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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9464

RESUMO

El Programa de Formación Interprofesional representa un avance concreto que remarca la importancia de la Formación Interprofesional en Salud y el impacto en el desempeño de futuros profesionales de la salud. En esta oportunidad se abordan las políticas públicas de formación a través de la presentación de distintas experiencias. Con la moderación de Verónica González, Directora de Investigación y Cooperación Técnica de la Escuela de Gobierno en Salud Floreal Ferrara exponen: Elena Boschi del Departamento de Salud comunitaria de la Universidad Nacional de Lanús, Valeria Ochoa de la licenciatura en enfermería de la universidad Nacional de José C Paz, Brenda Di Giácomo del Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Nacional del Sur, y Celia Lis del Equipo de Residencias interprofesionales de Salud del Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, mostrando en los relatos de sus prácticas la importancia de conformar espacios para la reflexión y concientización sobre la relación entre los y las profesionales de la salud con las políticas socio-sanitarias con el objetivo final de contribuir a la formación de profesionales de la salud con una perspectiva de atención interprofesional humanizada y lograr alcanzar un abordaje e intervención sobre la salud y la enfermedad a nivel individual, familiar y social.


Assuntos
Educação Interprofissional , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Capacitação em Serviço , Acordos de Cooperação para a Formação de Recursos Humanos , Argentina , Política Pública , Humanização da Assistência , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública , Educação Médica
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9468

RESUMO

En las Segundas Jornadas de Educación Interprofesional en Salud y Humanización de los Cuidados, las instituciones académicas presentan sus experiencias tendientes a la formación de profesionales de la salud con una perspectiva de atención interprofesional humanizada y a lograr alcanzar un abordaje e intervención sobre la salud y la enfermedad a nivel individual, familiar y social. Clara Weber Suardiaz describe el Programa de Formación Interprofesional (FIP) de la UNLP, Jorgelina Farre aborda los módulos que estructuran la propuesta pedagógica, y los espacios de trabajo colaborativos basados en el enfoque de FIP. Rodolfo Kaufmann del Centro de Telemedicina de la Universidad Nacional Tres de Febrero expone sobre los senderos posibles hacia la interprofesionalidad y los nuevos escenarios de formación por la pandemia. Diserta la Secretaría de extensión de la Facultad de Ciencias médicas, Liliana Rivas de la UNAJ. Fernando Vallone de la UNAJ presenta la curricularización de la vinculación territorial y el "Proyecto salud pública en el territorio" de la UNAJ (Universidad Arturo Jaureche). Cintia Schemberger y Maximiliano Ferreira presentan las experiencias sobre la promoción del trabajo interdisciplinario en salud mental en la UNPAZ ( Universidad Nacional José C Paz). Mariana Dunayevich diserta sobre la articulación medicina comunidad en la Universidad de la Matanza y se refiere en particular al Proyecto La pandemia del azúcar llevado a cabo en ese marco


Assuntos
Educação Interprofissional , Acordos de Cooperação para a Formação de Recursos Humanos , Argentina , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública , Humanização da Assistência , Educação Médica , Educação em Enfermagem
3.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1983926, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical professionalism education intends to produce virtuous and humanistic healthcare professionals who demonstrate perseverance and professional integrity. However, today's medicine has embodied a mammoth transformation of medical practice towards sns and the digital realm. Such paradigm shift has challenged the medical professional's values, behaviors, and identities, and the distinct boundaries between personal and professional lives are blurred. This study aims to develop a framework for healthcare professionals coping with the challenges of medical professionalism in the digital realm. METHODS: We followed a systematic approach for the development of a framework about e-professionalism. Qualitative data was collected from a systematic review and a delphi study, while quantitative data was collected by administering a validated questionnaire social networking sites for medical education (snsme). Subsequently, categorization of the selected data and identifying concepts, deconstruction and further categorizing concepts (philosophical triangulation), integration of concepts (theoretical triangulation), and synthesis and resynthesis of concepts were performed. RESULTS: The initial process yielded six overlapping concepts from personal, professional, character (implicit) and characteristic (explicit) domains: environment, behavior, competence, virtues, identity, and mission. Further integration of data was done for the development of the medical education e-professionalism (meep) framework with a central concept of a commitment to mission. The mission showed deep connections with values (conformity, beneficence, universalism, and integrity), behaviours (communication, self-awareness, tolerance, power), and identity (reflection, conscientiousness, self-directed, self-actualization). The data demonstrated that all medical professionals require updated expertise in sns participation. CONCLUSION: The meep framework recognises a mission-based social contract by the medical community. This mission is largely driven by professional values, behaviors and identity. Adherence to digital standards, accountability, empathy, sensitivity, and commitment to society are essential elements of the meep framework.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Profissionalismo , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Rede Social
4.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(12): 1468-1472, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation-based medical education (HF-SBME) in teaching and learning respiratory clinical examination in medical students. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental pilot study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from November 2018 to January 2020.   Methodology: This study was conducted amongst third year medical students at the University. Students were assigned to intervention (IG) or control groups (CG). The IG underwent training for the respiratory clinical examination on a high-fidelity simulator mannequin, while the CG received the conventional practice session on standardised patients. Students were assessed on their respiratory clinical examination skills in five domains, and each domain was scored between 1-3 points (poor=1, fair=2, good=3) for a maximum composite score of 15. Feedback on use of SBME was also obtained from students. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in demographics for the CG (n=41) and IG (n=40). Composite score for control and intervention groups was not significantly different (CG: 12.9 ± 1.89 vs. IG: 12.0 ± 2.35; p=0.067). However, a greater percentage of CG students were rated good in all five domains, with the difference being statistically significant for ability to correlate findings with clinical history (CG: 87.8% vs. IG: 67.5%; p=0.028). CONCLUSION: Although medical students perceived HF-SBME as a beneficial teaching modality, it did not translate into improved performance. More research is required to determine the utility of HF-SBME in a developing country, like Pakistan. Key Words: Simulation, High-fidelity, Medical education, Developing country, Clinical skills.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Pneumologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770324

RESUMO

Deep learning (DL) algorithms have become an increasingly popular choice for image classification and segmentation tasks; however, their range of applications can be limited. Their limitation stems from them requiring ample data to achieve high performance and adequate generalizability. In the case of clinical imaging data, images are not always available in large quantities. This issue can be alleviated by using data augmentation (DA) techniques. The choice of DA is important because poor selection can possibly hinder the performance of a DL algorithm. We propose a DA policy search algorithm that offers an extended set of transformations that accommodate the variations in biomedical imaging datasets. The algorithm makes use of the efficient and high-dimensional optimizer Bi-Population Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (BIPOP-CMA-ES) and returns an optimal DA policy based on any input imaging dataset and a DL algorithm. Our proposed algorithm, Medical Augmentation (Med-Aug), can be implemented by other researchers in related medical DL applications to improve their model's performance. Furthermore, we present our found optimal DA policies for a variety of medical datasets and popular segmentation networks for other researchers to use in related tasks.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Educação Médica , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 574, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective social and behavioral sciences teaching in medical education requires integration with clinical experience, as well as collaboration between social and behavioral sciences experts and clinical faculty. However, teaching models for achieving this integration have not been adequately established, nor has the collaboration process been described. This study aims to propose a collaborative clinical case conference model to integrate social and behavioral sciences and clinical experience. Additionally, we describe how social and behavioral science experts and clinical faculty collaborate during the development of the teaching method. METHODS: A team of medical teachers and medical anthropologists planned for the development of a case conference based on action research methodology. The initial model was planned for a 3-h session, similar to a Clinicopathological Conference (CPC) structure. We evaluated each session based on field notes taken by medical anthropologists and post-session questionnaires that surveyed participants' reactions and points of improvement. Based on the evaluation, a reflective meeting was held to discuss revisions for the next trial. We incorporated the development process into undergraduate medical curricula in clinical years and in a postgraduate and continuous professional development session for residents and certified family physicians in Japan. We repeated the plan-act-observe-reflection process more than 15 times between 2015 and 2018. RESULTS: The development of the collaborative clinical case conference model is summarized in three phases: Quasi-CPC, Interactive, and Co-constructive with unique structures and underlying paradigms. The model successfully contributed to promoting the participants' recognition of the clinical significance of social and behavioral sciences. The case preparation entailed unique and significant learning of how social and behavioral sciences inform clinical practice. The model development process promoted the mutual understanding between clinical faculty and anthropologists, which might function as faculty development for teachers involved in social and behavioral sciences teaching in medical education. CONCLUSIONS: The application of appropriate conference models and awareness of their underlying paradigms according to educational situations promotes the integration of social and behavioral sciences with clinical medicine education. Faculty development regarding social and behavioral sciences in medical education should focus on collaboration with scholars with different paradigmatic orientations.


Assuntos
Ciências do Comportamento , Educação Médica , Currículo , Docentes , Docentes de Medicina , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ensino
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 557, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan has not been a major contributor to medical research, mainly because of the lack of learning opportunities to medical students. With the increase in online learning systems during COVID-19, research related skills can be taught to medical students via low-cost peer taught virtual research workshops. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive low-cost peer-taught virtual research workshops amongst medical students in Pakistan. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study assessed the effectiveness of five virtual research workshops (RWs) in improving core research skills. RWs for medical students from across Pakistan were conducted over Zoom by medical students (peer-teachers) at the Aga Khan University, Pakistan, with minimal associated costs. The content of the workshops included types of research, ethical approval and research protocols, data collection and analysis, manuscript writing, and improving networking skills for research. Improvement was assessed via pre-and post-quizzes for each RW, self-efficacy scores across 16 domains, and feedback forms. Minimum criteria for completion of the RW series was attending at least 4/5 RWs and filling the post-RW series feedback form. A 6-month post-RW series follow-up survey was also emailed to the participants. RESULTS: Four hundred medical students from 36 (/117; 30.8%) different medical colleges in Pakistan were enrolled in the RWs. However, only 307/400 (76.75%) medical students met the minimum requirement for completion of the RW series. 56.4% of the participants belonged to the pre-clinical years while the rest were currently to clinical years. The cohort demonstrated significant improvement in pre-and post-quiz scores for all 5 RWs (p <  0.001) with the greatest improvement in Data Collection and Analysis (+ 34.65%), and in self-efficacy scores across all domains (p <  0.001). 166/307 (54.1%) participants responded to the 6 months post-RWs follow-up survey. Compared to pre-RWs, Research involvement increased from 40.4 to 62.8% (p <  0.001) while proportion of participants with peer-reviewed publications increased from 8.4 to 15.8% (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Virtual RWs allow for a wide outreach while effectively improving research-related knowledge and skills, with minimal associated costs. In lower-middle-income countries, virtual RWs are a creative and cost-effective use of web-based technologies to facilitate medical students to contribute to the local and global healthcare research community.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Educação Médica/métodos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Paquistão
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 560, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to obtain feedback from medical students in Russia regarding their e-learning experience during COVID-19 Pandemic. METHODS: Thirteen thousand forty students from 46 Medical Schools in Russia completed an original evaluation form validated by 6 experts. Criterion and construct validity were determined in a pilot study (n = 46). The study design was based on the use of Google Forms. Participants used the Visual Analog Scale from 1 to 10 to assess the level of knowledge acquired. RESULTS: 95.31% of medical schools in Russia switched to e-learning during the Pandemic. 39.8% of the students stated that the time to prepare for the class has doubled. For 19.9% of them, it increased by one third, while 26.6% did not report any changes. 38,4% of the participants are satisfied with particular elements of e-learning, 27.5% like such a format, 22.9% do not like it, and 11.2% could not answer the question. The average scores for the knowledge assessment were 5.9 for the humanities, 6.1 for fundamental science, and 6.0 for clinical training. CONCLUSIONS: The most important findings are increased self-instruction time, insufficient knowledge gained and territorial and socio-economic inequalities within the country. Meanwhile, most students favor distance learning or its particular elements. Consequently, medical education leaders in Russia should consider the implementation of blended training in medicine taking into account specific regional factors, ensuring its effectiveness at all stages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Educação Médica/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Federação Russa
9.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(10): 1-3, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726936

RESUMO

Dwindling interest in pathology as a career is a notable concern among medical students and graduates. Proposed reasons include the lack of exposure during their medical education and the unfavourable view of the discipline. This article discusses the barriers for adoption of pathology as a career and strategies to overcome this.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1498-1503, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814574

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the current status of foreign dual-degree programs of Medical Doctor (MD) and Master of Public Health (MPH) and provide evidence-based decision-making reference for promoting the education of high-level applied public health talents in China. Methods: The list of involved institutions and information of foreign MD-MPH dual-degree programs was collected through literature retrieval, online information searching, and additional survey of key figures. We extracted the details of each project regarding professional fields, core competence, length of schooling, teaching and learning arrangement, internship eligibility, and graduation assessment. Python 3.8.0 was used for data cleaning, and the occurrence frequency of related items in each dimension was calculated. Results: A total of 99 MD-MPH programs from 104 foreign institutions were included, among which 97.1% of them were implemented in universities from the United States. The School of Public Health provided 42.4% (42/99) of the programs. Epidemiology was the major discipline set up among most programs, accounting for 12.0% (29/241) of all the specialties involved. Epidemiological research methods, health policy management and practice, and public health practice were the top 3 core competencies to be mastered. Of the 99 programs, 87 gave information on the length of the program, of which 74.7% (65/87) were five years, 6.9% (6/87) were four years, and 18.4% (16/87) included both 4-year and 5-year programs. Conclusions: The international MD-MPH programs were sophisticated and mainly organized by the School of Public Health alone or in conjunction with the School of Medicine. Epidemiology is the core course and competence objective, with a length of 4-5 years. Through learning experience from international MD-MPH programs and the Chinese unique medical development background, China should optimize its medical education system to develop a suitable talent training strategy for MD-MPH dual-degree programs in the new era.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Internato e Residência , Médicos , China , Currículo , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 586, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although simulation-based assessment (SBA) is being implemented in numerous medical education systems, it is still rarely used for undergraduate medical students in France. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) will be integrated into the national medical curriculum in 2021. In 2016 and 2017, we created a mannequin SBA to validate medical students' technical and psychometric skills during their emergency medicine and paediatric placements. The aim of our study was to determine medical students' perceptions of SBA. METHODS: We followed the grounded theory framework to conduct a qualitative study. A total of 215 students participated in either a paediatric or an emergency medicine simulation-based course with a final assessment. Among the 215 participants, we randomly selected forty students to constitute the focus groups. In the end, 30 students were interviewed. Data were coded and analysed by two independent investigators within the activity theory framework. RESULTS: The analyses found four consensual themes. First, the students perceived that success in the SBA provided them with self-confidence and willingness to participate in their hospital placements (1). They considered SBA to have high face validity (2), and they reported changes in their practice after its implementation (3). Nevertheless, they found that SBA did not help with their final high-stakes assessments (4). They discussed three other themes without reaching consensus: stress, equity, and the structure of SBA. After an analysis with activity theory, we found that students' perceptions of SBA underlined the contradictions between two systems of training: hospital and medical. We hypothesise that a specific role and place for SBA should be defined between these two activity systems. CONCLUSION: The students perceived that SBA would increase self-confidence in their hospital placements and emphasise the general skills required in their future professional environment. However, they also reported that the assessment method might be biased and stressful. Our results concerning a preimplementation mannequin SBA and OSCE could provide valuable insight for new programme design and aid in improving existing programmes. Indeed, SBA seems to have a role and place between hospital placements and medical schools.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Criança , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Percepção
16.
J Grad Med Educ ; 13(5): 682-690, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721798

RESUMO

Background: Although graduate medical education accrediting bodies recognize the importance of leadership for residents and encourage curricular development, it remains unclear which competencies are most important for early career physicians to possess. Objective: To generate a prioritized list of essential postgraduate leadership competencies to inform best practices for future curricular development. Methods: In 2019, we used a Delphi approach, which allows for generation of consensus, to survey internal medicine (IM) physicians in leadership roles with expertise in medical education and/or leadership programming within national professional societies. Panelists ranked a comprehensive list of established leadership competencies for health care professionals, across 3 established domains (character, emotional intelligence, and cognitive skills), on importance for categorical IM residents to perform by the end of residency. Respondents also identified number of content hours and pedagogical format best suited to teach each skill. Results: Sixteen and 14 panelists participated in Delphi rounds 1 and 2, respectively (88% response rate). Most were female (71%) and senior (64% in practice > 15 years, 57% full professor). All practiced in academic environments and all US regions were represented. The final consensus list included 12 "essential" and 9 "very important" leadership skills across all 3 leadership domains. Emotional intelligence and character domains were equally represented in the consensus list despite being disproportionately underweighted initially. Panelists most frequently recommended content delivery via mentorship/coaching, work-based reflection, and interactive discussion. Conclusions: This study's results suggest that postgraduate curricular interventions should emphasize emotional intelligence and character domains of leadership and prioritize coaching, discussion, and reflection for delivery.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Internato e Residência , Tutoria , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 567, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although formal participation in research is an integral and often mandatory component of clinical training programs, resulting productivity is highly variable. The objective of this review was to identify determinants of successful research performance among graduate medical education trainees. METHODS: A structured review of the published literature was performed by searching PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE from inception through to 7 April, 2021. Articles examining graduate medical education trainee research productivity evidenced by publications in peer-reviewed journals were included. RESULTS: Eighty-five articles were included of which most (66; 78%) were reported from the USA or Canada (10; 12%). A wide range of disciplines were represented with the most common being general surgery, internal medicine, orthopedic surgery, and pediatrics. Themes (number of reports) included trainee characteristics (n = 24), project characteristics (n = 8), mentoring/supervision (n = 11), and programmatic aspects (n = 57). Although variable results were observed, research productivity tended to be higher with prior research experience, later years of training, male gender, and pursuit of a postgraduate degree. Few project related aspects of success were identified. Trainee publication was associated with mentors with higher rank, publication productivity, and supportive academic environments. Training programs with organised programs/curricula including protection of time for research were associated with increased productivity as were provision of incentives or rewards but not mandatory requirements. CONCLUSION: This review identifies several trainee characteristics, project and mentor aspects, and programmatic aspects associated with increased productivity that may serve as a useful resource for trainees and graduate medical education training programs.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Tutoria , Criança , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Eficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 566, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic led to significant changes and disruptions to medical education worldwide. We evaluated medical student perceived views on training, their experiences and changes to teaching methods during the pandemic. METHODS: An online survey of medical students was conducted in the Autumn of 2020. An international network of collaborators facilitated participant recruitment. Students were surveyed on their perceived overall impact of Covid-19 on their training and several exposure variables. Univariate analyses and adjusted multivariable analysis were performed to determine strengths in associations. RESULTS: A total of 1604 eligible participants from 45 countries took part in this survey and 56.3% (n = 860) of these were female. The median age was 21 (Inter Quartile Range:21-23). Nearly half (49.6%, n = 796) of medical students were in their clinical years. The majority (n = 1356, 84.5%) were residents of a low or middle income country. A total of 1305 (81.4%) participants reported that the Covid-19 pandemic had an overall negative impact on their training. On adjusted analysis, being 21 or younger, females, those reporting a decline in conventional lectures and ward based teaching were more likely to report an overall negative impact on their training (p ≤ 0.001). However, an increase in clinical responsibilities was associated with lower odds of participants reporting a negative impact on training (p < 0.001). The participant's resident nation economy and stage of training were associated with some of the participant training experiences surveyed (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: An international cohort of medical students reported an overall significant negative impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on their undergraduate training. The efficacy of novel virtual methods of teaching to supplement traditional teaching methods warrants further research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27402, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problem-based learning (PBL) was widely adopted in medical cell biology education for Chinese student; however, there was no systematic analysis to prove PBL was much more effective than lecture-based learning (LBL). Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of PBL on cell biology curriculum compared with LBL. METHOD: We systematically searched the publications related to PBL teaching approach in cell biology curriculum for medical education from databases until to February 2021. Pooled standard mean differences (SMDs) and risk ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effectiveness of PBL and the satisfaction of students to PBL compared to LBL in meta-analysis. The heterogeneity of the included studies was assessed by statistical I2 of heterogeneity. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were performed to analyze the source of heterogeneity. Funnel plots and Egger tests were performed to assess publication bias. RESULT: After initial searching and selection, 9 studies were included for meta-analysis. All of these 9 studies were in high quality. The SMDs (95% confidence intervals) of total examination scores and comprehensive examination scores between PBL and LBL curriculum in cell biology teaching was calculated to be 0.89 (0.52, 1.26) and 0.53 (0.29, 0.78). Meanwhile, the risk ratios of the satisfaction of PBL vs LBL were calculated to be 1.18 (0.96, 1.46). However, there was a heterogeneity among the pooled SMDs of 10 studies with I2 = 89.7%, P < .001. The factors including the different teachers, the similar or same examination paper and over 100 student numbers among PBL and LBL groups raised the heterogeneity in the pooled SMDs. There is no publication bias in these 10 publications after Egger and Begg test. CONCLUSION: The result indicated PBL was better than LBL in improvement of examination scores and comprehensive examination scores in cell biology curriculum to some extent. However, the satisfaction of students to PBL and LBL had no difference. The factors, including the different teachers, the similar or same examination papers and over 100 student numbers, affected the effectiveness of PBL and raised the heterogeneity of the pooled SMDs.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Currículo , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos
20.
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