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1.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943878

RESUMO

Subtype-specific human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are promising tools, e.g., to assess the potential of drugs to cause chronotropic effects (nodal hiPSC-CMs), atrial fibrillation (atrial hiPSC-CMs), or ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular hiPSC-CMs). We used single-cell patch-clamp reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to clarify the composition of the iCell cardiomyocyte population (Fujifilm Cellular Dynamics, Madison, WI, USA) and to compare it with atrial and ventricular Pluricytes (Ncardia, Charleroi, Belgium) and primary human atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. The comparison of beating and non-beating iCell cardiomyocytes did not support the presence of true nodal, atrial, and ventricular cells in this hiPSC-CM population. The comparison of atrial and ventricular Pluricytes with primary human cardiomyocytes showed trends, indicating the potential to derive more subtype-specific hiPSC-CM models using appropriate differentiation protocols. Nevertheless, the single-cell phenotypes of the majority of the hiPSC-CMs showed a combination of attributes which may be interpreted as a mixture of traits of adult cardiomyocyte subtypes: (i) nodal: spontaneous action potentials and high HCN4 expression and (ii) non-nodal: prominent INa-driven fast inward current and high expression of SCN5A. This may hamper the interpretation of the drug effects on parameters depending on a combination of ionic currents, such as beat rate. However, the proven expression of specific ion channels supports the evaluation of the drug effects on ionic currents in a more realistic cardiomyocyte environment than in recombinant non-cardiomyocyte systems.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Análise de Célula Única
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770498

RESUMO

Multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) are a widely used tool for recording neuronal activity both in vitro/ex vivo and in vivo experiments. In the last decade, researchers have increasingly used MEAs on rodents in vivo. To increase the availability and usability of MEAs, we have created an open-source wireless electrophysiological complex. The complex is scalable, recording the activity of neurons in the brain of rodents during their behavior. Schematic diagrams and a list of necessary components for the fabrication of a wireless electrophysiological complex, consisting of a base charging station and wireless wearable modules, are presented.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Neurônios , Encéfalo , Eletrodos
3.
Curr Top Membr ; 87: 47-95, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696889

RESUMO

Cells and tissues are constantly exposed to mechanical stress. In order to respond to alterations in mechanical stimuli, specific cellular machinery must be in place to rapidly convert physical force into chemical signaling to achieve the desired physiological responses. Mechanosensitive ion channels respond to such physical stimuli in the order of microseconds and are therefore essential components to mechanotransduction. Our understanding of how these ion channels contribute to cellular and physiological responses to mechanical force has vastly expanded in the last few decades due to engineering ingenuities accompanying patch clamp electrophysiology, as well as sophisticated molecular and genetic approaches. Such investigations have unveiled major implications for mechanosensitive ion channels in cardiovascular health and disease. Therefore, in this chapter I focus on our present understanding of how biophysical activation of various mechanosensitive ion channels promotes distinct cell signaling events with tissue-specific physiological responses in the cardiovascular system. Specifically, I discuss the roles of mechanosensitive ion channels in mediating (i) endothelial and smooth muscle cell control of vascular tone, (ii) mechano-electric feedback and cell signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, and (iii) the baroreflex.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos , Mecanotransdução Celular , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5871, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620851

RESUMO

Optogenetics combined with electrical recording has emerged as a powerful tool for investigating causal relationships between neural circuit activity and function. However, the size of optogenetically manipulated tissue is typically 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than that can be electrically recorded, rendering difficulty for assigning functional roles of recorded neurons. Here we report a viral vector-delivery optrode (VVD-optrode) system for precise integration of optogenetics and electrophysiology in the brain. Our system consists of flexible microelectrode filaments and fiber optics that are simultaneously self-assembled in a nanoliter-scale, viral vector-delivery polymer carrier. The highly localized delivery and neuronal expression of opsin genes at microelectrode-tissue interfaces ensure high spatial congruence between optogenetically manipulated and electrically recorded neuronal populations. We demonstrate that this multifunctional system is capable of optogenetic manipulation and electrical recording of spatially defined neuronal populations for three months, allowing precise and long-term studies of neural circuit functions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Optogenética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microeletrodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Opsinas/genética , Polímeros
5.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605824

RESUMO

Modern electrophysiology has been constantly fueled by the parallel development of increasingly sophisticated tools and materials. In turn, discoveries in this field have driven technological progress in a back-and-forth process that ultimately determined the impressive achievements of the past 50 years. However, the most employed devices used for cellular interfacing (namely, the microelectrode arrays and microelectronic devices based on transistors) still present several limitations such as high cost, the rigidity of the materials, and the presence of an external reference electrode. To partially overcome these issues, there have been developments in a new scientific field called organic bioelectronics, resulting in advantages such as lower cost, more convenient materials, and innovative fabrication techniques. Several interesting new organic devices have been proposed during the past decade to conveniently interface with cell cultures. This paper presents the protocol for the fabrication of devices for cellular interfacing based on the organic charge-modulated field-effect transistor (OCMFET). These devices, called micro OCMFET arrays (MOAs), combine the advantages of organic electronics and the peculiar features of the OCMFET to prepare transparent, flexible, and reference-less tools with which it is possible to monitor both the electrical and the metabolic activities of cardiomyocytes and neurons in vitro, thus allowing a multiparametric evaluation of electrogenic cell models.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Transistores Eletrônicos , Eletrônica , Microeletrodos , Neurônios
7.
Curr Protoc ; 1(10): e255, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610215

RESUMO

Tracking animal behavior by video is one of the most common tasks in neuroscience. Previously, we have validated ezTrack, a free, flexible, and easy-to-use software for the analysis of animal behavior. ezTrack's Location Tracking Module can be used for the positional analysis of an individual animal and is applicable to a wide range of behavioral tasks. Separately, ezTrack's Freeze Analysis Module is designed for the analysis of defensive freezing behavior. ezTrack supports a range of desirable tools, including options for cropping and masking portions of the field of view, defining regions of interest, producing summary data for specified portions of time, algorithms to remove the influence of electrophysiology cables and other tethers, batch processing of multiple videos, and video down-sampling. Moreover, ezTrack produces a range of interactive plots and visualizations to promote users' confidence in their results. In this protocols paper, we provide step-by-step instructions for the use of ezTrack, from tips for recording behavior to instructions for using the software for video analysis. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Software environment installation Basic Protocol 2: Using the Location Tracking Module Basic Protocol 3: Using the Freeze Analysis Module.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Software , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Computadores , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639056

RESUMO

Plants have developed complex systems of perception and signaling to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Electrical signaling is one of the most promising candidates for the regulatory mechanisms of the systemic functional response under the local action of various stimuli. Long-distance electrical signals of plants, such as action potential (AP), variation potential (VP), and systemic potential (SP), show specificities to types of inducing stimuli. The systemic response induced by a long-distance electrical signal, representing a change in the activity of a complex of molecular-physiological processes, includes a nonspecific component and a stimulus-specific component. This review discusses possible mechanisms for transmitting information about the nature of the stimulus and the formation of a specific systemic response with the participation of electrical signals induced by various abiotic factors.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Estimulação Física
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653004

RESUMO

Acupoint specificity for diseases has consistently been the focus of acupuncture research owing to its excellent prospects for clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the specificity of cardiovascular and sleep functions in terms of electrical signals at acupoints remains unclear. In this study, five volunteers were recruited and their electrophysiological signals of GV20 (baihui), RN17 (danzhong), PC6 (neiguan), and SP6 (sanyinjiao) and the corresponding sham points, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, blood pressure, and echocardiography were monitored over four periods of 90-day head-down bed rest (HDBR). The results demonstrated that the power and characteristic amplitude of the acupoints were more significant than those of the sham points under normal conditions. And along with the altered physiological condition of the body after HDBR, the differential signal characteristic amplitude (DSCA) and the power of the acupoints were decreased to a larger extent than those of the sham points. In addition, the difference between the power of acupuncture and sham points was also reduced. During the recovery period, except for GV20, the power and DSCA of other acupoints did not return to normal. In terms of DSCA, GV20 is related to human sleep function and other acupoints are related to cardiovascular function. The above results show that the electrophysiological signals of acupoints are disease-specific and more accurately reflect the changes of physiological homeostasis. The research conduces to the development of acupuncture-based disease diagnosis and treatment integrated methods, and the realization of the portable and accurate diagnosis and regulation of diseases in space medicine.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Ausência de Peso , Pontos de Acupuntura , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Sono
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648542

RESUMO

The role of emotional factors in maintaining cognitive control is one of the most intriguing issues in understanding emotion-cognition interactions. In the current experiment, we assessed the role of emotional factors (valence, arousal, and subjective significance) in perceptual and conceptual inhibition processes. We operationalised both processes with the classical cognitive paradigms, i.e., the flanker task and the emotional Stroop task merged into a single experimental procedure. The procedure was based on the presentation of emotional words displayed in four different font colours flanked by the same emotional word printed with the same or different font colour. We expected to find distinct effects of both types of interference: earlier for perceptual and later for emotional interference. We also predicted an increased arousal level to disturb inhibitory control effectiveness, while increasing the subjective significance level should improve this process. As we used orthogonal manipulations of emotional factors, our study allowed us for the first time to assess interactions within emotional factors and between types of interference. We found on the behavioural level the main effects of flanker congruency as well as effects of emotionality. On the electrophysiological level, we found effects for EPN, P2, and N450 components of ERPs. The exploratory analysis revealed that effects due to perceptual interference appeared earlier than the effects of emotional interference, but they lasted for an extended period of processing, causing perceptual and emotional interference to partially overlap. Finally, in terms of emotional interference, we showed the effect of subjective significance: the reduction of interference cost in N450 for highly subjective significant stimuli. This study is the first one allowing for the investigation of two different types of interference in a single experiment, and provides insight into the role of emotion in cognitive control.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Emoções/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto , Comportamento , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502410

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) plays an important role in many tissues, including pacemaker and conductive tissues of the heart, but much less is known about its electrophysiological role in ventricular myocytes. Our earlier results showed the lack of selectivity of 9-phenanthrol, so CBA ((4-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)acetamido) benzoic acid) was chosen as a new, potentially selective inhibitor. Goal: Our aim was to elucidate the effect and selectivity of CBA in canine left ventricular cardiomyocytes and to study the expression of TRPM4 in the canine heart. Experiments were carried out in enzymatically isolated canine left ventricular cardiomyocytes. Ionic currents were recorded with an action potential (AP) voltage-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration at 37 °C. An amount of 10 mM BAPTA was used in the pipette solution to exclude the potential activation of TRPM4 channels. AP was recorded with conventional sharp microelectrodes. CBA was used in 10 µM concentrations. Expression of TRPM4 protein in the heart was studied by Western blot. TRPM4 protein was expressed in the wall of all four chambers of the canine heart as well as in samples prepared from isolated left ventricular cells. CBA induced an approximately 9% reduction in AP duration measured at 75% and 90% of repolarization and decreased the short-term variability of APD90. Moreover, AP amplitude was increased and the maximal rates of phase 0 and 1 were reduced by the drug. In AP clamp measurements, CBA-sensitive current contained a short, early outward and mainly a long, inward current. Transient outward potassium current (Ito) and late sodium current (INa,L) were reduced by approximately 20% and 47%, respectively, in the presence of CBA, while L-type calcium and inward rectifier potassium currents were not affected. These effects of CBA were largely reversible upon washout. Based on our results, the CBA induced reduction of phase-1 slope and the slight increase of AP amplitude could have been due to the inhibition of Ito. The tendency for AP shortening can be explained by the inhibition of inward currents seen in AP-clamp recordings during the plateau phase. This inward current reduced by CBA is possibly INa,L, therefore, CBA is not entirely selective for TRPM4 channels. As a consequence, similarly to 9-phenanthrol, it cannot be used to test the contribution of TRPM4 channels to cardiac electrophysiology in ventricular cells, or at least caution must be applied.


Assuntos
Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca , Cães , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPM/fisiologia
13.
J Gen Physiol ; 153(11)2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546289

RESUMO

Initiation of skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by rapid activation of RYR1 channels in response to sarcolemmal depolarization. RYR1 is intracellular and has no voltage-sensing structures, but it is coupled with the voltage-sensing apparatus of CaV1.1 channels to inherit voltage sensitivity. Using an opto-electrophysiological approach, we resolved the excitation-driven molecular events controlling both CaV1.1 and RYR1 activations, reported as fluorescence changes. We discovered that each of the four human CaV1.1 voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) exhibits unique biophysical properties: VSD-I time-dependent properties were similar to ionic current activation kinetics, suggesting a critical role of this voltage sensor in CaV1.1 activation; VSD-II, VSD-III, and VSD-IV displayed faster activation, compatible with kinetics of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. The prominent role of VSD-I in governing CaV1.1 activation was also confirmed using a naturally occurring, charge-neutralizing mutation in VSD-I (R174W). This mutation abolished CaV1.1 current at physiological membrane potentials by impairing VSD-I activation without affecting the other VSDs. Using a structurally relevant allosteric model of CaV activation, which accounted for both time- and voltage-dependent properties of CaV1.1, to predict VSD-pore coupling energies, we found that VSD-I contributed the most energy (~75 meV or ∼3 kT) toward the stabilization of the open states of the channel, with smaller (VSD-IV) or negligible (VSDs II and III) energetic contribution from the other voltage sensors (<25 meV or ∼1 kT). This study settles the longstanding question of how CaV1.1, a slowly activating channel, can trigger RYR1 rapid activation, and reveals a new mechanism for voltage-dependent activation in ion channels, whereby pore opening of human CaV1.1 channels is primarily driven by the activation of one voltage sensor, a mechanism distinct from that of all other voltage-gated channels.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L , Contração Muscular , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Cinética , Potenciais da Membrana
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5713, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588439

RESUMO

Large, openly available datasets and current analytic tools promise the emergence of population neuroscience. The considerable diversity in personality traits and behaviour between individuals is reflected in the statistical variability of neural data collected in such repositories. Recent studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have concluded that patterns of resting-state functional connectivity can both successfully distinguish individual participants within a cohort and predict some individual traits, yielding the notion of an individual's neural fingerprint. Here, we aim to clarify the neurophysiological foundations of individual differentiation from features of the rich and complex dynamics of resting-state brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 158 participants. We show that akin to fMRI approaches, neurophysiological functional connectomes enable the differentiation of individuals, with rates similar to those seen with fMRI. We also show that individual differentiation is equally successful from simpler measures of the spatial distribution of neurophysiological spectral signal power. Our data further indicate that differentiation can be achieved from brain recordings as short as 30 seconds, and that it is robust over time: the neural fingerprint is present in recordings performed weeks after their baseline reference data was collected. This work, thus, extends the notion of a neural or brain fingerprint to fast and large-scale resting-state electrophysiological dynamics.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Individualidade , Magnetoencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artefatos , Conectoma , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101220, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562455

RESUMO

Transport stoichiometry determination can provide great insight into the mechanism and function of ion-coupled transporters. Traditional reversal potential assays are a reliable, general method for determining the transport stoichiometry of ion-coupled transporters, but the time and material costs of this technique hinder investigations of transporter behavior under multiple experimental conditions. Solid-supported membrane electrophysiology (SSME) allows multiple recordings of liposomal or membrane samples adsorbed onto a sensor and is sensitive enough to detect transport currents from moderate-flux transporters that are inaccessible to traditional electrophysiology techniques. Here, we use SSME to develop a new method for measuring transport stoichiometry with greatly improved throughput. Using this technique, we were able to verify the recent report of a fixed 2:1 stoichiometry for the proton:guanidinium antiporter Gdx, reproduce the 1H+:2Cl- antiport stoichiometry of CLC-ec1, and confirm loose proton:nitrate coupling for CLC-ec1. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate quantitative exchange of internal contents of liposomes adsorbed onto SSME sensors to allow multiple experimental conditions to be tested on a single sample. Our SSME method provides a fast, easy, general method for measuring transport stoichiometry, which will facilitate future mechanistic and functional studies of ion-coupled transporters.


Assuntos
Antiporters/química , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Lipossomos/química , Antiporters/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons
16.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572150

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is very common among the elderly and/or obese. While myocardial fibrosis is associated with atrial fibrillation, the exact mechanisms within atrial myocytes and surrounding non-myocytes are not fully understood. This review considers the potential roles of myocardial fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in fibrosis and modulating myocyte electrophysiology through electrotonic interactions. Coupling with (myo)fibroblasts in vitro and in silico prolonged myocyte action potential duration and caused resting depolarization; an optogenetic study has verified in vivo that fibroblasts depolarized when coupled myocytes produced action potentials. This review also introduces another non-myocyte which may modulate both myocardial (myo)fibroblasts and myocytes: epicardial adipose tissue. Epicardial adipocytes are in intimate contact with myocytes and (myo)fibroblasts and may infiltrate the myocardium. Adipocytes secrete numerous adipokines which modulate (myo)fibroblast and myocyte physiology. These adipokines are protective in healthy hearts, preventing inflammation and fibrosis. However, adipokines secreted from adipocytes may switch to pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic, associated with reactive oxygen species generation. Pro-fibrotic adipokines stimulate myofibroblast differentiation, causing pronounced fibrosis in the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium. Adipose tissue also influences myocyte electrophysiology, via the adipokines and/or through electrotonic interactions. Deeper understanding of the interactions between myocytes and non-myocytes is important to understand and manage atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/patologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipocinas/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/metabolismo , Mapeamento Epicárdico/métodos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Fibrose/patologia , Coração/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Miofibroblastos , Pericárdio/patologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576074

RESUMO

Masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) is one of the most common causes of chronic orofacial pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders. To explore the antinociceptive effects of ultra-low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) on alterations of pain-related biochemicals, electrophysiology and jaw-opening movement in an animal model with MMP, a total of 40 rats were randomly and equally assigned to four groups; i.e., animals with MMP receiving either ULF-TENS or sham treatment, as well as those with sham-MMP receiving either ULF-TENS or sham treatment. MMP was induced by electrically stimulated repetitive tetanic contraction of masticatory muscle for 14 days. ULF-TENS was then performed at myofascial trigger points of masticatory muscles for seven days. Measurable outcomes included maximum jaw-opening distance, prevalence of endplate noise (EPN), and immunohistochemistry for substance P (SP) and µ-opiate receptors (MOR) in parabrachial nucleus and c-Fos in rostral ventromedial medulla. There were significant improvements in maximum jaw-opening distance and EPN prevalence after ULF-TENS in animals with MMP. ULF-TENS also significantly reduced SP overexpression, increased MOR expression in parabrachial nucleus, and increased c-Fos expression in rostral ventromedial medulla. ULF-TENS may represent a novel and applicable therapeutic approach for improvement of orofacial pain induced by MMP.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/terapia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/complicações , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Animais , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletromiografia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiopatologia , Placa Motora/fisiopatologia , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/complicações , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/fisiopatologia , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/terapia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo
18.
Brain Lang ; 222: 105027, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560557

RESUMO

Monolingual and bilingual participants performed a Proactive Interference task in verbal and nonverbal conditions while EEG was recorded. Behavioral results showed faster responses for bilinguals on interference trials in the nonverbal condition, and electrophysiological results indicated greater attentional control for bilinguals. ROI analyses showed this pattern for bilinguals mainly in the verbal condition, whereas whole brain analyses found this association in both conditions. Frequency power analysis found activity related to interference trials was associated with recruitment of different neural resources for verbal and nonverbal conditions. Nonverbal results indicated beta activity for interference trials in bilinguals and the verbal condition showed this pattern in theta and gamma frequency bands as well, revealing more extensive brain activation in the verbal domain for bilinguals. For monolinguals, frequency power in beta, gamma, and theta were related to facilitation trials. These results suggest different strategies for allocating attention by monolingual and bilingual young adults.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Atenção , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1414-1428, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385700

RESUMO

The long-range GABAergic input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is relatively understudied, and therefore its role in reward processing has remained unknown. In the present study, we show, in both male and female mice, that long-range GABAergic projections from the VTA to the ventral NAc shell, but not to the dorsal NAc shell or NAc core, are engaged in reward and reinforcement behavior. We show that this GABAergic projection exclusively synapses on to cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the ventral NAc shell, thereby serving a specialized function in modulating reinforced reward behavior through the inhibition of ventral NAc shell CINs. These findings highlight the diversity in the structural and functional topography of VTA GABAergic projections, and their neuromodulatory interactions across the dorsoventral gradient of the NAc shell. They also further our understanding of neuronal circuits that are directly implicated in neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression and addiction.


Assuntos
Neurônios Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Reforço Psicológico , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiopatologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Interneurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Recompensa , Autoestimulação
20.
Elife ; 102021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387544

RESUMO

The Patch-seq approach is a powerful variation of the patch-clamp technique that allows for the combined electrophysiological, morphological, and transcriptomic characterization of individual neurons. To generate Patch-seq datasets at scale, we identified and refined key factors that contribute to the efficient collection of high-quality data. We developed patch-clamp electrophysiology software with analysis functions specifically designed to automate acquisition with online quality control. We recognized the importance of extracting the nucleus for transcriptomic success and maximizing membrane integrity during nucleus extraction for morphology success. The protocol is generalizable to different species and brain regions, as demonstrated by capturing multimodal data from human and macaque brain slices. The protocol, analysis and acquisition software are compiled at https://githubcom/AllenInstitute/patchseqtools. This resource can be used by individual labs to generate data across diverse mammalian species and that is compatible with large publicly available Patch-seq datasets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Encéfalo , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Software
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