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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1348: 273-309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807425

RESUMO

Cutis laxa (CL) syndromes are a large and heterogeneous group of rare connective tissue disorders that share loose redundant skin as a hallmark clinical feature, which reflects dermal elastic fiber fragmentation. Both acquired and congenital-Mendelian- forms exist. Acquired forms are progressive and often preceded by inflammatory triggers in the skin, but may show systemic elastolysis. Mendelian forms are often pleiotropic in nature and classified upon systemic manifestations and mode of inheritance. Though impaired elastogenesis is a common denominator in all Mendelian forms of CL, the underlying gene defects are diverse and affect structural components of the elastic fiber or impair metabolic pathways interfering with cellular trafficking, proline synthesis, or mitochondrial functioning. In this chapter we provide a detailed overview of the clinical and molecular characteristics of the different cutis laxa types and review the latest insights on elastic fiber assembly and homeostasis from both human and animal studies.


Assuntos
Cútis Laxa , Animais , Cútis Laxa/genética , Tecido Elástico , Homeostase , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Síndrome
2.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(183): 20210594, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637644

RESUMO

Inflation of hollow elastic structures can become unstable and exhibit a runaway phenomenon if the tension in their walls does not rise rapidly enough with increasing volume. Biological systems avoid such inflation instability for reasons that remain poorly understood. This is best exemplified by the lung, which inflates over its functional volume range without instability. The goal of this study was to determine how the constituents of lung parenchyma determine tissue stresses that protect alveoli from instability-related overdistension during inflation. We present an analytical model of a thick-walled alveolus composed of wavy elastic fibres, and investigate its pressure-volume behaviour under large deformations. Using second-harmonic generation imaging, we found that collagen waviness follows a beta distribution. Using this distribution to fit human pressure-volume curves, we estimated collagen and elastin effective stiffnesses to be 1247 kPa and 18.3 kPa, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that linearly elastic but wavy collagen fibres are sufficient to achieve inflation stability within the physiological pressure range if the alveolar thickness-to-radius ratio is greater than 0.05. Our model thus identifies the constraints on alveolar geometry and collagen waviness required for inflation stability and provides a multiscale link between alveolar pressure and stresses on fibres in healthy and diseased lungs.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Alvéolos Pulmonares , Tecido Elástico , Elastina , Humanos
3.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 53: 101965, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543823

RESUMO

Sudden death due to anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is far less common among young children in the absence of exercise stress. This report describes the case of a 2-year-old boy with a lower respiratory tract infection who suffered sudden cardiac arrest in his bed at home. The autopsy revealed that the left coronary artery (LCA) originated from the right sinus of Valsalva with an acute angle takeoff and traveled between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk (an interarterial course). Upon histological examination, the LCA, before reaching its major branches, was located adjacent to the outside of the aortic wall without an intramural passage, and the arterial wall was composed almost exclusively of elastic fibers without media containing smooth muscle cells throughout the entire length of the abnormal running. Screening tests for respiratory virus infection detected enterovirus in the lung tissue. In association with an acute angle takeoff and interarterial course, the wall structure with highly abundant elastic fibers that are more flexible tissues among blood vessel components might suggest their vulnerability to compression during the great vessels' systolic expansion in the sympathetic activation induced by the viral infection, leading to fatal myocardial ischemia without physical exertion.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Esforço Físico , Aorta , Pré-Escolar , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Tecido Elástico , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17827, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497312

RESUMO

Because of their long lifespan, matrix proteins of the vascular wall, such as elastin, are subjected to molecular aging characterized by non-enzymatic post-translational modifications, like carbamylation which results from the binding of cyanate (mainly derived from the dissociation of urea) to protein amino groups. While several studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased plasma concentrations of carbamylated proteins and the development of cardiovascular diseases, molecular mechanisms explaining the involvement of protein carbamylation in these pathological contexts remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of this work was to determine whether vascular elastic fibers could be carbamylated, and if so, what impact this phenomenon would have on the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Our experiments showed that vascular elastin was carbamylated in vivo. Fiber morphology was unchanged after in vitro carbamylation, as well as its sensitivity to elastase degradation. In mice fed with cyanate-supplemented water in order to increase protein carbamylation within the aortic wall, an increased stiffness in elastic fibers was evidenced by atomic force microscopy, whereas no fragmentation of elastic fiber was observed. In addition, this increased stiffness was also associated with an increase in aortic pulse wave velocity in ApoE-/- mice. These results provide evidence for the carbamylation of elastic fibers which results in an increase in their stiffness at the molecular level. These alterations of vessel wall mechanical properties may contribute to aortic stiffness, suggesting a new role for carbamylation in cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Elastina/metabolismo , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Cianatos/farmacologia , Tecido Elástico/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Carbamilação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5603, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556652

RESUMO

Although the first dissection of the human ovary dates back to the 17th century, the biophysical characteristics of the ovarian cell microenvironment are still poorly understood. However, this information is vital to deciphering cellular processes such as proliferation, morphology and differentiation, as well as pathologies like tumor progression, as demonstrated in other biological tissues. Here, we provide the first readout of human ovarian fiber morphology, interstitial and perifollicular fiber orientation, pore geometry, topography and surface roughness, and elastic and viscoelastic properties. By determining differences between healthy prepubertal, reproductive-age, and menopausal ovarian tissue, we unravel and elucidate a unique biophysical phenotype of reproductive-age tissue, bridging biophysics and female fertility. While these data enable to design of more biomimetic scaffolds for the tissue-engineered ovary, our analysis pipeline is applicable for the characterization of other organs in physiological or pathological states to reveal their biophysical markers or design their bioinspired analogs.


Assuntos
Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bioengenharia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tecido Elástico/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Elasticidade , Matriz Extracelular/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reserva Ovariana , Ovário/citologia , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biophys J ; 120(20): 4623-4634, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339635

RESUMO

Elastin fibers assemble in the extracellular matrix from the precursor protein tropoelastin and provide the flexibility and spontaneous recoil required for arterial function. Unlike many proteins, a structure-function mechanism for elastin has been elusive. We have performed detailed NMR relaxation studies of the dynamics of the minielastins 24x' and 20x' using solution NMR, and of purified bovine elastin fibers in the presence and absence of mechanical stress using solid state NMR. The low sequence complexity of the minielastins enables us to determine average dynamical timescales and degrees of local ordering in the cross-link and hydrophobic modules separately using NMR relaxation by taking advantage of their residue-specific resolution. We find an extremely high degree of disorder, with order parameters for the entirety of the hydrophobic domains near zero, resembling that of simple chemical polymers and less than the order parameters that have been observed in other intrinsically disordered proteins. We find that average backbone order parameters in natural, purified elastin fibers are comparable to those found in 24x' and 20x' in solution. The difference in dynamics, compared with the minielastins, is that backbone correlation times are significantly slowed in purified elastin. Moreover, when elastin is mechanically stretched, the high chain disorder in purified elastin is retained, showing that any change in local ordering is below that detectable in our experiment. Combined with our previous finding of a 10-fold increase in the ordering of water when fully hydrated elastin fibers are stretched by 50%, these results support the hypothesis that stretch induced solvent ordering, i.e., the hydrophobic effect, is a key player in the elastic recoil of elastin as opposed to configurational entropy loss.


Assuntos
Tecido Elástico , Elastina , Animais , Bovinos , Matriz Extracelular , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tropoelastina
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14569, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267266

RESUMO

The histological distinction between acute and chronic liver injury is a challenging aspect of liver histopathology. It is traditionally based on the interpretation of morphological changes to the extracellular matrix (ECM) at sites of hepatocyte loss using histochemical stains. Our aim was to investigate whether immunohistochemistry and multiplexing for collagen type (I & III) and elastic fibres and a modified Victoria blue method could be helpful. We studied 43 livers removed at transplantation for acute liver failure (ALF, 20 cases) or cirrhosis (23) plus 8 normal controls. In ALF the periportal ECM was normal in 2 cases, contained mainly collagen I associated with a ductular reaction in 6 cases, and delicate elastic strands in 11 cases. Periportal deposition of mainly collagen I and mature elastic fibres was observed in cirrhosis. In ALF the perisinusoidal ECM was intact in 4 cases, collapsed or condensed but of normal composition (predominantly collagen III) in 2 cases, and collapsed and condensed containing mostly collagen I in 17 cases (7 including delicate immature elastic strands). In contrast, bridging fibrous septa of cirrhosis contained abundant collagen 1 and bundles of mature elastin. We propose the use of a scale and the use of immunohistochemistry and multiplexing in additional to histochemical stains to characterise the ECM changes in acute and chronic liver injury.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Tecido Elástico/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Adulto , Elastina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(2): 206-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272011

RESUMO

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-like papillary dermal elastolysis (PDE) is an acquired, rare, elastic tissue disorder that presents with multiple asymptomatic, nonfollicular yellowish or normochromic papules, coalescing into symmetrical cobblestone plaques, with a predilection for the neck of postmenopausal women. The condition develops slowly, in months to years, and, although clinically similar to PXE, it is devoid of any systemic implication, being only of esthetic concern. The etiology is unknown, but it is speculated that there is a multifactorial pathogenesis, with the contribution of intrinsic aging, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, abnormal elastogenesis, and genetic factors. The diagnosis is confirmed by histopathology, with special stains specific for elastic fibers revealing loss of elastic plexus in the papillary dermis and the presence of melanophages. Its prevalence is probably underestimated, which reinforces the importance of better clinical and histologic identification to distinguish it from inherited PXE and to avoid extensive systemic investigations and unnecessary medical visits for the patient.


Assuntos
Pseudoxantoma Elástico , Derme , Tecido Elástico , Feminino , Humanos , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/diagnóstico , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/genética , Doenças Raras , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253912, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197550

RESUMO

Protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ) has a caspase-3 recognition sequence in its structure, suggesting its involvement in apoptosis. In addition, PKCδ was recently reported to function as an anti-cancer factor. The generation of a PKCδ knockout mouse model indicated that PKCδ plays a role in B cell homeostasis. However, the Pkcrd gene, which is regulated through complex transcription, produces multiple proteins via alternative splicing. Since gene mutations can result in the loss of function of molecular species required for each tissue, in the present study, conditional PKCδ knockout mice lacking PKCδI, II, IV, V, VI, and VII were generated to enable tissue-specific deletion of PKCδ using a suitable Cre mouse. We generated PKCδ-null mice that lacked whole-body expression of PKCδ. PKCδ+/- parental mice gave birth to only 3.4% PKCδ-/- offsprings that deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratio (χ2(2) = 101.7, P < 0.001). Examination of mice on embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) showed the proportion of PKCδ-/- mice implanted in the uterus in accordance with Mendelian rules; however, approximately 70% of the fetuses did not survive at E11.5. PKCδ-/- mice that survived until adulthood showed enlarged spleens, with some having cardiac and pulmonary abnormalities. Our findings suggest that the lack of PKCδ may have harmful effects on fetal development, and heart and lung functions after birth. Furthermore, our study provides a reference for future studies on PKCδ deficient mice that would elucidate the effects of the multiple protein variants in mice and decipher the roles of PKCδ in various diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Elástico/patologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/deficiência , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tecido Elástico/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/genética , Hiperplasia/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética
10.
Clin Lab ; 67(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three combination staining approaches, each composed of pancytokeratin immunostaining with an elastic-fiber staining method of choice, in diagnosing visceral pleural invasion (VPI) in lung adenocarcinoma patients. METHODS: Tissue samples were resected from 23 lung adenocarcinoma patients, for whom neither hematoxylin and eosin nor Gomori's aldehyde-fuchsin (GAF) staining accurately detected the presence of VPI. Three slices were prepared from each sample and examined by immunohistochemical staining of cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and one of the following methods for elastic-fiber staining, including Victoria blue (VB), GAF, or Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin (WRF). The staining scores and slider view time were compared among the three staining protocols with tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura as the diagnostic criterion for VPI. RESULTS: Conclusive diagnoses were achieved for all 23 tissue samples stained with VB, 18 with GAF, and 17 with WRF. VB staining was the fastest of the three methods, and produced significantly brighter, clearer color, and better contrast between the elastic fibers and tumor cells, thus facilitating slide review. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of VB elastic fiber and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 staining is a user-friendly, fast, and highly effective method that produces bright stains, favorable color contrast against the background, and high tumor localization accuracy. Hence, this method can improve the accuracy of VPI diagnosis and the corresponding staging of lung adenocarcinoma. We recommend the combined use of VB and pancytokeratin immunostaining when VPI is suspected.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Tecido Elástico/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pleura/patologia , Prognóstico , Coloração e Rotulagem
11.
Acta Biomater ; 134: 422-434, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332103

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized histopathologically by compromised elastic fiber integrity, lost smooth muscle cells or their function, and remodeled collagen. We used a recently introduced mouse model of AAAs that combines enzymatic degradation of elastic fibers and blocking of lysyl oxidase, and thus matrix cross-linking, to study progressive dilatation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, including development of intraluminal thrombus. We quantified changes in biomaterial properties and biomechanical functionality within the aneurysmal segment as a function of time of enlargement and degree of thrombosis. Towards this end, we combined multi-modality imaging with state-of-the art biomechanical testing and histology to quantify regional heterogeneities for the first time and we used a computational model of arterial growth and remodeling to test multiple hypotheses, suggested by the data, regarding the degree of lost elastin, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, and rates of collagen turnover. We found that standard histopathological findings can be misleading, while combining advanced experimental and computational methods revealed that glycosaminoglycan accumulation is pathologic, not adaptive, and that heightened collagen deposition is ineffective if not cross-linked. In conclusion, loss of elastic fiber integrity can be a strong initiator of aortic aneurysms, but it is the rate and effectiveness of fibrillar collagen remodeling that dictates enlargement. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Precise mechanisms by which abdominal aortic aneurysms enlarge remain unclear, but a recent elastase plus ß-aminopropionitrile mouse model provides new insight into disease progression. As in the human condition, the aortic degeneration and adverse remodeling are highly heterogeneous in this model. Our multi-modality experiments quantify and contrast the heterogeneities in geometry and biomaterial properties, and our computational modeling shows that standard histopathology can be misleading. Neither accumulating glycosaminoglycans nor frustrated collagen synthesis slow disease progression, thus highlighting the importance of stimulating adaptive collagen remodeling to limit lesion enlargement.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aminopropionitrilo/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Abdominal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tecido Elástico , Elastina , Camundongos , Elastase Pancreática
12.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(5): 458-466, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of tropoelastin gene and aortic dissection (AD) via identifying SNPs in the tropoelastin gene, and to detect the level of tropoelastin mRNA, elastin and elastic fibers. METHODS: The specimens of the AD group (n=96) and the control group (n=95), including their blood and aortic wall tissues, were collected. DNA was extracted from the blood samples in the 2 groups, and the SNPs in the tropoelastin gene were examined by the MassARRAY genotyping technique, and their haplotypes were constructed by PHASE software. The expression of tropoelastin mRNA and elastin in the aortic tunica media was respectively detected by real-time PCR or Western blotting. Elastin Van Gieson (EVG) staining was used to observe the shape of aortic tunica media and clarify the distribution of elastic fibers. The frequency of genotypes and haplotypes of SNP loci in the tropoelastin gene was analyzed and compared between the 2 groups, and the expression of tropoelastin mRNA, elastin and elastic fibers were also compared. RESULTS: Seven SNP loci of the tropoelastin gene were detected in these samples. Among them, 5 SNP loci were polymorphic. The frequency of 3 SNP loci[rs2071307 (G/A), rs34945509 (C/T) and rs17855988 (G/C)] was significantly different between the AD group and the control group (all P<0.05). There were significantly different in the haplotypes frequency of rs2071307 (G/A), rs34945509 (C/T) and rs17855988 (G/C) between the 2 groups (all P<0.01). Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the relative expression of tropoelastin mRNA and elastin in the aortic tunica media in the AD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). EVG staining showed that the aortic tunica media was torn, the morphology and structure of elastic fibers were broken, cracked, and disordered in the AD group, while the aortic tunica media was in complete structure and well arrangement.The elastic fibers were presented closely and orderly in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphisms of rs2071307 (G/A), rs34945509 (C/T), and rs17855988(G/C) in the tropoelastin gene may eventually affect the synthesis of elastic fibers and they may play an important role in the occurrence of AD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Tropoelastina , Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Tecido Elástico , Elastina/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tropoelastina/genética
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(2)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080027

RESUMO

Chronic venous disease (CVD) is the response to a series of hemodynamic changes in the venous system and the onset of this disease is often triggered by pregnancy. Placental tissue is particularly sensitive to the characteristic changes which occurs in venous hypertension. In this regard, changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM), that occur to adapt to this situation, are fundamental to controlling elastogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the changes that occur in the mRNA and protein expression level of proteins related to elastogenesis in the placental villi of women diagnosed with CVD, in the third trimester of pregnancy. An observational, analytical and prospective cohort study was conducted, in which the placenta from 62 women with CVD were compared with that in placenta from 52 women without a diagnosis of CVD. Gene and protein expression levels were analyzed using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease in the gene and protein expression level of EGFL7 in the placental villi of women with CVD. By contrast, significant increases in the gene and protein expression level of ECM­related proteins, such as tropoelastin, fibulin 4, fibrillin 1 and members of the lysyl oxidase family (LOX and LOXL­1) were also found in the placental villi of women with CVD. To the best of our knowledge, the results from the present study showed for the first time that CVD during pregnancy was associated with changes in the mRNA and protein expression level in essential components of the EGFL7­modulated elastogenesis process in placental villi.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Vilosidades Coriônicas/metabolismo , Família de Proteínas EGF/genética , Família de Proteínas EGF/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/genética , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Adulto , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Vilosidades Coriônicas/patologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrilina-1/genética , Fibrilina-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/genética , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo , Tropoelastina/genética , Tropoelastina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836007

RESUMO

Stromal elastosis is related to good prognosis in breast cancer and fibulin-2 helps to stabilize elastic fibers in basement membranes. Here, we examined the level of perivascular fibulin-2 expression in relation to elastosis content, vascular invasion, molecular subtypes, tumour detection mode, and patient prognosis in breast cancer. We performed a population based retrospective study of invasive breast cancers from the Norwegian Breast Screening Program (Vestfold County, 2004-2009) including 200 screen-detected and 82 interval cancers. Perivascular fibulin-2 staining was semi-quantitatively graded based on immunohistochemistry (1-3) and dichotomized as high expression (grade 2-3) and low expression (grade 1). Elastosis content was graded on a 4-tiered scale and dichotomized as high (score 3) and low (score 0-2) expression, whereas lymphatic (LVI) and blood vessel invasion (BVI) were recorded as absent or present by immunohistochemistry. High perivascular fibulin-2 expression was strongly related to stromal elastosis (p<0.001), and inversely associated with BVI and LVI (p<0.001 for both). High fibulin-2 was associated with luminal breast cancer subgroups (p<0.001) and inversely with interval cancers compared with screen-detected tumours (p<0.001). By univariate analysis, low perivascular fibulin-2 was associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (p = 0.002) and disease specific survival (p = 0.019). Low perivascular fibulin-2 expression was strongly related to vascular invasion, low stromal elastosis, non-luminal breast cancer subtypes, interval presentation, and adverse prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Adv Mater ; 33(23): e2006582, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929771

RESUMO

Light guiding and manipulation in photonics have become ubiquitous in events ranging from everyday communications to complex robotics and nanomedicine. The speed and sensitivity of light-matter interactions offer unprecedented advantages in biomedical optics, data transmission, photomedicine, and detection of multi-scale phenomena. Recently, hydrogels have emerged as a promising candidate for interfacing photonics and bioengineering by combining their light-guiding properties with live tissue compatibility in optical, chemical, physiological, and mechanical dimensions. Herein, the latest progress over hydrogel photonics and its applications in guidance and manipulation of light is reviewed. Physics of guiding light through hydrogels and living tissues, and existing technical challenges in translating these tools into biomedical settings are discussed. A comprehensive and thorough overview of materials, fabrication protocols, and design architectures used in hydrogel photonics is provided. Finally, recent examples of applying structures such as hydrogel optical fibers, living photonic constructs, and their use as light-driven hydrogel robots, photomedicine tools, and organ-on-a-chip models are described. By providing a critical and selective evaluation of the field's status, this work sets a foundation for the next generation of hydrogel photonic research.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/metabolismo , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Tecido Elástico/química , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Propriedades de Superfície , Engenharia Tecidual
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