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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251197, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350305

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are among the best bio-indicators, which can guide us to recognize some of the main conservation concerns in ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts such as deforestation, habitat degradation, modification of landscapes, and decreased quality of habitats are major threats to bird diversity. The present study was designed to detect anthropogenic causative agents that act on waterbird diversity in Tarbella Dam, Indus River, Pakistan. Waterbird censuses were carried out from March 2019 to February 2020 in multiple areas around the dam. A total of 2990 waterbirds representing 63 species were recorded. We detected the highest waterbird richness and diversity at Pehure whereas the highest density was recorded at Kabbal. Human activity impacts seemed to be the main factor determining the waterbird communities as waterbirds were negatively correlated with the greatest anthropogenic impacts. Waterbirds seem to respond rapidly to human disturbance.


Resumo As aves estão entre os melhores bioindicadores, o que pode nos orientar a reconhecer algumas das principais preocupações de conservação dos ecossistemas. Impactos antrópicos como desmatamento, degradação de habitat, modificação de paisagens e diminuição da qualidade dos habitats são as principais ameaças à diversidade de aves. O presente estudo foi desenhado para detectar agentes causadores antropogênicos que atuam na diversidade de aves aquáticas na Represa de Tarbella, rio Indus, Paquistão. Censos de aves aquáticas foram realizados de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 em várias áreas ao redor da barragem. Um total de 2.990 aves aquáticas representando 63 espécies foi registrado. Detectamos a maior riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas em Pehure, enquanto a maior densidade foi registrada em Kabbal. Os impactos da atividade humana parecem ser o principal fator determinante das comunidades de aves aquáticas, uma vez que as aves aquáticas foram negativamente correlacionadas com os maiores impactos antrópicos. As aves aquáticas parecem responder rapidamente às perturbações humanas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecossistema , Rios , Paquistão , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

RESUMO

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Assuntos
Solo , Banco de Sementes , Paquistão , Plantas , Sementes , Ecossistema , Poaceae
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253598, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355857

RESUMO

Abstract Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees are widely distributed throughout the Cerrado ecosystem. The fruits of C. brasiliense trees are used by humans for food and as the main income source in many communities. C. brasiliense conservation is seriously threatened due to habitat loss caused by the land-use change. Sucking insects constitute an important ecological driver that potentially impact C. brasiliense survival in degraded environments. In addition, insects sampling methodologies for application in studies related to the conservation of C. brasiliense are poorly developed. In this study, sucking insects (Hemiptera) and their predators were recorded in three vertical strata of Caryocar brasiliense canopies. The distribution of sucking species showed vertical stratification along the canopy structure of C. brasiliense. The basal part of the canopy had the highest numbers of sucking insects Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and their predators Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), spiders (Araneae), and Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Predators' distribution follows the resource availability and preferred C. brasiliense tree parts with a higher abundance of prey.


Resumo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) é amplamente distribuído por todo o ecossistema de cerrado. Os frutos de C. brasiliense são utilizados na alimentação humana e constitui uma importante fonte de renda para muitas comunidades. A perda de habitat provocada pelas mudanças de uso da terra coloca em risco a conservação de C. brasiliense. Insetos sugadores constituem um importante fator ecológico que, potencialmente, afeta o fitness de C. brasiliense em ambientes degradados. Além disso, as metodologias de amostragem de insetos para aplicação em estudos relacionados à conservação de C. brasiliense são pouco desenvolvidas. Neste estudo, o número de insetos sugadores (Hemiptera) e seus predadores foram avaliados em três estratos verticais do dossel de C. brasiliense. A distribuição das espécies sugadoras apresentou estratificação vertical ao longo da estrutura do dossel. O estrato basal do dossel apresentou o maior número de insetos sugadores Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), e seus predadores Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aranhas (Araneae) e Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Os predadores distribuíram-se de acordo com a disponibilidade de recursos, ocorrendo em maior número nas partes do dossel com maior abundância de suas presas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Afídeos , Malpighiales , Árvores , Ecossistema , Insetos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMO

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Besouros , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Chile , Biodiversidade , Insetos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMO

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Rios , Caraciformes , Estações do Ano , Lagos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910

RESUMO

Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.


Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.


Assuntos
Animais , Citrullus colocynthis , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Larva
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259137, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364510

RESUMO

The edge effect has impacts on seed and seedling survival due to modifications in biotic and abiotic factors. Often, large-seeded tree species lost seed vectors in the forest edge due to the rarity or absence of large frugivores at this habitat type. In this study, I compared the seedling abundance and distribution of the palm Syagrus flexuosa between edges and interiors of three large Cerrado remnants. In every remnant, the number of seedlings around parent palms in the edge was smaller than around palm individuals located in the Cerrado interior. Moreover, the distribution of seedlings around parent palms differed between edges and interiors. In the edges, most seedlings were found under parent crowns, while in the interiors, the contrary occurred. The high concentration of seedlings under parent palms suggests a decrease of seed dispersal at the edges. Because S. flexuosa is a widely distributed palm that serves as an important resource for several animals along Cerrado habitats, changes on the regeneration process of this palm due to edge effects can further impact frugivore populations. Therefore, the decline of seedling establishment along forest edges implies changes in the Cerrado regeneration dynamics, which may compromise the persistence of ecological processes and animal communities.


O efeito de borda tem impactos severos na sobrevivência de sementes e plântulas devido a modificações dos fatores bióticos e abióticos. Frequentemente, espécies arbóreas com sementes grandes perdem seus dispersores na borda da floresta devido à raridade ou ausência de grandes frugívoros neste tipo de habitat. Neste estudo, comparei a abundância e distribuição de plântulas de S. flexuosa entre bordas e interiores de três grandes remanescentes de Cerrado. Em cada remanescente, o número de plântulas ao redor das palmeiras-mãe, na borda, era menor do que ao redor dos indivíduos no interior do Cerrado. Nas bordas, a maioria das plântulas foi encontrada junto às plantas mãe, enquanto no interior ocorreu o contrário. A alta concentração de plântulas sob as plantas adultas sugere diminuição da dispersão de sementes nas bordas. Como S. flexuosa é uma palmeira amplamente distribuída que serve como um recurso importante para vários animais nos habitats do Cerrado, mudanças no processo de regeneração dessa palmeira devido aos efeitos de borda podem impactar ainda mais as populações de frugívoros. Portanto, o declínio do estabelecimento de plântulas ao longo das bordas do Cerrado implica em mudanças na dinâmica de regeneração do Cerrado, o que pode comprometer a persistência de processos ecológicos e comunidades animais.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Arecaceae , Plântula , Dispersão de Sementes
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256160, 2024. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360203

RESUMO

Riverine forests are unique and highly significant ecosystems that are globally important for diverse and threatened avian species. Apart from being a cradle of life, it also serves as a gene pool that harbors a variety of flora and fauna species (repeated below). Despite the fact, this fragile ecosystem harbored avian assemblages; it is now disappearing daily as a result of human activity. Determining habitat productivity using bird species is critical for conservation and better management in the future. Multiple surveys were conducted over a 15-month period, from January to March 2019, using the distance sampling point count method. A total of 250 point count stations were fixed systematically at 300 m intervals. In total, 9929 bird individuals were recorded, representing 57 species and 34 families. Out of 57 bird species, two were vulnerable, one was data deficient, one was nearly threatened, and the remaining 53 species were of least concern. The Eurasian Collard Dove - Streptopelia decaocto (14.641 ± 2.532/ha), White-eared Bulbul - Pycnonotus leucotis (13.398 ± 4.342/ha) and Common Babbler - Turdoides caudata (10.244 ± 2.345/ha) were the three first plenteous species having higher densities. However, the densities of three species, i.e., Lesser Whitethroat - Sylvia curruca, Gray Heron - Ardea cinerea and Pallas Fish Eagle - Haliaeetus leucoryphus, were not analyzed due to the small sample size. The findings of diversity indices revealed that riverine forest has harbored the diverse avian species that are uniformly dispersed across the forest. Moreover, recording the ten foraging guilds indicated that riverine forest is rich in food resources. In addition, the floristic structure importance value index results indicated that riverine forest is diverse and rich in flora, i.e. trees, shrubs, weeds and grass, making it an attractive and productive habitat for bird species.


As florestas ribeirinhas são ecossistemas únicos e altamente significativos que são globalmente importantes para diversas espécies de aves ameaçadas de extinção. Além de serem o berço da vida, também servem como um conjunto genético que abriga uma variedade de espécies da flora e da fauna. Apesar disso, esse frágil ecossistema abrigava um conjunto de aves, mas agora está desaparecendo diariamente como resultado da atividade humana. Determinar a produtividade do hábitat usando espécies de pássaros é fundamental para a conservação e melhor gestão no futuro. Vários levantamentos foram realizados ao longo de um período de 15 meses, de janeiro de 2018 a março de 2019, por meio do método de contagem de pontos de amostragem de distância. Foram fixadas sistematicamente 250 estações de contagem de pontos em intervalos de 300 m. No total, foram registrados 9.929 indivíduos de aves, representando 57 espécies e 34 famílias. Das 57 espécies de aves, duas eram vulneráveis, uma tinha dados insuficientes, uma estava quase ameaçada e as 53 espécies restantes eram as menos preocupantes. O: Pomba de colar euroasiática - Streptopelia decaocto (14.641 ± 2.532/ha), o Bulbul de orelha branca - Pycnonotus leucotis (13.398 ± 4.342/ha) e Tagarela comum - Turdoides caudata (10.244 ± 2.345/ha) foram as três primeiras espécies abundantes com maiores densidades. No entanto, as densidades de três espécies, Papa-amoras-cinzento (Sylvia curruca), Garça-real-europeia (Ardea cinerea) e Águia-pescadora de Pallas (Haliaeetus leucoryphus), não foram analisadas por causa do pequeno tamanho da amostra. Os resultados dos índices de diversidade revelaram que a floresta ribeirinha abrigou diversas espécies de aves que estão uniformemente dispersas pela floresta. Além disso, o registro das dez guildas de forrageamento indicou que a floresta ribeirinha é rica em recursos alimentares. Além disso, os resultados do índice de valor de importância da estrutura florística indicaram que a floresta ribeirinha é variada e rica em flora, ou seja, árvores, arbustos, ervas daninhas e grama, tornando-a um hábitat atraente e produtivo para espécies de aves.


Assuntos
Aves , Florestas , Ecossistema , Patrimônio Genético
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255950, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364497

RESUMO

Aquatic insect fauna remains an important tool for bio indication of environmental disturbance, while maintaining a healthy aquatic system. The purpose of the study was to document and to identify the diversity and distribution patterns of aquatic insect, a highly ignored aspect from the Qatar. Following the standard procedures, the samples were collected from aquatic habitats during the period October 2015 to May 2017 on monthly basis. A total of 11,287 individuals, belonging to 6 orders were captured. Dipterans were the abundant with the percentages of 71.01 (n=8,015), while the lowest percentage was observed for Coleoptera 0.04 (n=05). Twelve insects families were identified, among these five were reported under Diptera, followed by Hemiptera (03), while Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Odonata, and Ephemeroptera were represented by single families. Among the selected localities, Dipterans were collected from 10 stations, followed by Hemiptera (9), Coleoptera (4), Odonota (4), Ephemeroptera (3) and Trichoptera (1) respectively. Among the water bodies samples, streams were the most preferred habitats (n=2,767), while drinking water pools were the least (27). Moreover, the highest Simpson diversity index of 1.48 and lowest of 0.47 was recorded for flooded sewage pool and plastic containers respectively, while the low evenness values were observed for ponds, and less than 1 Margalef's diversity values were seen for all habitats. This study documents the patterns of the diversity and distribution of aquatic insects, and provides a baseline for the future studies from Qatar.


A fauna aquática de insetos continua sendo uma ferramenta importante para a bioindicação de distúrbios ambientais, ao mesmo tempo em que mantém um sistema aquático saudável. O objetivo do estudo foi documentar e identificar a diversidade e os padrões de distribuição dos insetos aquáticos, um aspecto altamente ignorado no Catar. Seguindo os procedimentos padrão, as amostras foram coletadas em hábitats aquáticos durante o período de outubro de 2015 a maio de 2017, mensalmente. Um total de 11.287 indivíduos, pertencentes a seis ordens, foram capturados. Dípteros foram os mais abundantes, com as porcentagens de 71,01 (n = 8.015), enquanto a menor porcentagem foi observada para Coleópteros 0,04 (n = 05). Doze famílias de insetos foram identificadas, destas, cinco foram registradas sob Diptera, seguido por Hemiptera (03), enquanto Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Odonata e Ephemeroptera foram representados por famílias únicas. Dentre as localidades selecionadas, Dipterans foram coletados em 10 estações, seguidos por Hemiptera (9), Coleoptera (4), Odonota (4), Ephemeroptera (3) e Trichoptera (1), respectivamente. Entre as amostras de corpos d'água, os riachos foram os hábitats mais preferidos (n = 2.767), enquanto as piscinas de água potável foram os menos (27). Além disso, o maior índice de diversidade de Simpson de 1,48 e o menor de 0,47 foi registrado para piscina de esgoto inundada e recipientes de plástico, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de baixa uniformidade foram observados para lagoas e menos de 1 valores de diversidade de Margalef foram observados para todos os hábitats. Este estudo documenta os padrões de diversidade e distribuição de insetos aquáticos e fornece uma linha de base para os estudos futuros do Catar.


Assuntos
Animais , Fauna Aquática , Ecossistema , Insetos
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1992): 20222179, 2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722079

RESUMO

Field margins are major habitats for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes, but biotic homogenization of plant communities threatens their ecological and agronomic functions. Our objective is to determine the drivers of plant diversity in field margins for conservation and restoration purposes. To do so, we assessed the effects of field margin structure and long-term management over 20 years (1995-2015) on the taxonomic and functional α- and ß-diversity, and the functional composition of herbaceous plant communities. In 2015, we surveyed 302 field margins in bocage landscapes of Brittany, northwestern France. Results were very similar between taxonomic and functional diversity but revealed important discrepancies between the drivers of α- and ß-diversity. Deep ditches, mowing and grazing increased α-diversity but did not affect ß-diversity. Denser hedgerows had lower α-diversity than other field margins but strongly contributed to ß-diversity by harbouring more unique sets of species or life strategies. Long-term herbicide spraying in field margins and cropping intensity in adjacent habitats did not affect α-diversity, but had more complex effects on ß-diversity and selected for common weeds. All in all, preservation of dense hedgerows, abandonment of herbicide spraying, and protection against agrochemical drifts are key measures to prevent the establishment of common weeds and biotic homogenization of herbaceous plant communities in field margins. Above all, our study shows how important it is to go beyond α-diversity to make robust conservation and restoration decisions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Herbicidas , Agricultura , Biodiversidade , França , Plantas Daninhas
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1992): 20222129, 2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722076

RESUMO

Changing patterns in diversity are a feature of many habitats, with seasonality a major driver of ecosystem structure and function. In coastal marine plankton-based ecosystems, seasonality has been established through long-term time-series of bacterioplankton and protists. Alongside these groups, fungi also inhabit coastal marine ecosystems. If and how marine fungi show long-term intra- and inter-annual diversity patterns is unknown, preventing a comprehensive understanding of marine fungal ecology. Here, we use a 17-year environmental DNA time-series from the English Channel to determine long-term marine fungal diversity patterns. We show that fungal community structure progresses at seasonal and monthly scales and is only weakly related to environmental parameters. Communities restructured every 52-weeks suggesting long-term stability in diversity patterns. Some major marine fungal genera have clear inter-annual recurrence patterns, re-appearing in the annual cycle at the same period. Low relative abundance taxa that are likely non-marine show seasonal input to the coastal marine ecosystem suggesting land-sea exchange regularly takes place. Our results demonstrate long-term intra- and inter-annual marine fungal diversity patterns. We anticipate this study could form the basis for better understanding the ecology of marine fungi and how they fit in the structure and function of the wider coastal marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental , DNA Fúngico , Ecossistema , Ecologia , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/microbiologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 44, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number of cases of scrub typhus and its expanding geographical distribution in China, its potential distribution in Fujian Province, which is endemic for the disease, has yet to be investigated. METHODS: A negative binomial regression model for panel data mainly comprising meteorological, socioeconomic and land cover variables was used to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of scrub typhus. Maximum entropy modeling was used to identify the key predictive variables of scrub typhus and their ranges, map the suitability of different environments for the disease, and estimate the proportion of the population at different levels of infection risk. RESULTS: The final multivariate negative binomial regression model for panel data showed that the annual mean normalized difference vegetation index had the strongest correlation with the number of scrub typhus cases. With each 0.1% rise in shrubland and 1% rise in barren land there was a 75.0% and 37.0% increase in monthly scrub typhus cases, respectively. In contrast, each unit rise in mean wind speed in the previous 2 months and each 1% increase in water bodies corresponded to a decrease of 40.0% and 4.0% in monthly scrub typhus cases, respectively. The predictions of the maximum entropy model were robust, and the average area under the curve value was as high as 0.864. The best predictive variables for scrub typhus occurrence were population density, annual mean normalized difference vegetation index, and land cover types. The projected potentially most suitable areas for scrub typhus were widely distributed across the eastern coastal area of Fujian Province, with highly suitable and moderately suitable areas accounting for 16.14% and 9.42%, respectively. Of the total human population of the province, 81.63% reside in highly suitable areas for scrub typhus. CONCLUSIONS: These findings could help deepen our understanding of the risk factors of scrub typhus, and provide information for public health authorities in Fujian Province to develop more effective surveillance and control strategies in identified high risk areas in Fujian Province.


Assuntos
Tifo por Ácaros , Humanos , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Modelos Estatísticos , Densidade Demográfica
17.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0280100, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724141

RESUMO

Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana is encroaching into new habitats, which will affect native ecosystems as this species competes with other plants for available resources, including water. We designed a greenhouse experiment to investigate changes in soil moisture content and rooting depths of two-year-old J. virginiana saplings growing with or without competition. We had four competition treatments: 1) none, 2) with a native tree (Quercus stellata), 3) with an invasive grass (Bromus inermis), and 4) with both Q. stellata and B. inermis. We measured soil moisture content over two years as well as root length, total biomass, relative water content, midday water potential, and mortality at the end of the experiment. When J. virginiana and B. inermis grew together, water depletion occurred at both 30-40 cm and 10-20 cm. Combined with root length results, we can infer that J. virginiana most likely took up water from the deeper layers whereas B. inermis used water from the top layers. We found a similar pattern of water depletion and uptake when J. virginiana grew with Q. stellata, indicating that J. virginiana took up water from the deeper layers and Q. stellata used water mostly from the top soil layers. When the three species grew together, we found root overlap between J. virginiana and Q. stellata. Despite the root overlap, our relative water content and water potential indicate that J. virginiana was not water stressed in any of the plant combinations. Regardless, J. virginiana saplings had less total biomass in treatments with B. inermis and we recorded a significantly higher mortality when J. virginiana grew with both competitors. Root overlap and partitioning can affect how J. virginiana perform and adapt to new competitors and can allow their co-existence with grasses and other woody species, which can facilitate J. virginiana encroachment into grasslands and woodlands. Our data also show that competition with both Q. stellata and B. inermis could limit establishment, regardless of water availability.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Quercus , Bromus , Ecossistema , Poaceae , Plantas , Solo
18.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0280646, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724168

RESUMO

The northern portion of Washington's outer coast-known locally as the Olympic coast-is a dynamic region characterized by seasonal upwelling that predominates during summer interrupted by occasional periods of downwelling. We examined spring-to-fall water temperature records collected along this coast from 2001-2015 from April to October at four nearshore locations (Cape Elizabeth to Makah Bay) that span one degree of latitude and are located within 15 km of the shore. When compared against a long-term climatology created for 2001-2013, seven-day smoothed temperature anomalies of up to 4.5°C at 40 m depth during 2014 and 2015 show short-term warm events lasting 10-20 days. These periods of warming occurred within the well documented marine heatwave in the Northeast Pacific and were about twice the seasonal temperature range in the climatology at that depth. These warm events were strongly correlated with periods of northward long-shore winds and upper ocean currents, consistent with what is expected for the response to downwelling-favorable winds. While our focus a priori was on 2014 and 2015, we also found large positive temperature events in 2013, which were potentially related to the early stage of the marine heatwave, and in 2011, which did not have a documented marine heatwave. This indicates that near-shore short-term warm events occur during periods of large-scale offshore marine heatwave events, but also can occur in the absence of a large-scale marine heatwave event when downwelling-favorable winds occur during the summer/early fall.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Vento , Temperatura , Washington , Estações do Ano
19.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0272754, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724182

RESUMO

A significant gap in understanding the response of biodiversity to urban areas is the lack of long-term studies. Most of the information on urban birds comes from studies carried out in the northern hemisphere, and they include data that don´t exceed three years. Although short-term studies contribute to knowledge about bird community diversity and their spatial distribution in urban areas, they could be biased towards more conspicuous species. One of the few multi-temporal datasets available for birds in urban areas is the Christmas Bird Count (CBC). Using annual CBC data available between 2001 and 2018 from 21 urban and peri-urban sample sites assessed from the main cities of Colombia, we identified and analyzed long-term trends on the cumulative diversity of bird communities as well as on their spatial distribution. We estimated comparative trends in richness, number of individuals counted, similarity, and complementarity of avifauna for each city and sample site based on their responses to urbanization and dietary guilds. We identified almost a quarter of the species registered in Colombia (464 of 1954). The representativeness of the community obtained for 18 years exceeds 84%, showing richness that ranges between 214 and 278 species in the three cities. Bird species and individuals registered showed wide variation of the sample sites. We found more dwellers, insectivorous and granivorous species in urban areas, with frugivores relegated to peri-urban sites, usually coinciding with avoider species. Natural peri-urban areas and intra-urban wetlands and urban parks were the most important refuges for birds and maintained the highest avoider and utilizer species richness. Long-term inventories are fundamental for determining consolidated bird diversity and distributional patterns. This information established a baseline for decision-making and applying recommendations that allow reconciling the growing demand for urban areas with the need to preserve the native avifauna in megadiverse Neotropical countries such as Colombia.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Animais , Cidades , Urbanização , Aves/fisiologia
20.
Sci Adv ; 9(5): eadc9392, 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724220

RESUMO

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) play a key role in the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Their genetic diversity is viewed as the outcome of evolutionary processes that shaped ancestral transition from terrestrial to marine habitats. However, current genome-wide insights into AOA evolution rarely consider brackish and freshwater representatives or provide their divergence timeline in lacustrine systems. An unbiased global assessment of lacustrine AOA diversity is critical for understanding their origins, dispersal mechanisms, and ecosystem roles. Here, we leveraged continental-scale metagenomics to document that AOA species diversity in freshwater systems is remarkably low compared to marine environments. We show that the uncultured freshwater AOA, "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus limneticus," is ubiquitous and genotypically static in various large European lakes where it evolved 13 million years ago. We find that extensive proteome remodeling was a key innovation for freshwater colonization of AOA. These findings reveal the genetic diversity and adaptive mechanisms of a keystone species that has survived clonally in lakes for millennia.


Assuntos
Archaea , Lagos , Archaea/genética , Amônia , Ecossistema , Oxirredução , Filogenia
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