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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 96, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596840

RESUMO

To investigate differences in biomechanical properties focusing on stiffness parameters between normal, treatment-naïve primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and treated POAG eyes. Retrospective case-control study, This study included 46 treatment-naïve POAG eyes, 46 POAG eyes treated with prostaglandin analogues, and 49 normal eyes used as controls; matched in terms of age and axial length. Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Fifteen biomechanical parameters were measured with the Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (Corvis ST), including biomechanical glaucoma factor (BGF) and two stiffness parameters of 'SP A1' and 'stress-strain index (SSI)', which were compared among the three groups. Additionally, the area under the curve (AUC) values of the receiver-operating curve to discriminate control and treatment-naïve POAG eyes were calculated for BGF and CH. Treatment-naïve POAG eyes had higher 'SSI' than normal eyes even after controlling for IOP (p < 0.05, Tukey-Cramer test). Treated POAG eyes had significantly lower CRF, and higher BGF than treatment-naïve POAG eyes. There were also significant differences in CH or SP A1 among the three groups. BGF and CH had similar AUC values (0.61 and 0.59). Treatment-naïve POAG eyes had stiffer corneas compared to normal eyes, which seemed to result from the material/structure of the cornea rather than higher intraocular pressure. Antiglaucoma topical medication alters biomechanical properties measured with Corvis ST. These results are important for understanding the pathogenesis and improving the management of POAG.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Humanos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intraocular , Tonometria Ocular , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Córnea , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Elasticidade
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 506, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627354

RESUMO

Robotic assistance in minimally invasive surgery offers numerous advantages for both patient and surgeon. However, the lack of force feedback in robotic surgery is a major limitation, and accurately estimating tool-tissue interaction forces remains a challenge. Image-based force estimation offers a promising solution without the need to integrate sensors into surgical tools. In this indirect approach, interaction forces are derived from the observed deformation, with learning-based methods improving accuracy and real-time capability. However, the relationship between deformation and force is determined by the stiffness of the tissue. Consequently, both deformation and local tissue properties must be observed for an approach applicable to heterogeneous tissue. In this work, we use optical coherence tomography, which can combine the detection of tissue deformation with shear wave elastography in a single modality. We present a multi-input deep learning network for processing of local elasticity estimates and volumetric image data. Our results demonstrate that accounting for elastic properties is critical for accurate image-based force estimation across different tissue types and properties. Joint processing of local elasticity information yields the best performance throughout our phantom study. Furthermore, we test our approach on soft tissue samples that were not present during training and show that generalization to other tissue properties is possible.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Humanos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Elasticidade , Imagens de Fantasmas , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
3.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(198): 20220598, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628528

RESUMO

The superiority of many natural surfaces at resisting soft, sticky biofoulants have inspired the integration of dynamic topography with mechanical instability to promote self-cleaning artificial surfaces. The physics behind this novel mechanism is currently limited to elastic biofoulants where surface energy, bending stiffness and topographical wavelength are key factors. However, the viscoelastic nature of many biofoulants causes a complex interplay between these factors with time-dependent characteristics such as material softening and loading rate. Here, we enrich the current elastic theory of topographic de-adhesion using analytical and finite-element models to elucidate the nonlinear, time-dependent interaction of three physical, dimensionless parameters: biofoulant's stiffness reduction, the product of relaxation time and loading rate, and the critical strain for short-term elastic de-adhesion. Theoretical predictions, in good agreement with numerical simulations, provide insight into tuning these control parameters to optimize surface renewal via topographic de-adhesion in the viscoelastic regime.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Elasticidade , Viscosidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Estresse Mecânico
4.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 138: 105638, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the liver is important, but the complex tissue behavior outside the linear viscoelastic regime has impeded their characterization, particularly in vivo. Combining static compression with magnetic resonance (MR) elastography has the potential to be a useful imaging method for assessing large deformation mechanical properties of soft tissues in vivo. However, this remains to be verified. Therefore this study aims first to determine whether MR elastography can measure the nonlinear mechanical properties of ex vivo bovine liver tissue under varying levels of uniform and focal preloads (up to 30%), and second to compare MR elastography-derived complex shear modulus with standard rheological measurements. METHOD: Nine fresh bovine livers were collected from a local abattoir, and experiments were conducted within 12hr of death. Two cubic samples (∼10 × 10 × 10 cm3) were dissected from each liver and imaged using MR elastography (60 Hz) under 4 levels of uniform and focal preload (1, 10, 20, and 30% of sample width) to investigate the relationship between MR elastography-derived complex shear modulus (G∗) and the maximum principal Right Cauchy Green Strain (C11). Three tissue samples from each of the same 9 livers underwent oscillatory rheometry under the same 4 preloads (1, 10, 20, and 30% strain). MR elastography-derived complex shear modulus (G∗) from the uniform preload was validated against rheometry by fitting the frequency dependence of G∗ with a power-law and extrapolating rheometry-derived G∗ to 60 Hz. RESULTS: MR elastography-derived G∗ increased with increasing compressive large deformation strain, and followed a power-law curve (G∗ = 1.73 × C11-0.38, R2 = 0.96). Similarly, rheometry-derived G∗ at 1 Hz, increasing from 0.66 ± 1.03 kPa (1% strain) to 1.84 ± 1.65 kPa (30% strain, RM one-way ANOVA, P < 0.001), and the frequency dependence of G∗ followed a power-law with the exponent decreasing from 0.13 to 0.06 with increasing preload. MR elastography-derived G∗ was 1.4-3.1 times higher than the extrapolated rheometry-derived G∗ at 60 Hz, but the strain dependence was consistent between rheometry and MR elastography measurements. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that MR elastography can detect changes in ex vivo bovine liver complex shear modulus due to either uniform or focal preload and therefore can be a useful technique to characterize nonlinear viscoelastic properties of soft tissue, provided that strains applied to the tissue can be quantified. Although MR elastography could reliably characterize the strain dependence of the ex vivo bovine liver, MR elastography overestimated the complex shear modulus of the tissue compared to rheological measurements, particularly at lower preload (<10%). That is likely to be important in clinical hepatic MR elastography diagnosis studies if preload is not carefully considered. A limitation is the absence of overlapping frequency between rheometry and MR elastography for formal validation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Elasticidade , Viscosidade , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Reologia
5.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 138: 105661, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630754

RESUMO

Protein-based hydrogels have been extensively studied in the field of biomaterials given their ability to mimic living tissues and their special resemblance to the extracellular matrix. Despite this, the methods used for the control of mechanical properties of hydrogels are very limited, focusing mainly on their elasticity, with an often unrealistic characterization of mechanical properties such as extensibility, stiffness and viscoelasticity. Being able to control these properties is essential for the development of new biomaterials, since it has been demonstrated that mechanical properties affect cell behaviour and biological processes. To better understand the mechanical behaviour of these biopolymers, a computational model is here developed to characterize the mechanical behaviour of two different protein-based hydrogels. Strain-stress tests and stress-relaxation tests are evaluated computationally and compared to the results obtained experimentally in a previous work. To achieve this goal the Finite Element Method is used, combining hyperelastic and viscoelastic models. Different hyperelastic constitutive models (Mooney-Rivlin, Neo-Hookean, first and third order Ogden, and Yeoh) are proposed to estimate the mechanical properties of the protein-based hydrogels by least-square fitting of the in-vitro uniaxial test results. Among these models, the first order Ogden model with a viscoelastic model defined in Prony parameters better reproduces the strain-stress response and the change of stiffness with strain observed in the in-vitro tests.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Hidrogéis , Estresse Mecânico , Simulação por Computador , Elasticidade , Modelos Biológicos
6.
Phys Med Biol ; 68(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595243

RESUMO

Objective.High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can induce thermal and mechanical mechanisms in a well-defined focal volume of tissues. Histotripsy is a form of mechanical HIFU that can initiate and interact with bubble(s) to cause shock scattering and perhaps atomization within the bubble(s) to fractionate most soft tissues. Ultrasonic atomization, or the ejection of fine droplets from an acoustically-excited liquid exposed to air, has been shown to erode planar soft tissue surfaces, which has led to theories that atomization is a mechanism in histotripsy. However, healthy tendons show resistance to conventional histotripsy; pre-treatment of tendons with heat increases susceptibility to histotripsy fractionation. This study investigates ultrasonic atomization and erosion from planar healthy and tendinopathic tendon surfaces as we evaluate HIFU parameters for histotripsy in tendons.Approach.Forty-sixex vivobovine tendon-air interfaces were pre-conditioned to surface wetting, heat baths of 20 °C (unaltered), 37 °C (body temperature), and 58 °C (collagen degradation), collagenase soaks for 1, 3, 5, and 24 h (mimicking tendinopathic tendons), and phosphate buffered saline soaks for 24 h. Ejected fragments, histology, and gross analysis determined erosion success. Tissue displacement from the HIFU radiation force was monitored with high-speed photography, and tissue relaxation was pixel-tracked and fit to a Kelvin-Voigt model to evaluate changes in viscoelastic properties.Main results.Results showed that atomization produced holes in 24 h collagenase tendons and surface pitting in 58 °C, 3 h, and 5 h collagenase tendons. Increased mound heights and viscoelastic constants in pre-heated (to 58 °C) and collagenase-soaking (3+ hours) tendinopathic models caused a decrease in elasticity and/or increase in viscosity, increasing susceptibility to erosion by HIFU atomization.Significance.Therefore, tendons with chronic tendinopathies may be more susceptible than healthy tendons to histotripsy fractionation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassom , Elasticidade , Temperatura Alta
7.
Phys Med Biol ; 68(3)2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595333

RESUMO

Objective.The aim of the paper is to propose an all-in-one method based on magnetic resonance-supersonic shear wave imaging (MR-SSI) and proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) to monitor high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablations.Approach.Mechanical properties have been shown to be related to tissue damage induced by thermal ablations. Monitoring elasticity in addition to temperature changes may help in ensuring the efficacy and the accuracy of HIFU therapies. For this purpose, an MR-SSI method has been developed where the ultrasonic transducer is used for both mechanical wave generation and thermal ablation. Transient quasi-planar shear waves are generated using the acoustic radiation force, and their propagation is monitored in motion-sensitized phase MR images. Using a single-shot gradient-echo echo-planar-imaging sequence, MR images can be acquired at a sufficiently high temporal resolution to provide an update of PRFS thermometry and MR-SSI elastography maps in real time.Main results.The proposed method was first validated on a calibrated elasticity phantom, in which both the possibility to detect inclusions with different stiffness and repeatability were demonstrated. The standard deviation between the 8 performed measurements was 2% on the background of the phantom and 11%, at most, on the inclusions. A second experiment consisted in performing a HIFU heating in a gelatin phantom. The temperature increase was estimated to be 9 °C and the shear modulus was found to decrease from 2.9 to 1.8 kPa, reflecting the gel softening around the HIFU focus, whereas it remained steady in non-heated areas.Significance.The proposed MR-SSI technique allows monitoring HIFU ablations using thermometry and elastography simultaneously, without the need for an additional external mechanical exciter such as those used in MR elastography.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Termometria , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Termometria/métodos , Elasticidade , Ultrassom , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos
8.
J Biomech ; 146: 111411, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509025

RESUMO

Mechanical properties of biological tissues are of key importance for proper function and in situ methods for mechanical characterization are sought after in the context of both medical diagnosis as well as understanding of pathophysiological processes. Shear wave elastography (SWE) and accompanying physical modelling methods provide valid estimates of stiffness in quasi-linear viscoelastic, isotropic tissue but suffer from limitations in assessing non-linear viscoelastic or anisotropic material, such as tendon. Indeed, mathematical modelling predicts the longitudinal shear wave velocity to be unaffected by the tensile but rather the shear viscoelasticity. Here, we employ a heuristic experimental testing approach to the problem to assess the most important potential confounders, namely tendon mass density and diameter, and to investigate associations between tendon tensile viscoelasticity with shear wave descriptors. Small oscillatory testing of animal flexor tendons at two baseline stress levels over a large frequency range comprehensively characterized tensile viscoelastic behavior. A broad set of shear wave descriptors was retrieved on the unloaded tendon based on high frame-rate plane wave ultrasound after applying an acoustic deformation impulse. Tensile modulus and strain energy dissipation increased logarithmically and linearly, respectively, with the frequency of the applied strain. Shear wave descriptors were mostly unaffected by tendon diameter but were highly sensitive to tendon mass density. Shear wave group and phase velocity showed no association with tensile elasticity or strain rate-stiffening but did show an association with tensile strain energy dissipation. The longitudinal shear wave velocity may not characterize tensile elasticity but rather tensile viscous properties of transversely isotropic collagenous tissues.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Tendões , Animais , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Elasticidade , Ultrassonografia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Ondas Ultrassônicas
9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 138: 105618, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566662

RESUMO

Numerical simulations are a valuable tool to understand which processes during mechanical stimulations of hydrogels for cartilage replacement influence the behavior of chondrocytes and contribute to the success or failure of these materials as implants. Such simulations critically rely on the correct prediction of the material response through appropriate material models and corresponding parameters. In this study, we identify hyper-viscoelastic material parameters for numerical simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics® v. 5.6 for human articular cartilage and two replacement materials, the commercially available ChondroFillerliquid and oxidized alginate gelatin (ADA-GEL) hydrogels. We incorporate the realistic experimental boundary conditions into an inverse parameter identification scheme based on data from multiple loading modes simultaneously, including cyclic compression-tension and stress relaxation experiments. We provide individual parameter sets for the unconditioned and conditioned responses and discuss how viscoelastic effects are related to the materials' microstructure. ADA-GEL and ChondroFillerliquid exhibit faster stress relaxation than cartilage with lower relaxation time constants, while cartilage has the largest viscoelastic stress contribution. The elastic response predominates in ADA-GEL and ChondroFillerliquid, while the viscoelastic response predominates in cartilage. These results will help to simulate mechanical stimulations, support the development of suitable materials with distinct mechanical properties in the future and provide parameters and insight into the time-dependent material behavior of human articular cartilage.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Humanos , Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Elasticidade , Viscosidade , Condrócitos , Hidrogéis/química , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Micron ; 164: 103384, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375358

RESUMO

When testing soft biological samples using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation method, the force-indentation data is usually fitted to the equations provided by Hertzian mechanics. Nevertheless, a significant question remains up to date; is this a correct approach from a mathematical perspective? Biological materials are heterogeneous, so 'what do we calculate' when using a classic fitting approach? In this paper, conclusive answers to the abovementioned questions are provided. In addition, a new tool for the nanomechanical characterization of biological samples, the depth-dependent mechanical properties maps, is introduced.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Elasticidade
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 462-471, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521712

RESUMO

Conductive hydrogels have attracted increasing attention for applications in wearable and flexible strain sensors. However, owing to their relatively weak strength, poor elasticity, and lack of anti-freezing ability, their applications have been limited. Herein, we present a skin-mimicking strategy to fabricate cellulose-enhanced, strong, elastic, highly conductive, and anti-freezing hydrogels. Self-assembly of cellulose to fabricate a cellulose skeleton is essential for realizing a skin-mimicking design. Furthermore, two methods, in situ polymerization and solvent replacement, were compared and investigated to incorporate conductive and anti-freezing components into hydrogels. Consequently, when the same ratio of glycerol and lithium chloride was used, the anti-freezing hydrogels prepared by in situ polymerization showed relatively higher strength (1.0 MPa), while the solvent-replaced hydrogels exhibited higher elastic recovery properties (94.6 %) and conductivity (4.5 S/m). In addition, their potential as strain sensors for monitoring human behavior was analyzed. Both hydrogels produced reliable signals and exhibited high sensitivity. This study provides a new horizon for the fabrication of strain sensors that can be applied in various environments.


Assuntos
Celulose , Hidrogéis , Humanos , Elasticidade , Glicerol , Condutividade Elétrica , Solventes
12.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(4)2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301266

RESUMO

This study examines the theoretical foundations for the damage mechanics of biological tissues in relation to viscoelasticity. Its primary goal is to provide a mechanistic understanding of well-known experimental observations in biomechanics, which show that the ultimate tensile strength of viscoelastic biological tissues typically increases with increasing strain rate. The basic premise of this framework is that tissue damage occurs when strong bonds, such as covalent bonds in the solid matrix of a biological tissue, break in response to loading. This type of failure is described as elastic damage, under the idealizing assumption that strong bonds behave elastically. Viscoelasticity arises from three types of dissipative mechanisms: (1) Friction between molecules of the same species, which is represented by the tissue viscosity. (2) Friction between fluid and solid constituents of a porous medium, which is represented by the tissue hydraulic permeability. (3) Dissipative reactions arising from weak bonds breaking in response to loading, and reforming in a stress-free state, such as hydrogen bonds and other weak electrostatic bonds. When a viscoelastic tissue is subjected to loading, some of that load may be temporarily supported by those frictional and weak bond forces, reducing the amount of load supported by elastic strong bonds and thus, the extent of elastic damage sustained by those bonds. This protective effect depends on the characteristic time response of viscoelastic mechanisms in relation to the loading history. This study formalizes these concepts by presenting general equations that can model the damage mechanics of viscoelastic tissues.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Viscosidade , Elasticidade , Resistência à Tração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Porosidade , Estresse Mecânico
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2214757120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574680

RESUMO

Cell membrane-coated nanoparticles are emerging as a new type of promising nanomaterials for immune evasion and targeted delivery. An underlying premise is that the unique biological functions of natural cell membranes can be conferred on the inherent physiochemical properties of nanoparticles by coating them with a cell membrane. However, the extent to which the membrane protein properties are preserved on these nanoparticles and the consequent bio-nano interactions are largely unexplored. Here, we synthesized two mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) membrane-coated silica nanoparticles (MCSNs), which have similar sizes but distinctly different stiffness values (MPa and GPa). Unexpectedly, a much lower macrophage uptake, but much higher cancer cell uptake, was found with the soft MCSNs compared with the stiff MCSNs. Intriguingly, we discovered that the soft MCSNs enabled the forming of a more protein-rich membrane coating and that coating had a high content of the MSC chemokine CXCR4 and MSC surface marker CD90. This led to the soft MCSNs enhancing cancer cell uptake mediated by the CD90/integrin receptor-mediated pathway and CXCR4/SDF-1 pathways. These findings provide a major step forward in our fundamental understanding of how the combination of nanoparticle elasticity and membrane coating may be used to facilitate bio-nano interactions and pave the way forward in the development of more effective cancer nanomedicines.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Elasticidade
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2600: 3-23, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587087

RESUMO

Quantifying cell mechanical properties is of interest to better understand both physiological and pathological cellular processes. Cell mechanical properties are quantified by a finite set of parameters such as the effective Young's modulus or the effective viscosity. These parameters can be extracted by applying controlled forces to a cell and by quantifying the resulting deformation of the cell.Microindentation consists in pressing a cell with a calibrated spring terminated by a rigid tip and by measuring the resulting indentation of the cell. We have developed a microindentation technique that uses a flexible micropipette as a spring. The micropipette has a microbead at its tip, and this spherical geometry allows using analytical models to extract cell mechanical properties from microindentation experiments. We use another micropipette to hold the cell to be indented, which makes this technique well suited to study nonadherent cells, but we also describe how to use this technique on adherent cells.


Assuntos
Elasticidade , Módulo de Elasticidade , Estresse Mecânico
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2600: 25-43, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587088

RESUMO

Mechanobiology focuses on how physical forces and the mechanical properties of cells and whole tissues affect their function. The mechanical properties of cells are of particular interest to developmental biology and stem cell differentiation, lymphocyte activation and phagocytic action in phagocytes, and development of malignant tumors and metastases. These properties can be measured on whole tissue and cell culture. Advances in instrument sensitivity and design, as well as improved techniques and scientific know-how achieved over the past few decades, allow researchers to study the mechanical properties of single cells and even at the subcellular level. Particularly, nanoindentation measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM) mechanically probes single cells and even allows mapping of these traits. This chapter discusses these measurements from the experimental design to the analysis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Análise Espectral , Elasticidade
16.
Biomater Sci ; 11(2): 567-582, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484321

RESUMO

The synergetic biological effect of scaffolds with biomimetic properties including the ECM micro-architecture and intestinal macro-mechanical properties on intestinal models in vitro remains unclear. Here, we investigate the profitable role of biomimetic scaffolds on 3D intestinal epithelium models. Gelatin/bacterial cellulose nanofiber composite scaffolds crosslinked by the Maillard reaction are tuned to mimic the chemical component, nanofibrous network, and crypt architecture of intestinal ECM collagen and the stability and mechanical properties of intestinal tissue. In particular, scaffolds with comparable elasticity and viscoelasticity of intestinal tissue possess the highest biocompatibility and best cell proliferation and differentiation ability, which makes the intestinal epithelium models closest to their counterpart intestinal tissues. The constructed duodenal epithelium models and colon epithelium models are utilized to assess the immunobiotics-host interactions, and both of them can sensitively respond to foreign microorganisms, but the secretion levels of cytokines are intestinal cell specific. The results demonstrate that probiotics alleviate the inflammation and cell apoptosis induced by Escherichia coli, indicating that probiotics can protect the intestinal epithelium from damage by inhibiting the adhesion and invasion of E. coli to intestinal cells. The designed biomimetic scaffolds can serve as powerful tools to construct in vitro intestinal epithelium models, providing a convenient platform to screen intestinal anti-inflammatory components and even to assess other physiological functions of the intestine.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Tecidos Suporte/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Biomimética , Escherichia coli , Mucosa Intestinal , Elasticidade
17.
Langmuir ; 39(1): 563-569, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547264

RESUMO

We analyze the translocation process of a spherical vesicle, made of a membrane and incompressible fluid, through a hole smaller than the vesicle size, driven by pressure difference ΔP. We show that such a vesicle shows certain universal characteristics, which are independent of the details of the membrane elasticity: (i) there is a critical pressure ΔPc below which no translocation occurs; (ii) ΔPc decreases to zero as the vesicle radius R0 approaches the hole radius a, satisfying the scaling relation ΔPc ∼ (R0 - a)3/2; and (iii) the translocation time τ diverges as ΔP decreases to ΔPc, satisfying the scaling relation τ ∼ (ΔP - ΔPc)-1/2.


Assuntos
Elasticidade , Pressão
18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 138: 105614, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stomach-related disorders impose medical challenges and are associated with significant social and economic costs. The field of biomechanics is promising for understanding tissue behavior and for development of medical treatments and surgical interventions. In gastroenterology, animal models are often used when studies on humans are not possible. Often large animal models with similar anatomical characteristics (size and shape) are preferred. However, it is uncertain if stomachs from humans and large animals have similar mechanical properties. The aim of the present study is to characterize and compare hyper- and viscoelastic properties of porcine and human gastric tissue using tension and radial compression tests. METHODS: Hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties were quantified from quasi-static ramp tests and stress relaxation tests. Tension in two directions and radial compression experiments were done on intact stomach wall samples as well as on separated mucosa and muscularis layer samples from porcine and human fundus, corpus and antrum. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Similar hyper- and viscoelastic constitutive models can be used to describe porcine and human gastric tissue. In total, 19 constitutive parameters were compared and results showed significant variations between species. For example, for intact circumferential samples from antrum, the stiffness (a) and relaxation (τ1) were greater for human samples than for porcine samples (p < 0.0001). The constitutive parameters were condition-, region- and layer-dependent and no distinct pattern hereof between species was found. This indicates that different parameters must be used to describe the specific situation. The present work provides insight into porcine and human gastric radial compressive and tensile hyper- and viscoelastic properties, strengthening the inter-species relation of the biomechanical properties. Constitutive relations were established that may aid development and translation of diagnostic or therapeutic devices with computational models.


Assuntos
Estômago , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Elasticidade , Estresse Mecânico , Modelos Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(20): 204501, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462008

RESUMO

Hydrodynamic flows in compliant channels are of great interest in physiology and microfluidics. In these situations, elastohydrodynamic coupling leads to (i) a nonlinear pressure-vs-flow-rate relation, strongly affecting the hydraulic resistance; and (ii), because of the compliance-enabled volume storage, a finite relaxation time under a stepwise change in pressure. This latter effect remains relatively unexplored, even while the timescale can vary over a decade in typical situations. In this study we provide time-resolved measurements of the relaxation dynamics for thin and soft, rectangular microfluidic channels. We describe our data using a perturbative lubrication approximation of the Stokes equation coupled to linear elasticity, while taking into account the effect of compliance and resistance of the entrance. The modeling allows us to completely describe all of the experimental results. Our Letter is relevant for any microfluidic scenario wherein a time-dependent driving is applied and provides a first step in the dynamical description of compliant channel networks.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Elasticidade , Hidrodinâmica , Microfluídica
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 1037, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wire cerclages play a fundamental role in fracture fixation. With an increasing variety of designs being commercially available the question arises which cerclage should be used. This study investigates the biomechanical properties of metallic and non-metallic cerclages and their different application-types. Furthermore, potential influence of muscular interposition between bone and cerclage constructs was tested. METHODS: Samples of the following four different cerclage types were tested on 3D printed models of human humeri as well as on human cadaveric humeri with and without muscular interposition: Titanium Cable Cerclage (CC), Steel Wire Cerclage (SWC), Suture Tape (ST), Suture Tape Cerclage (STC) with both single- (sSTC) and double-loop application (dSTC). A preinstalled self-locking mechanism secured by the provided tensioner in the STCs being the main difference to the STs. Cyclic loading was performed to 1 kN and then linearly to a maximum load of 3 kN. Statistical analysis was performed using either one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn test depending on normalization of data (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Whilst all cerclage options could withstand high loads during failure testing, only within the CC and dSTC group, all samples reached the maximal testing load of 3000 N without any failure. The SWC reached 2977.5 ± 63.6 N, the ST 1970.8 ± 145.9 N, and the sSTC 1617.0 ± 341.6 N on average. Neither muscular interposition nor bone quality showed to have a negative influence on the biomechanical properties of the cerclage constructs, presenting no significant differences. CONCLUSION: All tested cerclage constructs produce reliable stability but differ in their resulting compression forces, in a simplified fracture model. Therefore, non-metallic cerclage alternatives can provide similar stability with less compression and stiffness to metallic cable constructs, but they may offer several advantages and could possibly provide future benefits. Especially, by offering more elasticity without losing overall stability, may offer a biologic benefit. Installing any cerclage constructs should be performed carefully, especially if poor bone quality is present, as the tightening process leads to high forces on the construct.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Humanos , Suturas , Análise de Variância , Elasticidade , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia
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