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1.
World Neurosurg ; 165: e664-e667, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe the consequences of a stroke in an adult mummy from ancient Egypt including the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge this is the oldest hemiparalysis to be published in the scientific literature. METHODS: The mummy, from the 25th Dynasty (c. 747-656 b.c.), was found during excavation of the tomb chapel of Hery (TT 12) and Baqi, of the early 18th Dynasty (c. 1550-1292 b.c.). Seventeen mummified bodies were found in a small corridor connecting the 2 tombs. The mummy labeled Individual 6833 was studied macroscopically and radiologically and was unique in its positioning, the presence of a crutch, and the use of sticks as supports. RESULTS: The body belonged to a woman, between 25 and 40 years of age. The type of mummification was of a high level, with excerebration and evisceration carefully performed. CONCLUSIONS: The woman suffered a stroke late in life, with left hemiparalysis after bone growth was completed, and she lived with the results for several years.


Assuntos
Múmias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Egito , Antigo Egito , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Int J Paleopathol ; 38: 64-75, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper critically reviews the history of research concerning ancient Egyptian interventive dental therapy between the Old Kingdom - Graeco-Roman Period (c. 2686 BCE-AD 323), concentrating on the published osteological evidence. MATERIALS: Eight osteological examples reportedly exhibiting markers of interventive dental therapy, including a mandible presenting purported evidence for a drilling procedure for the relief of an abscess; four dental bridges; a maxilla with multiple teeth extracted; and two carious lesion fillings. METHODS: Previous claims are critically reviewed using a qualitative research method involving collecting and critiquing published data, both primary evidence and relevant secondary literature. CONCLUSIONS: Without further scientific analysis, only four specimens can currently be plausibly attributed to ancient Egyptian interventive dental therapy including the Tura el-Asmant Bridge, the enucleation described for a Graeco-Roman child, and two carious lesion fillings identified in the mummified individuals known as the 'Redpath Mummy' (RM2718) and 'Sekhem' (AIG3343). SIGNIFICANCE: Several enduring historiographical and museological problems within the discourse are identified, revising our understanding of the nature and scope of ancient Egyptian interventive dental therapy based on currently known osteological evidence. LIMITATIONS: This review relies on the published documentation for each osteological example, namely images, which in several cases are poor quality. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: There is significant opportunity for further scientific analysis of the osteological evidence discussed. In each case, specific potential methods to improve our understanding and interpretation have been identified.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Múmias , Criança , Antigo Egito , Cabeça , Humanos
3.
Int J Paleopathol ; 38: 95-106, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study combines caries and antemortem tooth loss rates with possible dental interventions and medical texts to evaluate whether dentistry was practiced in Pharaonic Egypt. MATERIALS: The study includes 32 mandibles and 44 maxillae consisting of 485 teeth and 1052 tooth sockets. It includes 14 Egyptian texts on dental treatments. METHODS: Human remains were observed macroscopically for carious lesions and antemortem tooth loss. Egyptian texts were translated from photographs. RESULTS: 11 % of teeth were lost antemortem and 42 % of maxillae and mandibles had one or more teeth lost antemortem. One possible dental extraction is presented. Carious lesions were present in 10 % of teeth and 39 % of mandibles and maxillae. One example of a possible dental filling is presented. Two treatments from Papyrus Ebers discuss treatments to fill a tooth. CONCLUSION: AMTL and carious lesions were common in this sample, especially in older adults. The possible presence of a dental extraction and a dental filling in combination with textual references to dental fillings indicate dental interventions were sometimes used to manage dental health in Egypt. SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the earliest evidence in Egypt for a dental filling in human remains. It also offers an interdisciplinary analysis of dental treatments that indicates, contrary to earlier publications, that dental interventions were practiced in Egypt during the New Kingdom. LIMITATIONS: The poor dental health of many Egyptian populations makes it impossible to assess how frequently Egyptians used dental interventions. FURTHER RESEARCH: Future analysis of the dental filling could help determine its composition.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Perda de Dente , Idoso , Restos Mortais , Odontologia , Antigo Egito , Humanos
4.
Nature ; 604(7906): 414, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361943
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5932, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396488

RESUMO

Kohl, a dark eye cosmetic, is a well-known part of Ancient Egyptian culture. Modern chemical analyses of kohls have largely found lead-based inorganic constituents, whereas earlier studies argued for a much broader range of constituents. Furthermore, organic materials in kohls remain severely understudied. This raises questions regarding the true diversity of materials and recipes used to produce kohls. We analysed the contents of 11 kohl containers from the Petrie Museum collection in London. The objects selected cover a broad range of times and locations in Egypt. Our multi-analytical approach allowed us to characterise both inorganic and organic components. Our data show that inorganic ingredients in kohl recipes are not only lead-based but also manganese- and silicon-based. Our analyses also revealed that organic ingredients derived from both plant and animal sources were commonly used in kohl recipes and sometimes even represent the main constituent. All these findings point towards more varied recipes than initially thought and significantly shift our understanding of Ancient Egyptian kohls.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Animais , Cosméticos/química , Egito , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Londres
6.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268632

RESUMO

The study of animal mummification in ancient Egypt has recently received increasing attention from a number of modern scholars given the fact that this part of ancient Egyptian funerary and religious history is a practice yet to be fully understood. In this study, nine samples of embalming matter were extracted from six gazelle mummies from the archaeological site of Kom Mereh (modern village of Komir), dated to the Roman period of dominance in ancient Egypt. All samples were analyzed for the presence of inorganic and organic matter applying a multi-analytical approach based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, in order to identify more specific compounds such as bitumen and beeswax in studied balms, each sample was subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE) and saponification separation process, respectively. The results of this study revealed that the majority of the analyzed embalming substances sampled from six gazelle mummies from Kom Mereh were complex mixtures of plant oils, animal fats, conifer resin, and beeswax. In this regard, this study was able to report a practice until now unmentioned in the scientific literature, namely, the use of cruciferous oil, derived from seeds of Brassicaceae plants, in animal mummification.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Brassicaceae , Múmias , Animais , Egito , Antigo Egito , Embalsamamento/métodos , História Antiga , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(8): 1938-1946, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837472

RESUMO

In ancient Egypt, a unique technique for removing the brain was invented as part of the mummification practice and refined over the centuries. This usually involved piercing the anterior skull base through a nasal passage to remove the brain remnants through that perforation. From 2010 to 2018, an interdisciplinary team of the Universities of Basel and Zurich investigated tomb no. 40 (KV40) in the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt. Archaeological findings indicate a first burial phase during the mid-18th Dynasty (ca. 1400-1350 BCE) and a second in the 22nd to 25th Dynasty (approx. 900-700 BCE). Repeated looting since ancient times severely damaged and commingled the human remains of the two burial phases. The detailed examination of the skulls showed evidence of different transnasal craniotomy practices. This study aims to provide a systematic presentation of the evidence for different excerebration techniques found in the mummy heads, skulls, and skull fragments from KV40, reflecting the long period of occupancy of this tomb by individuals of different social classes.


Assuntos
Múmias , Arqueologia , Antigo Egito , Cabeça , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias/história , Nasofaringe , Base do Crânio
8.
Spine Deform ; 10(1): 197-199, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499331

RESUMO

In Paleopathology, total lack of a vertebral body is a rare finding, mostly due to infectious diseases or tumors. We report the case of an adult male from the necropolis next to "Temple of the Millions of Years" of Thutmose III dated to the Late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period (2345-2055 BCE). He showed a fracture of T12, more than 50%, associated with the complete disappearance of the body of L1 and bilateral transverse process. Infection and tumor involvement were ruled out due to the morphology of the spinal segment. The most likely diagnosis was complete body agenesis. Congenital kyphosis related to vertebral agenesis has been described as a possibility in paleopathology, but it had not been reported until now.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Cifose , Adulto , Antigo Egito , Humanos , Cifose/complicações , Masculino , Paleopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Homo ; 72(4): 307-316, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549241

RESUMO

Commingled human remains were discovered in TT110 (Djehuty tomb; Dynasty XVIII), located in El Sheikh Abd el Qurna, Luxor, Egypt. The tomb had been reused over a long period of time (1570-332 BCE). In a small area distinct from the comingled remains, an incomplete skull and two os coxae fragments, consistent with that of a young adult female, between 25 and 40 years of age were found. A detailed macroscopic and radiologic analysis was performed at the tomb site. The three bone fragments showed abundant small to medium sized osteolytic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of late stage metastatic carcinoma or, less likely, multiple myeloma. The age and sex of the individual favors the possibility of breast cancer as the primary making this one of the oldest cases of metastases reported from ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Múmias , Restos Mortais , Egito , Antigo Egito , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(8): 1285-1290, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Ebers papyrus (1,550 BC) is one of the most complete medical papyri of Ancient Egypt. It contains a few paragraphs about otology, about both treatments of the external ear and ideas concerning the ears and deafness. Over the years, many scholarly interpretations of these paragraphs have been made by learned Egyptologists and academic historians of otology. They do not always agree and have often been critical of each other. This historical review compares and contrasts all the main published academic translations of the Ebers papyrus by looking at the original document and their interpretations. METHODOLOGY: Historical research, based on the various translations of the Ebers papyrus. RESULTS: Eight complete translations of the whole Ebers manuscript have been analyzed. Four of these contain transliteration of the hieroglyphics. The hieroglyph associated with the ear is a pictogram of a cow's ear. It has two possible interpretations. It can mean the ear itself but it can also be used to denote either deafness or hearing. CONCLUSION: Insights into the early Egyptians perception of the ear may be obtained, but study of primary references shows that there is scant evidence of knowledge of anatomical details in the Ebers papyrus.


Assuntos
Audição , Animais , Bovinos , Antigo Egito
12.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 137-145, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To correlate atherosclerosis (Ath) and osteoarthritis (OA) in mummies from ancient Egypt. MATERIALS: Whole-body CT examinations of 23 mummies from the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin, Germany, and 22 mummies from the Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy. METHODS: Ath was assessed in five anatomical regions by means of preserved arterial calcifications. OA was assessed using the Kellgren and Lawrence (1957) classification. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between Ath and total OA. A significant association was found for Ath and the upper limb group for OA grade >1 and for Ath and the lower limb group, consisting mainly of the hip and knee, for OA grade >2 OA. CONCLUSIONS: The association of Ath and advanced OA of the hip and knee is comparable in prevalence to those reported in recent clinical studies, despite the low life expectancy and the different environment and lifestyle of the ancient Egyptians. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to correlate findings of Ath and OA in ancient Egypt statistically. The diseases of Ath and OA are common ailments with enormous and increasing impacts on public health. LIMITATIONS: The large number of cardiovascular diseases was indicated only by arterial calcifications that resisted the post-mortem changes of the mummification process. Also, the assessed OA was on radiological OA. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Genomic studies of ancient Egyptian mummies may reveal genetic risk factors for Ath and OA that could be shared in ancient and modern populations.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Múmias , Osteoartrite , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Antigo Egito , Humanos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249377, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826664

RESUMO

The Falcon Necropolis at Quesna in the Nile Delta of Egypt is considered to have been founded by the priest Djedhor, the Saviour, of Athribis (Tell Atrib in modern Benha) at the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period. Recent excavations here have revealed abundant avian remains from mummies dedicated to the ancient Egyptian god Horus Khenty-Khety. Among the few mammal remains from the site are five species of shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), including some that we identified as Güldenstaedt's White-toothed Shrew, Crocidura gueldenstaedtii (Pallas, 1811). Discovery of this species at Quesna increases the number of shrews recovered from ancient Egyptian archaeological sites to eight species. Crocidura gueldenstaedtii no longer occurs in the Nile Delta, and its presence in a diverse shrew fauna at Quesna that includes one other extirpated species, Crocidura fulvastra (Sundevall, 1843), supports the hypothesis of a moister regional environment 2000-3000 years ago. Inadvertently preserved local faunas, such as that from Quesna, can provide valuable information about ancient environments and subsequent turnover in faunal communities.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Musaranhos , Animais , Antigo Egito
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(18)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903252

RESUMO

Black organic coatings and ritual deposits on ancient Egyptian coffins and cartonnage cases are important and understudied sources of evidence about the rituals of funerary practice. Sometimes, the coatings were applied extensively over the surface of the coffin, resembling paint; in other cases, they were poured over the mummy case or wrapped body, presumably as part of a funerary ritual. For this study, multiple samples of black coatings and ritual liquids were taken from 20 Egyptian funerary items dating to a specific time period (c. 943 to 716 BC). Multiple sampling from each object enabled several comparisons to be made: the variability of the black coating within one application, the variability between two applications on one object, and the variability from object to object. All samples were analyzed for lipids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 51 samples from across the 20 items were further analyzed for the presence of bitumen using solid phase separation followed by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. The majority of the black substances were found to comprise a complex mixture of organic materials, including bitumen from the Dead Sea, conifer resin, and Pistacia resin, providing evidence for a continuation in international trade between Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean after the Late Bronze Age. Both the coating and the anointing liquid are very similar to mummification balms, pointing to parallels with Egyptian embalming rituals and raising questions about the practical aspects of Egyptian funerary practice.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Múmias/história , Resinas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Antigo Egito , Funerárias/história , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , História Antiga , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/química , Pistacia/química , Resinas Vegetais/química
15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534798

RESUMO

CT scans of an unnamed mummified adult from Egypt, now in the Chau Chak Wing Museum, University of Sydney (NMR.27.3), reveal it to be fully sheathed in a mud shell or carapace, exposing a mortuary treatment not previously documented in the Egyptian archaeological record. The carapace was placed between layers of linen wrappings thus it was not externally visible. Radiocarbon dating of textile samples provide a range of c.1370-1113 cal BC (95.4% probability), with a median date of 1207 cal BC. When assessed against mummification techniques of the era, the individual is placed in the late 19th-20th Dynasty, at the later end of this date range. Multi-proxy analysis including µ-XRF and Raman spectroscopy of carapace fragments from the head area revealed it to consist of three layers, comprising a thin base layer of mud, coated with a white calcite-based pigment and a red-painted surface of mixed composition. Whether the whole surface of the carapace was painted red is unknown. The carapace was a form of ancient conservation applied subsequent to post-mortem damage to the body, intended to reconfigure the body and enable continued existence of the deceased in the afterlife. The carapace can also be interpreted as a form of elite emulation imitating resin shells found within the wrappings of royal bodies from this period.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Múmias , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos
16.
Talanta ; 225: 121949, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592704

RESUMO

In the context where lengthy protocols are used to extract and to characterize each substance from mummification balms using techniques such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, this paper presents the evaluation of the efficiency of an original method to characterize mummification balms using the SIMPLISMA algorithm in infrared spectroscopy. This tool is a pure variable approach corresponding to the selection of calibration variables. This developed approach was combined with chemometric treatment (principal component analysis) to interpret the 47 Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of human mummies' balms from Ancient Egypt. This treatment gave 6 pure spectra and their corresponding extracted concentration profiles. The first pure spectrum corresponded to residual species, and the second to the identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules which have a pyrolytic origin. The fourth pure spectrum corresponded to proteins which were characterized, and could be considered as markers of good conservation of individuals. The fifth pure spectrum characterized polysaccharides. Finally, two pure spectra showed the same natural substance, namely fat, which, on the one hand, was unaltered and, on the other hand, was degraded fatty matter. This fast, simple and non-destructive approach allowed the composition of each balm to be studied and their state of conservation/degradation to be characterized. This approach enabled the presence of proteins, polysaccharides and fatty matter or beeswax in different states of conservation/alteration in the studied balms to be characterized.


Assuntos
Múmias , Antigo Egito , Embalsamamento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113115, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891812

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient Egyptian texts only offer glimpses into their conceptual understandings of the inner-body and illness manifestation. Explanations of how prescribed materia medica were believed to work are rare and obscure, often resulting in modern approximations for ancient terminology such as 'ra-ib'-an ancient Egyptian classification predominantly translated as 'stomach'-leading to misunderstandings of historical texts, and therefore their use of pharmacology. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the ra-ib and the explanatory models of illness from the Egyptian perspective, and to explore the link between these and the prescribed selection of materia medica. To then compare the conceptual mechanics of these treatment strategies with those of another non-Western tradition-namely Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)-to provide further insight into potential conceptual frameworks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case study of a unit of Ancient Egyptian texts focusing on the ra-ib. Totalling 34 prescriptions, the first stage lexicographically analysed the texts using cognitive linguistic and translation theories to produce our new understanding. This enabled our comparison of the mechanics of materia medica usage within these texts with those found in TCM outlined by the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China 2015 for the relevant ingredients. RESULTS: the study demonstrated that-rather than denoting the organ 'stomach'-ra-ib instead constitutes a system running from the mouth, downward to the anus. This is best translated as 'inner thoroughfare', and changes the way in which we attempt to understand potential motivations in the selection of ingredients. By exploring common themes in the use of eleven securely translated ingredients from the Egyptian corpus and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China-representing a modern traditional system which understands the body via a series of interconnected systems-we were able to highlight certain themes which might be 'universal' to system-based traditions; this provided new insights into the Egyptian motivations for treatment selection. CONCLUSIONS: Having gained the ancient view of the body and illness, cultural comparisons are important for providing further potential insights and clarifications of a discontinued historical healing tradition. The new understanding of the ra-ib from our study greatly changes the way in which we understand the dynamics of Egyptian ethnopharmacological source material from this period.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Materia Medica/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Antigo Egito , Etnofarmacologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Materia Medica/farmacologia , Farmacopeias como Assunto
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 217-219, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227516

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reminded us of past epidemics. Pharaonic Egypt has often been associated with epidemics and disasters through the 10 plagues in the Bible. The aim of this study was to examine which epidemics and serious diseases can be effectively proven for Ancient Egypt through mummies and historical source texts. The biblical plagues cannot be proven because there is no agreement on the dating of the Exodus, or the Exodus is a conglomeration of memories of different events. Other diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis have been proven for Ancient Egypt, while polio and smallpox are still uncertain. There are indications of a bubonic disease from the time of the middle 18th Dynasty, but its exact nature cannot be determined from source texts or mummies, as they are too vague.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Peste/epidemiologia , Bíblia , Antigo Egito/epidemiologia , História do Século XVIII , Humanos
19.
Orv Hetil ; 161(51): 2162-2170, 2020 12 20.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346745

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Egy traumás eredetu sérüléseket mutató, ókori egyiptomi koponya vizsgálatát ismertetjük a Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum gyujteményébol. A jelen cikkben egy mumifikált fej elemzését emeltük ki, ennek átfogó vizsgálatát és részletes eredményeit közöljük. Célkituzés: Célunk egy multidiszciplináris vizsgálatsorozat megvalósítása volt, amelyen keresztül képet kapunk az egykor Egyiptom területén élt emberek egészségi állapotáról. Módszer: A kutatás során a múmiákon szerves és szervetlen kémiai analíziseket, komputertomográfiai és röntgenvizsgálatot, szénizotópos kormeghatározást végeztünk, és felhasználtunk biológiai antropológiai módszereket is. Eredmények: A koponya igazoltan az ókori Egyiptomból származik, és mivel sebei gyógyulásnak indultak, véleményünk szerint az egyén túlélte a fejét ért behatást. Ez meglepo eredménynek minosül, hiszen ilyen jellegu életveszélyes traumás sérüléseket csak akkor lehet nagy valószínuséggel túlélni, ha megfelelo orvosi ellátás áll rendelkezésre. Következtetés: Úgy gondoljuk, ebben az esetben is ez történt, bizonyítva, hogy az egyiptomi orvosi ismeretek valóban igen fejlettek és az orvoslás magas színvonalú volt. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(51): 2162-2170. INTRODUCTION: We are presenting the analysis of an ancient Egyptian mummified head from the collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum, which shows special traumatic injuries. The examination of this artefact nicely demonstrates the procedures we usually apply in our research on the Egyptian mummies of the Museum. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to implement a series of multidisciplinary studies to get a picture of the health condition of these people once living in the territory of Egypt. METHOD: When researching the mummies, we performed organic and non-organic chemical analyses, computed tomography, X-ray examinations, radiocarbon isotope dating as well as biological anthropological methods. RESULTS: In this article, we report on the comprehensive examination of the skull and the detailed results we got. The skull is proven to originate from ancient Egypt. CONCLUSION: As the wounds began to heal, we can conclude that the individual survived the impact on his head. This is quite surprising as such life-threatening traumatic injuries can only be survived if adequate medical care is available. We believe this was the case also here, i. e., ancient Egyptian medicine was highly developed and of really high standards. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(51): 2162-2170.


Assuntos
Múmias , Ferimentos e Lesões , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos , Hungria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Anal Chem ; 92(23): 15445-15453, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197168

RESUMO

The black matter employed in the funeral context by ancient Egyptians is a complex mixture of plant-based compounds with variable amounts of bitumen. Asphaltene, the most resistant component of bitumen, contains vanadyl porphyrins and carbonaceous radicals, which can be used as paramagnetic probes to investigate embalming materials without sample preparation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at the X-band, combining in-phase and out-of-phase detection schemes, provides new information in a nondestructive way about the presence, the origin, and the evolution of bitumen in these complex materials. It is found that the relative EPR intensity of radicals and vanadyl porphyrins is sensitive to the origin of the bitumen. The presence of nonporphyrinic vanadyl complexes in historical samples is likely due to the complexation of VO2+ ions by carboxylic functions at the interface between bitumen and other biological components of the embalming matter. The absence of such oxygenated vanadyl complex in natural bitumen and in one case of historical human mummy acquired by a museum in the 19th century reveals a possible, nondocumented, ancient restoration of this mummy by pure bitumen. The linear correlation between in-phase and out-of-phase EPR intensities of radicals and vanadyl porphyrins in balms and in natural bitumen reveals a nanostructuration of radicals and vanadyl porphyrin complexes, which was not affected by the preparation of the balm. This points to the remarkable chemical stability of paramagnetic probes in historical bitumen in ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Embalsamamento , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Múmias , Vanadatos/química , Antigo Egito
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