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1.
Waste Manag ; 155: 348-356, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423405

RESUMO

Liquid packaging board is one of the highly demanded packaging mediums for liquid food and beverages, generating substantial waste each year. Even though the fibre part of the liquid packaging board is recycled through a repulping process, the plastic and aluminium are usually used for energy recovery and as alternative raw materials in cement factories. This practice reduces the life span and economic value of plastic and aluminium, which does not fit within a circular economy. The plastic and aluminium from liquid packaging board waste can be recycled mechanically and chemically. This study used the consequential life-cycle assessment method to compare the environmental impact of the recovery options of rejected materials from liquid packaging board waste treatment. Four scenarios were established: (1) energy recovery by waste incineration, (2) composite pallet production by mechanical recycling, (3) plastic pallet production by mechanical recycling, and (4) plastic pallet production by chemical recycling. The study showed that when the consumed energy was supplied from renewable sources, plastic pallet production by mechanical recycling process had the lowest environmental impact, and energy recovery by waste incineration had the highest impact. A sensitivity analysis revealed that composite pallet production by mechanical recycling process showed the best impact if the energy was sourced from the average production mix, and plastic pallet production by chemical recycling had the lowest impact when mechanically recycled plastic substituted for 0%, 30%, and 50% of virgin plastic. These results should be of interest to liquid packaging board manufacturers and other related stakeholders.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem , Plásticos , Incineração
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 301(Pt B): 120331, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446506

RESUMO

In this study, curcumin, zein, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and carrageenan were used to fabricate curcumin-zein-EGCG-carrageenan (CZEC) layer-by-layer nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were embedded within carrageenan films to form composite films with enhanced antioxidant activity and smart responses. Light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, FTIR, and SEM were used to characterize the size, charge, interactions, and morphology of CZEC nanoparticles. The optical, mechanical, morphological, spectroscopic, thermal, and other functional attributes of the films were evaluated. The CZEC nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed within the carrageenan matrices, and improved their UV barrier (2.4-11.1 A mm-1), mechanical (7.09 %-9.35 %), and thermal resistance properties. The films exhibited a color change, from yellow to red, in response to an increase in pH (2.0-12.0) or ammonia concentration (8.0 mM). The films also displayed relatively high DPPH (79.46 %) and ABTS (73.34 %) free radical scavenging activities. Finally, the composite film exhibited the ability of monitoring and extending the freshness of packaged fish.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Zeína , Animais , Carragenina , Curcumina/farmacologia , Embalagem de Produtos
3.
Waste Manag ; 155: 211-219, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399848

RESUMO

According to the EU Circular Economy Package, recycling of plastic packaging waste (PPW) has to be enhanced significantly by 2025 and 2030. Although a set of measures will be required along the whole value chain of plastic packaging, the process of separate collection remains the backbone. Hence, a detailed understanding of the performance of current separate collection systems is crucial. As a case study, the separate collection of PPW was analyzed within a single country, Austria, where a variety of collection procedures are implemented. By using the method of material flow analysis, separate collection rates in terms of quantities and qualities were analyzed for separate collection systems of different settlement patterns, target fractions, and service levels provided. Results show that the highest performance was achieved in systems that cover mainly rural areas and where all plastic packaging wastes are collected through curbside collection, with separate collection rates of 74-77%. With additional collection via collection centers, these values increased to 78%-83%. In comparison, the results for urban areas showed the lowest separate collection rate of 56%. In the case that separate collection targeted plastic bottles only, maximum collection rates of around 50 % were observed, with the tendency towards higher collection rates if co-mingled with metals. To enhance separate collection, a general shift to the target fraction "all plastic packaging" instead of "plastic bottles only" is crucial. Modelling of optimized collection systems in all Austrian regions would lead to a theoretical total separation collection rate of 74%.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Urbanização , Áustria , Embalagem de Produtos , Análise de Sistemas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360972

RESUMO

Tobacco products are hazardous to public health and are one of the greater public health threats facing the world to date. Although international research on tobacco packaging has been thorough and comprehensive, the risk perception of visual elements in tobacco packaging varies by country, race, and smoking status. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the risk perceptions of visual elements in tobacco packaging among young and middle-aged people in selected cities in China. This study used a questionnaire to construct an index system for visual elements of tobacco packaging and used it to design a related questionnaire. Our group conducted an online questionnaire survey among 296 young people (18-44 years old) in selected cities in China between 16 June and 26 June 2022. The results of the influence of visual elements of tobacco packaging on the perception of tobacco health risks in the youth group were analyzed by SPSS 26.0. A chi-square test analysis yielded differences in the perception of tobacco package color among youths with different smoking status. A linear regression analysis revealed that age group and visual elements were significant, and five groups of visual element comparisons had an effect on the youth group. First, there were differences in the perceptions of tobacco products among participants with different smoking status. Secondly, the more youthful the respondents were, the greater the probability that they were able to identify that the picture fitness warnings had a greater probability of making them conscious of the fitness dangers of smoking (p < 0.05). The older the participants, the greater the probability that the textual content fitness warnings made them conscious of the fitness risks of smoking (p < 0.05). Third, the percentage of health warnings did not make a good-sized impact for the youth groups (p > 0.05). Fourth, the more youthful the participant, the greater the probability that cigarette products with whole brand images would appeal to buyer(p < 0.01).


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Embalagem de Produtos , Uso de Tabaco , Fumar , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429827

RESUMO

The objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, the current study elucidates the impact and efficacy of food labels in developing consumers' attitudes and intentions towards the selection of nutritional food. Secondly, the inefficacy of labels in developing consumers' attitudes and intentions towards healthy packaged food selection is demonstrated. The supportive theories of the current model are those of reasoned action and protection motivation. The data of 797 respondents have been collected from four major grocery stores in Pakistan. The structural equation model has been employed for the analysis of data. The results indicate that the efficacy of food labels has a positive significant effect on attitudes towards familiar and unfamiliar foods. In contrast to this, inefficacy in labelling has shown a positive significant effect on familiar foods but is insignificant for unfamiliar foods. The user-friendly food labels significantly affect unfamiliar foods in terms promoting consumer attitudes. Reciprocally, the inefficacy of labels creates a hindrance to the reading of unfamiliar labels while purchasing food items. The study findings reveal the fact that food label information and its format influences consumer attitudes and intentions at the point of purchase.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Embalagem de Produtos , Alimentos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Supermercados
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429910

RESUMO

Many industrial sectors still lack automation resources to optimize their production processes, aiming to make manufacturing leaner and offer better working conditions to operators. Without these improvements, workers can suffer physical and even psychological damage from the ergonomic risks of the activities performed. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the ergonomic evaluation of packaging tapes workstation before and after the implementation of an automatic packaging machine, called Guzzetti. In the Guzzetti context, the paper shows the implementation of an electrical system based on controlling a mechanical device powered by servomotors and controlled by a PLC is necessary. For ergonomic evaluation, the paper presents the application of three methods: Suzanne Rodger, Strain Index, called Moore and Garg and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). With the results collection, was possible to obtain improvements in ergonomic risks that changed from the intermediate level to low level in all methods.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Embalagem de Produtos , Humanos , Ergonomia/métodos
7.
Waste Manag ; 153: 355-366, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191496

RESUMO

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) schemes have effectively increased the plastic waste that is separately collected. However, due to the structure of the recycling industry, EPR cannot increase recycling rates up to the target levels. Additional policy instruments to increase recycling rates such as recycled content targets, green dot fees bonus for recycled content, recycling targets and taxes on non-recycled plastic packaging have been discussed on a political level in the last years. However, very little research has quantitatively studied the effectiveness of these policy interventions. Using a partial equilibrium model, this paper examines the effectiveness of the implementation of the aforementioned policy instruments to increase recycling rates and the impact on different stakeholders of the value chain: plastic producers, consumers, producer responsibility organization and recyclers. Results show that direct interventions (recycled content standards and recycling targets) have the benefit of decoupling the recycling industry from external markets such as the oil market. They can be a good starting point to increase recycling, but in the long term they may be restricting by not presenting incentives to achieve recycling levels beyond the targeted amounts and by limiting technological innovation. On the contrary, economic interventions such as a green dot fee bonus or a packaging tax create economic incentives for recycling. However, these incentives are diminished by the lower perceived quality of packaging with higher recycled content levels.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Indústrias , Políticas , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293570

RESUMO

Infectious specimens and materials with pathogens included in Category A of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) must be transported following Packing Instruction P620. A triple packaging system must include leakproof receptacles and impact-resistant packaging to preserve the integrity of the samples and prevent the release of their content in any event during transport. ADR Packing Instruction P620 indicates that the primary receptacle or secondary packaging must withstand, without leakage, an internal pressure not less than 95 kPa at temperatures ranging from -40 °C to +55 °C. This study analyzes various packaging systems available in the Spanish market for the transportation of infectious samples to determine if they comply with the overpressure test, the most difficult to meet according to Packing Instruction P620. Five packaging systems were selected in this study. None of the secondary packaging tested showed adequate characteristics to withstand the pressure leakproof test. In this case, a primary receptacle (containing the sample directly) capable of withstanding an internal pressure of 95 kPa without leakage must be used (for example: test tubes with screw caps). However, manufacturer or distributor specifications are not always clear or readily available in this regard. Health, laboratory, and carrier personnel should be aware of the ADR regulation and packaging characteristics for safe and secure handling and transportation of high-risk Category A infectious materials.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Produtos , Meios de Transporte , Espanha , Laboratórios , Temperatura
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231349

RESUMO

Background: Small cigarette pack sizes contain less than 20 cigarette sticks in a pack. Smaller packs may suggest lower costs, increasing affordability among lower-income users, especially the younger generation, which could lead to tobacco-related diseases and economic costs, including human capital lost results from tobacco-attributable morbidity and mortality. This concern has caused many countries to ban the sale of single cigarette sticks or kiddie packs. However, small cigarette pack sizes were proposed recently to be reintroduced by the tobacco industry with an excuse to prevent consumers from buying illicit cigarettes. This would demean efforts in combating tobacco consumption based on the existing tobacco control policies to prevent minors from purchasing cigarettes. Given the competing influences of affordability and availability of tobacco on consumption and the dearth of evidence-based review on the impact of pack size on smoking, this systematic review was conducted to identify the link between kiddie packs and smoking specifically on the initiation of smoking, urge/tendency to buy cigarettes among the general population and attempt to reduce cigarette consumption and prevalence of smoking using kiddie packs among current smokers. Methods: We include all studies except for reviews, guidelines, conference papers, commentaries, editorials, or opinion pieces. A database search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and Scopus on 27 November 2021. The results were presented in the form of narrative synthesis under four groups: initiation of smoking; urge/tendency to buy cigarettes; the prevalence of smoking, and attempt to reduce cigarette consumption. The literature search identified 1601 articles, of which 21 articles had met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of all included articles was determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD). The average quality score for all papers was 34.8%. Discussion: Given the diverse study settings of the articles and despite the challenges of the methodological quality of some articles, this review provides some evidence that kiddie packs may increase the urge/tendency to buy cigarettes and mixed evidence on the attempt to reduce cigarette consumption. This review also found some evidence that kiddie pack purchasing among teenage smokers was higher compared to adults. However, we are uncertain about the link between kiddie packs and smoking initiation. Nevertheless, since most studies were of low quality, further high-quality studies are needed to conclude about the impact of kiddie packs on smoking to assist the policymakers and stakeholders in formulating new policies and strengthening existing strategies related to the kiddie packs.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco
10.
J Environ Manage ; 322: 116056, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070647

RESUMO

Due to the sheer quantity and quality of material, packaging waste is separately collected by municipal waste management systems, with a primary goal of its use in material recovery. The residual waste, i.e. rejected waste in the separation process can be energy recovered. Both recovery options have specific input material quality requirements. Therefore, it is important to know the characteristics of individual waste streams. This research analysed the composition and morphological characteristics of separately collected packaging waste from municipal waste management system, residual (rejected) waste fractions after separation steps and produced refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The efficiency of primary and secondary (manual) waste separation, as well as of the RDF production step, are tracked. Results show that primary waste separation produces material with under 7% of contaminants and secondary manual waste separation efficiency ranges between 45% and 55%. Physico-chemical comparison of simulated RDF strongly coincides with analysed properties of RDF as a final product which indicates very high separation efficiency in the RDF production. From the energy recovery/conversion standpoint, this can be quantified through deviations in the lower heating value (LHV) and the effective H/C molar ratio between simulated and real RDF samples, which are on the level of 1.8% and 1.1% respectively. The following conclusion can be made from the estimated relation between changes in separation efficiency and RDF energy-related characteristics; the separation efficiency of individual components plays important role in alternative fuel production as chemical compositions directly influence suitability for high-quality liquid fuel production. Results of this analysis shed a light on the connection between aspirations to increase material recovery share and the suitability of produced residual waste for further recovery and valorisation. The material and energetic valorisation are competitors, and further evaluation should be done to understand the investments needed to increase valuable fractions of wastes separation that, in turn, could diminish the energetic value of residual fractions and, therefore, the economic viability of energy recovery facilities.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Calefação , Embalagem de Produtos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 852: 158513, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075419

RESUMO

Plastic pollution has always been a hot issue of global concern. Previous studies have mainly focused on the flow of plastics. However, information on the patterns and characteristics of flow, stock, and waste in the plastic life cycle and their driving factors is limited in China, and effective waste reduction and sustainable strategies are missing. Therefore, this research established a flow model of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET); further analyzed the driving factors; and proposed strategies for waste reduction and sustainable development. We found that the total consumption, stock, and waste of PET, PE, and PP in 2010-2017 reached 552.96, 292.70, and 257.18 Tg, respectively. Building and construction (B&C), packaging, and textiles were the sectors with the largest stock of PE, PP, and PET. From 2010 to 2013, the stock of PE increased by 440 %, which was mainly driven by the increase in material utilization intensity (MUI). Similarly, the growth of MUI was the main driving factor driving PP (351 %) and PET (367 %) stocks. Notably, from 2014 to 2017, economic growth was the main factor driving the plastic stock. These results will provide a scientific basis for promoting the sustainable utilization of PE, PP, and PET and be of great significance to achieve the strategic goal of a no-waste city.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Polipropilenos , Embalagem de Produtos , Polietileno
12.
Waste Manag ; 153: 41-51, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049271

RESUMO

Packaging represents the largest fraction of plastic waste in Europe. Currently, mechanical recycling schemes are mainly focused on the recovery of rigid packaging (like bottles), while for flexible packaging, also called films, recycling rates remain very low. Existing mechanical recycling technologies for these films are quite basic, especially in the case of complicated post-consumer flexible plastics (PCFP) waste, leading to regranulate qualities that are often subpar for renewed use in demanding film applications. In this study, the technical and economic value of an improved mechanical recycling process (additional sorting, hot washing, and improved extrusion) of PCFPs is investigated. The quality of the four types of resulting regranulates is evaluated for film and injection molding applications. The obtained Polyethylene-rich regranulates in blown films offer more flexibility (45-60%), higher ductility (27-55%), and enhanced tensile strength (5-51%), compared to the conventional mechanical recycling process. Likewise, for injection molded samples, they exhibit more flexibility (19-49%), enhanced ductility (7 to 20 times), and higher impact strength (1.8 to 3.8 times). An economic assessment is made between the obtained increased market value and the capital investment required. It is shown that the economic value can be increased by 5-38% through this improved recycling process. Overall, the study shows that it is possible to increase the mechanical recycling quality of PCFP in an economically viable way, thus opening the way for new application routes and overall increased recycling rates.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Reciclagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Polietileno , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem/métodos
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e064202, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how cigarette packet branding and colours influence young male smokers' perceptions of tobacco brands in Cambodia. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study. SETTING: Worksites, living accommodations, a university and public locations in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. PARTICIPANTS: 147 male Cambodian smokers (18-24 years). INTERVENTIONS: Participants were shown mock-up pictures of different cigarette packet branding and colour variations and asked to respond to close-ended and short-response questions. OUTCOME MEASURES: Brand recognition, appeal and harm perceptions of cigarette packet branding and colours. RESULTS: When shown three packets with brand names removed, 98.6% of participants recognised packet one as Mevius brand, 21.1% recognised packet two as Marlboro and 38.8% recognised packet three as 555. For the three fully-branded and three matching plain packets, most participants selected a fully-branded packet as the most appealing taste (83.0%) and most appealing to youth (81.7%). Participants described their chosen brand as appealing due to beliefs about its superior taste/quality, reduced harm and symbolic attitudes surrounding tobacco brands and smokers of different brands in a social status hierarchy. When shown six different colours of unbranded packets, participants selected the blue packet (51.0%) as the most appealing for taste, the white packet as the least harmful (25.2%), and the red (15.0%) and black (12.9%) packets as the most harmful to health. They described their associations of packet colours with abstract imagery concerning smoking-related harms and their future well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that packet branding and colours influence young male smokers' recognition, appeal and harm perceptions of tobacco brands in Cambodia and remain an influential marketing tool for tobacco companies where advertising is banned. Consequently, Cambodia and other low and middle-income countries in Southeast Asia should implement plain packaging.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Camboja , Cor , Humanos , Masculino , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Tabaco
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 2): 158256, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028036

RESUMO

Glass packaging gives rise to major environmental concerns because it develops more greenhouse gas emissions than plastic packaging and its improper discarding causes the loss of high-quality desired resources. The reuse and recycling of glass packaging reduces greenhouse gas emissions and the use of newly extracted resources sand and soda. To mitigate the environmental impacts of glass packaging, countries have set-up various collection and recycling systems, which are often organized and financed through extended producer responsibility schemes. The most common collection systems are deposit-refund systems (DRS), separate collection in drop-off containers and comingled collection with lightweight packaging waste. By the end of 2035 a minimum of 65 % of glass packaging waste must be prepared for re-use and/or recycled within the EU Member States and thus proper policies and solutions should be adopted to achieve this target. In this sense, the present study aims at verifying if deposit-refund systems and their different configurations affect glass packaging waste reduction and recycling/recovery. To achieve this aim, annual data regarding consumption and recycling/recovery of glass packaging for each European Economic Area/European Free Trade Association (EEA/EFTA) country were extracted over the time period 2010-2019. By using the selected European countries as units of analysis, a hybrid methodology was developed which includes the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and other descriptive statistics. Findings show that the different waste management systems affect neither the amount of glass packaging consumption nor the glass packaging recycling/recovery. In countries which adopt DRS, not more glass packaging per capita was retrieved than in countries which adopt other collection and management systems. In fact, it turns out to be a mechanism that allows for high quality glass packaging collection avoiding its ending up in landfills, but it does not influence consumption choices and the subsequent potential waste production. The adoption of DRS-based collections does not result necessarily in a successful management model for glass packaging. Since setting up additional drop-off collection points and recovering mechanically glass from municipal solid waste (MSW) does not result in glass qualities to be used in glass packaging, DRS represent still the sole progress towards a more circular economy.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Areia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Reciclagem/métodos , Embalagem de Produtos , Europa (Continente) , Plásticos/análise
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5622901, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035847

RESUMO

In recent years, the strong growth of cultural and creative industries has led to its occupying an increasingly important position in the social economy. The inheritance and development of traditional art forms are one of the most important sources of materials for the cultural and creative industries. Product packaging is an important part of visual communication. Under the influence of the rapid development of cultural and creative industries, packaging design has a new development trend. In addition to satisfying basic functions such as protection and transportation, today's packaging design has also been endowed with some new connotations. The article analyzes the development status and outstanding problems of Chinese packaging design. Combined with the significance of cultural and creative industries to packaging design, innovative explorations were carried out on various elements in the process of packaging design. The study found that in the analysis of the contribution of cultural and creative industries to the economy, the cultural and creative industries of City A have been showing a growth trend since 2015. And among the design concepts of environmental protection, emotional attention, and integration of Chinese and Western design concepts selected in packaging design, more than 80% of consumers agree to integrate environmental protection concepts into packaging design. A total of 67% of the public are in favor of incorporating the concept of emotional care into the design. A total of 54% of the public agree with the design concept of combining Chinese and Western. Understanding the preferences of customers is beneficial to making packaging design a highlight of product sales.


Assuntos
Big Data , Criatividade , Cidades , Embalagem de Produtos
16.
Waste Manag ; 152: 69-79, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994899

RESUMO

Most plastics are today mechanically recycled (MR), whereas chemical recycling (CR) is an emerging technology. Substitutability of virgin material is vital for their environmental performance assessed through life cycle assessment (LCA). MR faces the reduction in the material's technical quality but also the potential market because legal safety requirements currently eliminate applications such as food packaging. This study presents a data-driven method for quantifying the overall substitutability (OS), composed of technical (TS) and market substitutability (MS). First, this is illustrated for six non-food contact material (non-FCM) applications and three hypothetical future FCM applications from mechanical recyclates, using mechanical property and market data. Then, OS results are used in a comparative LCA of MR and thermochemical recycling (TCR) of several plastic waste fractions in Belgium. For mechanical recyclates, TS results for the studied non-FCM and FCM applications were comparable, but OS results varied between 0.35 and 0.79 for non-FCM applications and between 0.78 and 1 for FCM applications, reflecting the lower MS results for the current situation. Out of nine application scenarios, MR obtained a worse resource consumption and terrestrial acidification impact than CR in six scenarios. MR maintained the lowest global warming impact for all scenarios. This study contributes to an improved understanding of the environmental benefits of MR and TCR. Inclusion of other criteria (e.g. processability, colour, odour) in the quantification of the overall substitutability for MR products should be further investigated, as well as the environmental performance of TCR at industrial scale.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Bélgica , Embalagem de Alimentos , Embalagem de Produtos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Reciclagem/métodos
17.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(5): 751-759, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As cannabis increasingly becomes a consumer product in the U.S., its product packaging has become critically important to regulators. This study examined the influence of recreational cannabis packaging characteristics. METHODS: Five online between-subjects experiments were conducted in April 2021, and data were analyzed in May 2021-July 2021. Experiments randomized participants to view different (1) types of cannabis, (2) visual displays of tetrahydrocannabinol content, (3) cannabis packages designed around brand personality research, (4) health warnings, and (5) health claims. Outcomes included cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses. RESULTS: A total of 841 adults from the U.S. (49% male, 50% young adults, 44% White, 17% Hispanic) were included in the study. Edible gummies were perceived as healthier (ß=0.32, 95% CI=0.03, 0.62), less grown up (ß= -0.58, 95% CI= -0.86, -0.28), and more socially acceptable to consume (ß=0.30, 95% CI=0.01, 0.59) than cannabis concentrate in a medical dropper. Participants also had more interest in trying edible gummies (ß=1.33, 95% CI=1.04, 1.62) and trying a free sample (ß=1.30, 95% CI=1.01, 1.60) than trying cannabis concentrate. Cannabis packages with a helps-you-relax health claim elicited more happy (ß=0.34, 95% CI=0.04, 0.64) and good (ß=0.37, 95% CI=0.07, 0.67) feelings than cannabis packages without this claim. Minimal effects were found for visual displays of tetrahydrocannabinol content and health warnings. CONCLUSIONS: Edibles are a unique type of cannabis that should be given special consideration under state laws, and lawmakers should consider limiting and governing the use of both implicit and explicit health claims on recreational cannabis packages when implementing laws.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Dronabinol , Intenção , Embalagem de Produtos , Embalagem de Medicamentos
18.
Waste Manag Res ; 40(12): 1680-1707, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875954

RESUMO

Over the coming decades, a large additional mass of plastic waste will become available for recycling, as efforts increase to reduce plastic pollution and facilitate a circular economy. New infrastructure will need to be developed, yet the processes and systems chosen should not result in adverse effects on human health and the environment. Here, we present a rapid review and critical semi-quantitative assessment of the potential risks posed by eight approaches to recovering value during the resource recovery phase from post-consumer plastic packaging waste collected and separated with the purported intention of recycling. The focus is on the Global South, where there are more chances that high risk processes could be run below standards of safe operation. Results indicate that under non-idealised operational conditions, mechanical reprocessing is the least impactful on the environment and therefore most appropriate for implementation in developing countries. Processes known as 'chemical recycling' are hard to assess due to lack of real-world process data. Given their lack of maturity and potential for risk to human health and the environment (handling of potentially hazardous substances under pressure and heat), it is unlikely they will make a useful addition to the circular economy in the Global South in the near future. Inevitably, increasing circular economy activity will require expansion towards targeting flexible, multi-material and multilayer products, for which mechanical recycling has well-established limitations. Our comparative risk overview indicates major barriers to changing resource recovery mode from the already dominant mechanical recycling mode towards other nascent or energetic recovery approaches.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Reciclagem , Humanos , Plásticos/química , Poluição Ambiental , Embalagem de Produtos , Substâncias Perigosas
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808303

RESUMO

When producing packaging from corrugated board, material weakening often occurs both during the die-cutting process and during printing. While the analog lamination and/or printing processes that degrade material can be easily replaced with a digital approach, the die-cutting process remains overwhelmingly analog. Recently, new innovative technologies have emerged that have begun to replace or at least supplement old techniques. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests on corrugated board and packaging made using both analog and digital technologies. Cardboard samples with digital and analog creases are subject to various mechanical tests, which allows for an assessment of the impact of creases on the mechanical properties of the cardboard itself, as well as on the behavior of the packaging. It is proven that digital technology is not only more repeatable, but also weakens the structure of corrugated board to a much lesser extent than analog. An updated numerical model of boxes in compression tests is also discussed. The effect of the crushing of the material in the vicinity of the crease lines in the packaging arising during the analog and digital finishing processes is taken into account. The obtained enhanced computer simulation results closely reflect the experimental observations, which prove that the correct numerical analysis of corrugated cardboard packaging should be performed with the model taking into account the crushing.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Produtos , Simulação por Computador
20.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(4): 565-573, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little research has been conducted on consumer perceptions of alcohol packaging as a marketing tool. The aim of this study was to explore how young adults view and engage with alcohol packaging. METHOD: Eight focus groups were conducted in Glasgow (Scotland) with current drinkers (n = 50), segmented by age (18-24, 25-35), gender (female, male), and social grade (ABC1, C2DE). Participants were shown, allowed to handle, and asked about a range of alcoholic products. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged from the data. The first was the ubiquity of alcohol packaging, with frequent exposure reported in different settings, such as shops and drinking venues, and via marketing. The second was appeal, with pack graphics (e.g., color), structure (e.g., shape, size), and promotions (e.g., gifts, limited editions) allowing alcohol packs to catch attention, enabling products to stand out on shelves, and helping to create product and brand liking, interest, and choice. Third, alcohol packaging was frequently associated with specific occasions and activities. Fourth, alcohol packaging informed perceptions of product-consumer targeting, suitability, and intended drinker profiles. Fifth, alcohol packaging also engaged nonvisual senses (e.g., touch, sound, smell), guiding expectations of product taste and palatability. CONCLUSIONS: For young adult drinkers in Scotland, alcohol packaging can capture attention, create appeal, and help shape perceptions of the product, drinker, and drinking experience.


Assuntos
Percepção , Embalagem de Produtos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Adulto Jovem
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