained considerable attention of scientific community due to their notable properties such as amenable design, large surface area as well as fine-tunable and uniform pore structures which make them an ideal material for pesticides removal. The present review aims to proffer current scientific progress attained by silica-based nanostructures as an excellent material for effective removal of noxious agrochemicals. Further, a brief discussion on the synthetic strategies as well as intrinsic benefits associated with different morphologies of silica have also been highlighted in this article. It also summarizes the recent reports on silica assisted degradation of pesticides via enzymatic, chemical as well as advanced oxidation protocols. Additionally, it presents a critical analysis of different support materials for decontamination of our ecosystem. The review concludes with potential challenges, their possible solutions along with key knowledge gaps and future research directions for successful deployment of silica supported materials in degradation of pesticides at commercial scale.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas , Praguicidas , Ecossistema , Dióxido de Silício
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126712, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388919

RESUMO

Aquaculture is increasing at the global scale, and beneficial reuse of wastewater is becoming crucial in some regions. Here we selected a unique tertiary treatment system for study over a one-year period. This experimental ecosystem-based approach to effluent management included a treated wastewater pond (TWP), which receives 100% effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, and an aquaculture pond (AP) that receives treated water from the TWP for fish production. We examined the fate of a wide range of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in this TWP-AP system and a control pond fed by river water using traditional grab sampling and passive samplers. We then employed probabilistic approaches to examine exposure hazards. Telmisartan, carbamazepine, diclofenac and venlafaxine, exceeded ecotoxicological predicted no effect concentrations in influent wastewater to the TWP, but these water quality hazards were consistently reduced following treatment in the TWP-AP system. In addition, both grab and passive sampling approaches resulted in similar occurrence patterns of studied compounds, which highlights the potential of POCIS use for water monitoring. Based on the approach taken here, the TWP-AP system appears useful as a tertiary treatment step to reduce PhACs and decrease ecotoxicological and antibiotic resistance water quality hazards prior to beneficial reuse in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Aquicultura , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagoas , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126730, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388921

RESUMO

The widespread occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems leads to potential ecological risks to organisms, in turn affecting microbially mediated processes. Here, we investigated the response of dominant N-reduction processes to the frequently detected antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) along the Chaobai River with regional environmental heterogeneity, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and nitrous oxide (N2O) release. We found two divergent SMX response patterns for denitrification in contrasting scenarios of geochemical properties. In the context of low nitrate and carbon, SMX weakened denitrification with a slightly stimulation first. Whereas SMX directly inhibited denitrification when nitrate and carbon were sufficient. High SMX concentration suppressed anammox (26-72%) and DNRA activities (48-84%) via restraining the activities of anammox and DNRA bacteria. Notably, SMX increased the contribution of denitrification to N-reduction at the expense of DNRA to N-reduction, leading to a shift in nitrogen conversion towards denitrification. Additionally, SMX stimulated N2O emission (up to 91%) due to superior restraint on process of N2O reduction to N2 and an incline for N-reduction towards denitrification, thereby exacerbating greenhouse effect. Our results advance the understanding of how nitrogen cycling is affected by SMX in aquatic ecosystems with environmental heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Rios , Ecossistema , Óxido Nitroso , Sulfametoxazol
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126802, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396977

RESUMO

The coexistence of hazardous substances enhances their toxicities to plants, but its mechanism is still unclear due to the unknown cytochemical behavior of hazardous substance in plants. In this study, by using interdisciplinary methods, we observed the cytochemical behavior of coexisting hazardous substances {terbium [Tb(III)], benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and cadmium [Cd(II)] in environments} in plants and thus identified a new mechanism by which coexisting hazardous substances in environments enhance their toxicities to plants. First, Tb(III) at environmental exposure level (1.70 × 10-10 g/L) breaks the inert rule of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in leaf cells. Specifically, Tb(III) binds to its receptor [FASCICLIN-like arabinogalactan protein 17 (FLA17)] on the plasma membrane of leaf cells and then docks to an intracellular adaptor protein [adaptor protein 2 (AP2)] to form ternary complex [Tb(III)-FLA17-AP2], which finally initiates CME pathway in leaf cells. Second, coexisting Tb(III), BaP and Cd(II) in environments are simultaneously transported into leaf cells via Tb(III)-initiated CME pathway, leading to the accumulation of them in leaf cells. Finally, these accumulated hazardous substances simultaneously poison plant leaf cells. These results provide theoretical and experimental bases for elucidating the mechanisms of hazardous substances in environments poisoning plants, evaluating their risks, and protecting ecosystems.


Assuntos
Clatrina , Substâncias Perigosas , Ecossistema , Endocitose , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Plantas
8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 2024-2037, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749449

RESUMO

The remediation of non-reactive phosphate pollutants in the aquatic system is essential for protecting the ecological niche. In this work, a highly robust protein nanoparticles networked rare-earth metal carbonate-grafted bio-composite membrane (abbreviated as REMC) was fabricated via chemical crosslinking of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical lanthanum carbonate (mREM) and casein nanoparticles (CsNPs) for selective rejection of non-reactive phosphates. The main components of the REMC membrane are mREM and CsNPs, which were prepared via SDS/CTAB templated homogeneous precipitation and the coacervation/desolvation hybrid method, respectively. The active lanthanum ion (La3+) on the 3D spherulitic surface of mREM exhibited excellent phosphate adsorption capacity (maximum adsorption capacity was 358 mg.g-1) across a wide pH range and in a multi-ionic environment. A series of batch testing and characterizations revealed that the active La3+ and dominating phosphate centers in the REMC membrane framework enable non-enzymatic phosphatase-like activity, cleaving the phosphate ester bond of organic phosphates and releasing free phosphate anions. These released phosphate ions are retained in the REMC membrane via an ion exchange mechanism, where they contribute to improved phosphate removal capacities. Furthermore, CsNPs have a dual function in the membrane, acting as a matrix in the REMC membrane framework and contributing to phosphate ion sequestrations in a synergistic manner. The catalysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphates (pNPP) to paranitrophenol (pNP) in a sequential dephosphorylation by REMC offers an estimate of reaction kinetics and elucidates the underlying mechanism of improved phosphate selectivity in a multi-ionic environment. Furthermore, phosphate specificity, homogeneous binding capacity, reusability, and visual observation of REMC membrane saturation binding direct it's useful economic, industrial applications in aqueous phosphate contaminant removal, which could be beneficial for the active recovery of the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Lantânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Catálise , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Troca Iônica , Cinética , Organofosfatos , Fosfatos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149807, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450439

RESUMO

It is expected that by 2050 human population will exceed nine billion leading to increased pressure on marine ecosystems. Therefore, it is conjectured various levels of ecosystem functioning starting from individual to population-level, species distribution, food webs and trophic interaction dynamics will be severely jeopardized in coming decades. Ocean warming and acidification are two prime threats to marine biota, yet studies about their cumulative effect on marine fish and shellfishes are still in its infancy. This review assesses existing information regarding the interactive effects of global environmental factors like warming and acidification in the perspective of marine capture fisheries and aquaculture industry. As climate change continues, distribution pattern of species is likely to be altered which will impact fisheries and fishing patterns. Our work is an attempt to compile the existing literatures in the biological perspective of the above-mentioned stressors and accentuate a clear outline of knowledge in this subject. We reviewed studies deciphering the biological consequences of warming and acidification on fish and shellfishes in the light of a molecule to ecosystem perspective. Here, for the first time impacts of these two global environmental drivers are discussed in a holistic manner taking into account growth, survival, behavioural response, prey predator dynamics, calcification, biomineralization, reproduction, physiology, thermal tolerance, molecular level responses as well as immune system and disease susceptibility. We suggest urgent focus on more robust, long term, comprehensive and ecologically realistic studies that will significantly contribute to the understanding of organism's response to climate change for sustainable capture fisheries and aquaculture.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água do Mar , Animais , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Frutos do Mar
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149542, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454138

RESUMO

The alpine area of the Australian mainland is highly sensitive to climate and environmental change, and potentially vulnerable to ecosystem tipping points. Over the next two decades the Australian alpine region is predicted to experience temperature increases of at least 1 °C, coupled with a substantial decrease in snow cover. Extending the short instrumental record in these regions is imperative to put future change into context, and potentially provide analogues of warming. We reconstructed past temperatures, using a lipid biomarker palaeothermometer technique and mercury flux changes for the past 3500 years from the sediments of Club Lake, a high-altitude alpine tarn in the Snowy Mountains, southeastern Australia. Using a multi-proxy framework, including pollen and charcoal analyses, high-resolution geochemistry, and ancient microbial community composition, supported by high-resolution 210Pb and AMS 14C dating, we investigated local and regional ecological and environmental changes occurring in response to changes in temperature. We find the region experienced a general warming trend over the last 3500 years, with a pronounced climate anomaly occurring between 1000 and 1600 cal yrs. BP. Shifts in vegetation took place during this warm period, characterised by a decline in alpine species and an increase in open woodland taxa which co-occurred with an increase in regional fire activity. Given the narrow altitudinal band of Australian alpine vegetation, any future warming has the potential to result in the extinction of alpine species, including several endemic to the area, as treelines are driven to higher elevations. These findings suggest ongoing conservation efforts will be needed to protect the vulnerable alpine environments from the combined threats of climate changes, fire and invasive species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Incêndios , Austrália , Mudança Climática , Florestas
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149823, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454140

RESUMO

Rising level of micro-nano plastics (MNPs) in the natural ecosystem adversely impact the health of the environment and living organisms globally. MNPs enter in to the agro-ecosystem, flora and fauna, and human body via trophic transfer, ingestion and inhalation, resulting impediment in blood vessel, infertility, and abnormal behaviors. Therefore, it becomes indispensable to apply a novel approach to remediate MNPs from natural environment. Amongst the several prevailing technologies of MNPs remediation, microbial remediation is considered as greener technology. Microbial degradation of plastics is typically influenced by several biotic as well as abiotic factors, such as enzymatic mechanisms, substrates and co-substrates concentration, temperature, pH, oxidative stress, etc. Therefore, it is pivotal to recognize the key pathways adopted by microbes to utilize plastic fragments as a sole carbon source for the growth and development. In this context, this review critically discussed the role of various microbes and their enzymatic mechanisms involved in biodegradation of MNPs in wastewater (WW) stream, municipal sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), and composting starting with biological and toxicological impacts of MNPs. Moreover, this review comprehensively discussed the deployment of various MNPs remediation technologies, such as enzymatic, advanced molecular, and bio-membrane technologies in fostering the bioremediation of MNPs from various environmental compartments along with their pros and cons and prospects for future research.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149585, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454149

RESUMO

The impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on air quality around the world have received wide attention. In comparison, assessments of the implications for water quality are relatively rare. As the first country impacted by COVID-19, China implemented local and national lockdowns that shut down industries and businesses between January and May 2020. Based on monthly field measurements (N = 1693) and daily automonitoring (N = 65), this study analyzed the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on river water quality in China. The results showed significant improvements in river water quality during the lockdown period but out-of-step improvements for different indicators. Reductions in ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) began relatively soon after the lockdown; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) showed improvements beginning in late January/early February and mid-March, respectively, while increases in pH were more temporally concentrated in the period from mid-March to early May. Compared to April 2019, the Water Quality Index increased at 67.4% of the stations in April 2020, with 75.9% of increases being significant. Changes in water quality parameters also varied spatially for different sites and were mainly determined by the locations and levels of economic development. After the lifting of the lockdown in June, all water quality parameters returned to pre-COVID-19 lockdown conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate the impacts of human activities on water quality and the potential for reversing ecosystem degradation by better management of wastewater discharges to replicate the beneficial impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown. CAPSULE SUMMARY: River water quality improved during China's COVID-19 lockdown, but returned to normal conditions after the lockdown.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Rios , SARS-CoV-2 , Qualidade da Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149721, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454154

RESUMO

The natural flow regime (i.e. magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change of flow events) is crucial for maintaining freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. Protecting instream flow from anthropogenic alterations first requires an understanding of the relationship between aquatic organisms and the flow regime. In this study, we used a unique framework based on random forest modeling to quantify effects of natural flow regime metrics on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages across ecoregions and flow regime types in the state of South Carolina, USA. We found that all components of the natural flow regime affected both fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, suggesting that maintaining natural aspects of all flow regime components is critical for protecting freshwater diversity. We identified hydrologic metrics and flow regime components such as magnitude, frequency, and duration of flow events, that were associated with the greatest ecological responses for individual stream classes to help managers prioritize hydrologic and biological metrics of interest during environmental flow standard development. The response of aquatic organisms to hydrologic metrics varied across stream classifications and ecoregions, highlighting the importance of accounting for differences in flow regime and ecoregion when designing environmental flow standards. We provide a flexible framework based on statistical flow-ecology relationships that can be used to inform instream flow management and assess effects of flow alteration on riverine assemblages.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , South Carolina
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149849, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455273

RESUMO

Promoting land use planning through ecosystem service (ES) protection is a crucial approach for maintaining landscape sustainability. Identifying ES bundles to serve landscape functional zoning can provide a new perspective for sustainable land use planning. Taking the Beijing metropolitan region as a study area, we quantitatively assessed the spatiotemporal distributions of multiple ESs, from 1980 to 2017, based on land use changes. By combining ES patterns and comprehensive ecosystem service (CES), distinct ES bundles were identified through the clustering method. Based on the ES bundles, landscape functional zones were then established. We further developed improved land use scenarios to conserve ESs in selected towns of different functional zones by exploring dominant factors influencing ESs. Results showed that most of ESs decreased due to the expansion of developed lands. According to the classification of ES bundles, Beijing can be classified into three landscape functional zones at town level: the ecological conservation region (ECR), food production region (FPR), and urban development region (UDR). For each landscape functional zone, the town with the greatest decline in CES value was selected. Associated with the influencing factors of ESs, local land use patterns, and ecological protection policies, corresponding multi-step improved land use scenarios were designed. These scenarios were demonstrated to be effective in conserving ESs in the selected towns: (1) the agricultural expansion scenario, which enhanced food provision services in the ECR; (2) the forest conservation scenario, which enhanced habitat and recreational services in the FPR; and (3) the developed land optimization scenario, which enhanced a range of regulating services in the UDR. Overall, this study used landscape functional zoning as a nexus to connect ES patterns and land use management. The optimized land use strategies can provide references for conserving ESs and enhancing landscape sustainability in Beijing and other similar metropolitan areas worldwide.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pequim , China , Florestas
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149842, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455274

RESUMO

Global environmental awareness has encouraged further research towards biofuel production and consumption. Despite the favorable properties of biofuels, the sustainability of their conventional production pathways from agricultural feedstocks has been questioned. Therefore, the use of non-food feedstocks as a promising approach to ensure sustainable biofuel production is encouraged. However, the use of synthetic solvents/chemicals and energy carriers during biofuel production and the consequent adverse environmental effects are still challenging. On the other hand, biofuel production is also associated with generating large volumes of waste and wastewater. Accordingly, the circular bioeconomy as an innovative approach to ensure complete valorization of feedstocks and generated waste streams under the biorefinery scheme is proposed. In line with that, the current study aims to assess the environmental sustainability of bioethanol production in a safflower-based biorefinery using the life cycle assessment framework. Based on the obtained results, safflower production and its processing into 1 MJ bioethanol under the safflower-based biorefinery led to damage of 2.23E-07 disability-adjusted life years (DALY), 2.35E-02 potentially disappeared fraction (PDF)*m2*yr, 4.76E-01 kg CO2 eq., and 3.82 MJ primary on the human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources, respectively. Moreover, it was revealed that despite adverse environmental effects associated with safflower production and processing, the substitution of conventional products, i.e., products that are the typical products in the market without having environmental criteria, with their bio-counterparts, i.e., products produced in the biorefinery based on environmental criteria could overshadow the unfavorable effects and substantially enhance the overall sustainability of the biorefinery system. The developed safflower-based biorefinery led to seven- and two-time reduction in damage to the ecosystem quality and resources damage categories, respectively. The reductions in damage to human health and climate change were also found to be 52% and 24%, respectively. The weighted environmental impacts of the safflower-based biorefinery decreased by 64% due to the production of bioproducts, mainly biodiesel and biogas, replacing their fossil-based counterparts, i.e., diesel and natural gas, respectively. Finally, although the main focus of the developed safflower-based biorefinery was biofuel production, waste valorization and mainly animal feed played a significant role in improving the associated environmental impacts.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Carthamus tinctorius , Animais , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149845, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455278

RESUMO

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) relies on rigorous scientific assessment of all potential causal pathways by which large-scale developments may impact on valued assets in a region. Despite their importance to informed decision-making, many EIAs are flawed by incomplete analysis of causal pathways, limited spatial assessment and a lack of transparency about how risks have been evaluated across the region. To address these, we describe an EIA methodology based on network analysis of potential causal pathways in a given region. This network approach is coupled with a systematic evaluation of the likelihood, consequence and mitigation options for each causal pathway from one or more human activities to multiple valued assets. The method includes analysis of the confidence in these evaluations, recognizing where knowledge gaps constrain assessments of risks to particular assets. The causal network approach is complemented by a spatially explicit analysis of the region that allows residual risk (i.e. risk remaining after all feasible mitigations) to be mapped for all valued assets. This identifies which activities could lead to potential impacts of varying concern (rated from 'very low' to 'very high'), their likely pathways, which valued assets are at risk and where these residual risks are greatest. The output maps reveal 'risk hotspots' where more detailed local-scale assessments and monitoring should focus. The method is demonstrated by application to potential impacts on 8 valued assets (aquifers, ecosystems and protected species) due to unconventional gas resource development in the Cooper Basin, central Australia. Results show which activities and causal pathways are of potential concern to different valued assets and where residual risk is greatest for particular species and ecosystems. This spatial causal network provides a systematic, consistent and transparent assessment of potential impacts, improving the quality of decision-making about planned developments and their environmental risks.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Austrália , Humanos , Medição de Risco
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149715, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461472

RESUMO

Tidal marshes store large amounts of carbon; however, little is known about the patterns, magnitudes, and biophysical drivers that regulate CO2 efflux from these ecosystems. Due to harsh environmental conditions (e.g., flooding), it is difficult to measure continuous soil CO2 efflux in tidal marshes. These data are necessary to inform empirical and process-based models and to better quantify carbon budgets. We performed automated (30 min) and manual (bi-monthly) soil CO2 efflux measurements, for ~20 months, at two sites in a temperate tidal marsh: tall Spartina (TS; dominated by S. cynosuroides) and short Spartina (SS; dominated by S. alterniflora). These measurements were coupled with water quality, canopy spectral reflectance, and meteorological measurements. There were no consistent diel patterns of soil CO2 efflux, suggesting a decoupling of soil CO2 efflux with diel variations in temperature and tides (i.e., water level) showing a hysteresis effect. Mean soil CO2 efflux was significantly higher at SS (2.15 ± 1.60 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than at TS (0.55 ± 0.80 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), highlighting distinct biogeochemical spatial variability. At the annual scale, air temperature explained >50% of the variability in soil CO2 efflux at both sites; and water level and salinity were secondary drivers of soil CO2 efflux at SS and TS, respectively. Annual soil CO2 efflux varied from 287-876 to 153-211 g C m-2 y-1 at SS and TS, respectively, but manual measurements underestimated the annual flux by <67% at SS and <23% at TS. These results suggest that measuring and modeling diel soil CO2 efflux variability in tidal marshes may be more challenging than previously expected and highlight large discrepancies between manual and automated soil CO2 efflux measurements. New technical approaches are needed to implement long-term automated measurements of soil CO2 efflux across wetlands to properly estimate the carbon balance of these ecosystems.


Assuntos
Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149620, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461474

RESUMO

Triggered by the adoption of the Water Framework Directive, a variety of fish-based systems were developed throughout Europe to assess the ecological status of lakes. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of all existing systems and summarizes sampling methods, fish community traits (metrics) and the relevant anthropogenic pressures assessed by them. Twenty-one European countries developed fish-based assessment systems. Three countries each developed two distinct systems to approach different ecoregions, either to use different data, or to assess different lake types leading to a total number of 24 systems. The most common approach for the setting of reference conditions, used in seventeen systems, was the utilisation of fish communities in comparably undisturbed natural lakes as reference. Eleven used expert judgment, nine historical data and eight modelled relationships. Fourteen systems combined at least two approaches. The most common fish sampling method was a standardized fishing procedure with multimesh-gillnets. Many countries applied combinations of fishing methods, e.g. non-standard gillnets, fyke nets and electrofishing. Altogether 177 metrics were used for index development and each system combined 2-13 metrics. The most common ones were total standardized catches of number and biomass, relative abundance of Perca fluviatilis, Rutilus rutilus, and Abramis brama, feeding preferences, sensitive species, and non-natives. The pressure-response-relationships for these metrics were supported with both correlations established during system development and scientific publications. However, the metrics and their combinations were highly diverse and no metric was applied universally. Our analysis reveals that most fish-based assessment systems address multiple pressures (eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations, fishery pressure and occurrence of non-natives), whilst few are pressure-specific, tackling only eutrophication or acidification. We argue that the value of fish-based systems for lakes lies in their capacity to capture the effect of many different pressures and their interactions which is lacking for most assessment systems based on other biota.


Assuntos
Lagos , Percas , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Pesqueiros , Peixes
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149780, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461478

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the potential risk of surface water acidification in regions with historically-elevated acid deposition and to measure the recovery of such ecosystems after policy changes, critical loads and their exceedances were estimated for 349 headwater streams across China using a modified SSWC model. Such a model considered the acid-neutralizing capacity derived from high base cation deposition and the robust retention of sulfate and nitrate. Results indicated that China's streams had higher critical loads (averaged at 4.7 keq·ha-1·yr-1) and were less sensitive to acid deposition as compared to Europe and North America. The proportion of surveyed streams with acid deposition exceeded critical load decreased from 40.4% in 2005 to 29.5% in 2018, indicating a significant decrease in risk of surface water acidification, and thus a benefit from the emission abatement in recent years. Nonetheless, a relatively high risk of acidification still existed in southeast China with lower critical loads and most critical load exceedances. More efforts should be put into implementing emission control policies in the future.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Sulfatos , Enxofre/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149643, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461482

RESUMO

Southwest China is an important biodiversity hotspot in the world and is controlled by the Pacific and Indian Ocean monsoon in the east and west part respectively. However, how abiotic and biotic factors affect the response of vegetation to climate change in different monsoon regions is still not clear. Here we used the annual change rate of growing-season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI trend) during 1982-2015 to explore the vulnerability of vegetation (forests and shrubs) activity to climate change in southwest China. We examined NDVI trend in relation to: 1) climate change trends, i.e. annual change rate of water and energy availability, indicated by the Palmer Drought Index (PDSI) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), respectively; 2) climatic condition, i.e. mean PDSI and PET during 1982-2015; 3) vegetation height; 4) biome type; 5) monsoon region. The results showed that NDVI generally increased in the Pacific monsoon region, especially in the southern areas, probably because the vegetation under more productive climate were more resistant to climate change, and also because decreased temperature lead to lower evapotranspiration which alleviated the slight drought trend in this region. In contrast, NDVI generally decreased in the Indian Ocean monsoon region which showed more pronounced drought trend, especially in the tall subalpine and tropical forests of Southeast Tibetan Mountains, which supports the "hydraulic limitation hypothesis" that vegetation height interacted with climate change in affecting vegetation vulnerability. Our analysis highlighted the critical roles of different monsoon systems, climate condition and vegetation height in affecting ecosystem vulnerability. We suggest that the (sub)tropical forests in the Pacific monsoon region may have act as an important carbon sink during the past decades, while the tall forests in Southeast Tibetan mountains (a biodiversity center with high carbon stock) are highly vulnerable to climate change and should have priority in ecosystem protection.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Secas , Florestas
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