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1.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475810

RESUMO

Objective: Limited research has examined feminine marketing appeals on cigarette packs in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We reviewed a systematically collected sample of cigarette packs sold across 14 LMICs in 2013 (Wave 1) and 2015-2017 (Wave 2). Methods: Packs in Wave 1 (n = 3,240) and Wave 2 (n = 2,336) were coded for feminine imagery and descriptors (flowers, fashion, women/girls, color "pink"). We examined trends in feminine appeals over time, including co-occurrence with other pack features (slim or lipstick shape, flavor, reduced harm, and reduced odor claims). Results: The proportion of unique feminine cigarette packs significantly decreased from 8.6% (n = 278) in Wave 1 to 5.9% (n = 137) in Wave 2 (p < 0.001). Among all feminine packs, flower-and fashion-related features were most common; a substantial proportion also used flavor and reduced odor appeals. Conclusion: While there was a notable presence of feminine packs, the decline observed may reflect global trends toward marketing gender-neutral cigarettes to women and a general contempt for using traditional femininity to market products directly to women. Plain packaging standards may reduce the influence of branding on smoking among women.


Assuntos
Feminilidade , Marketing , Embalagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Embalagem de Produtos/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360244

RESUMO

The emergence of e-commerce and express delivery services has significantly transformed business operations and consumer shopping experience. However, the resulting problem of packaging waste, particularly from overpackaging, poses serious challenges to environmental sustainability and human health. Existing research has proposed many solutions from various perspectives, but very few have considered the acceptability and consumer preference for these proposals. Using the value co-creation (VCC) theory, we established a research model to explore consumer preferences for e-commerce overpackaging solutions. A survey of 632 online consumers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen was conducted, and data were analyzed using the SmartPLS software. The results show that establishing a recycling system, government policy, and consumers' environmental awareness have a significant positive impact on consumer preference, while combined packaging has a significant negative impact. We also found that government policy plays an intermediary role in establishing a recycling system and consumer preference. Based on these findings, we recommend that enterprises establish and improve their packaging recycling systems and that e-commerce platforms provide alternative options to combined packaging. Also, the government should play a guiding and coordinating role for enterprises and consumers, and environmental awareness among consumers should actively be promoted.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Governo , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
3.
Waste Manag ; 133: 89-98, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388536

RESUMO

To date, PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is the most widely used plastic in packaging and also one of the most recycled polymers worldwide. However, the high transport costs and stagnated prices of recycled PET undermine recycling process profits. Transport costs can lower through compaction, which is still not a completely well-known process. Due to heterogeneous designs, the output density of the compaction process varies. This poses problems during equipment design, selection or operation processes as recovery costs sharply increase if the required density is not met. In this manuscript, the authors develop a constitutive model for the compaction of recovered PET packaging. This experimentally validated model, based on the elasto-plastic behaviour of PET packages, allows the output density range to be predicted according to the compression pressure during PET compaction. Unlike other generic compaction models that need more than two parameters, this model uses only one and better correlates with the experimental results. Unlike existing generic models, the model parameters have a physical meaning, which allows the influence of different factors on the compaction process to be assessed. Finally as a result of the model analysis, we provide some tips to enhance compaction equipment efficiency.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Reciclagem , Plásticos , Polímeros , Embalagem de Produtos
4.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(10): 1291-1301, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407698

RESUMO

A powerful legal tool in evolving solid waste management (SWM) systems is extended producer responsibility (EPR). It is a mechanism that shifts the responsibility of a product to manufacturers/importers at the 'end-of-life' stage. Yet, implementation of the EPR concept has faced difficulties in developing countries. In Iran, as one such country, the principle of EPR system was issued in executive regulation of SWM in 2005, however, so far, it has been limited to a voluntary scheme. The problem merits further investigation. Therefore, this study aims to shed light on the obstacles in the path of developing EPR system for product packaging. The research examines the current SWM systems in four functional classified frameworks: legal, institutional, financial and technical. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the system are elaborated through semi-structured interviews with a senior executive in the Ministry of Interior (MoI). Then, viable methods to increase resource efficiency and sustainable waste treatment are suggested. The change in the financing mechanism in the Budget Law 2020 forces the manufacturers/importers of products containing recyclable components to pay the revenue from one in 1000 products to MoI for developing recycling facilities and incinerators through partnerships with the private sector. This new strategy would promote proper management of product packaging, create more jobs and a market for international cooperation. However, poor source-separation of wet/dry waste, informal sector activities, exclusive focus on the economic aspect of waste management, lack of expertise and public awareness campaigns are the barriers in this regard.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Irã (Geográfico) , Embalagem de Produtos , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148570, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323748

RESUMO

In China, the food delivery packaging waste is increasing due to the rapid growth of the sector and the use of single-use packaging to transport the meals. In addition, the recycling rates of current municipal waste management are low. In this regard, this study aims at estimating the climate change impact of current food delivery packaging and its waste treatment, by performing a Life Cycle Assessment with a cradle-to-grave approach. In addition, this article explores the potential benefits of increasing the current recycling rates, the recycled content of the packaging as well as the use of reusable packaging. For this study, the food packaging of a typical dumpling-based meal of the popular Chinese restaurant Xijiade was selected. Based on this menu and the current Chinese consumption patterns, the food delivery packaging in China would have emitted about 13 million tons of CO2eq. Increasing current recycling rates to 35% would reduce 16% the emissions of single-use packaging, and further decrease (60%) could be found if half of the packaging was made of recycled material. In addition, if single-use packaging was replaced by reusable PP-based packaging (food container and carrier bag), the emissions would potentially be 63% lower than the current situation. In this case, doubling the recycling rates and the recycled content of the reusable food packaging would represent an extra 6 and 17% reduction of emissions, respectively.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Produtos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Embalagem de Alimentos , Reciclagem
6.
Waste Manag ; 131: 423-432, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252692

RESUMO

Billion tons of post-consumer Tetra Pak cartons are discarded annually as land and ocean wastes, creating significant environmental problems and resource losses. Recycling of the carton wastes is hindered by its multi-material compositions and low values of the recycled products. In this study, a novel upcycling of the cartons was investigated. A post-consumer carton consisting of paper, polyolefin, and polyamide was directly converted in 210-230 °C tetrahydrofuran containing 10-20 mM acid to produce up to 19.2% of levoglucosenone and 8.6% of furfural by selectively decomposing paper fraction. The remaining solids containing mostly intact polyethylene and polyamide but also a smaller fraction of paper-derived char were separated using a solvent-dissolution method. The xylene-soluble fraction was a recycled polymer similar to the original polyethylene, which was verified by its functional groups, the composition of the pyrolysis products, and the melt rheology results. The xylene-insoluble fraction was a mixture of polyamide and paper-derived char. Upon pyrolysis, caprolactam was produced as the only major vapor product. The remaining, thermally stable paper-derived char could be used as a high-quality solid fuel. Overall, the demonstrated recycling method could potentially maximize the values of the products recovered from carton wastes.


Assuntos
Nylons , Polímeros , Gases , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299003

RESUMO

Here, we designed paper sheets coated with chitosan, bacterial cellulose (nanofibers), and ZnO with boosted antibacterial and mechanical activity. We investigated the compositions, with ZnO exhibiting two different sizes/shapes: (1) rods and (2) irregular sphere-like particles. The proposed processing of bacterial cellulose resulted in the formation of nanofibers. Antimicrobial behavior was tested using E. coli ATCC® 25922™ following the ASTM E2149-13a standard. The mechanical properties of the paper sheets were measured by comparing tearing resistance, tensile strength, and bursting strength according to the ISO 5270 standard. The results showed an increased antibacterial response (assigned to the combination of chitosan and ZnO, independent of its shape and size) and boosted mechanical properties. Therefore, the proposed composition is an interesting multifunctional mixture for coatings in food packaging applications.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Biopolímeros/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Nanocompostos/química , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Anti-Infecciosos , Celulose/ultraestrutura , Escherichia coli , Testes Mecânicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Nanofibras/química , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Difração de Raios X
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1420, 2021 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational evidence suggests that cigarette pack size - the number of cigarettes in a single pack - is associated with consumption but experimental evidence of a causal relationship is lacking. The tobacco industry is introducing increasingly large packs, in the absence of maximum cigarette pack size regulation. In Australia, the minimum pack size is 20 but packs of up to 50 cigarettes are available. We aimed to estimate the impact on smoking of reducing cigarette pack sizes from ≥25 to 20 cigarettes per pack. METHOD: A two-stage adaptive parallel group RCT in which Australian smokers who usually purchase packs containing ≥25 cigarettes were randomised to use only packs containing either 20 (intervention) or their usual packs (control) for four weeks. The primary outcome, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day, was measured through collecting all finished cigarette packs, labelled with the number of cigarettes participants smoked. An interim sample size re-estimation was used to evaluate the possibility of detecting a meaningful difference in the primary outcome. RESULTS: The interim analysis, conducted when 124 participants had been randomised, suggested 1122 additional participants needed to be randomised for sufficient power to detect a meaningful effect. This exceeded pre-specified criteria for feasible recruitment, and data collection was terminated accordingly. Analysis of complete data (n = 79) indicated that the mean cigarettes smoked per day was 15.9 (SD = 8.5) in the intervention arm and 16.8 (SD = 6.7) among controls (difference - 0.9: 95%CI = - 4.3, 2.6). CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether reducing cigarette pack sizes from ≥25 to 20 cigarettes reduces cigarette consumption. Importantly, the results of this study provide no evidence that capping cigarette pack sizes would be ineffective at reducing smoking. The limitations identified in this study can inform a more efficient RCT, which is urgently required to address the dearth of experimental evidence on the impact of large cigarette pack sizes on smoking. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN34202533.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Austrália , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Embalagem de Produtos
9.
Biomed Instrum Technol ; 55(s3): 78-84, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153997

RESUMO

The terminal sterilization of sterile orthopedic implants is a key process that, in addition to providing sterility, changes the material properties of the product and packaging. These changes might be observed during functionality testing and/or biological evaluation. We are establishing an additional sterilization process that appears promising from both a technical and business perspective. Our project aims to add X-ray sterilization to the established gamma sterilization for metallic hip and shoulder implants. To limit complexity, we started with a narrow product range. The main steps of our project journey are described here. Given that X-ray sterilization remains relatively new in terms of understanding the changes that might occur for product materials and functionality compared with changes observed following gamma radiation processing, this article highlights key steps in the change from gamma ray to X-ray sterilization.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Produtos , Esterilização , Raios gama , Raios X
10.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(8): 3251-3263, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165303

RESUMO

Lignin/tannin/ZnONP composite coatings were designed for paper-based green packaging. Multiple functions, such as high strength, moisture resistance, low air permeance, heat endurance, UV aging resistance, and antibacterial/mold properties, were successfully integrated into one biobased coating. Prepolymerization improved the physical properties of coatings at high lignin contents. The best ingredient ratio was: 40% lignin, 15% tannin, and 10% ZnONPs (based on tannin weight), and the as-prepared biocoating was labeled LTZn-10. After coated with LTZn-10, the tensile strength and bursting strength of the packaging were efficiently enhanced by more than 3 times and were dramatically increased by 51.6 and 5.6 times at the wet state, respectively, which reveals that the packaging has favorable moisture resistance and it can be used in high humidity environments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that most of the pores on the paper were blocked by the coatings, which helped to decrease the air permeance by 10.3 times. Meanwhile, ZnONPs were evenly spread on the coatings, which endowed the packaging with excellent antibacterial/mold performance. No colony or mycelium was found in the test against Gram-negative/positive bacteria and eight common molds. Besides, antibacterial activity is only available while the bacteria come in contact with the coating and no active substances were released into the culture medium, which is a good property that can keep the cargo from contamination of antibacterial agents. In addition, the coated paper presented an improved Tg and thermal degradation temperature, indicating that the coated package has favorable thermostability and can maintain its outstanding physical properties in a wider temperature range. Lignin and tannin promoted the UV stability and service life of the coated paper, as a rare physical decrease was observed after UV aging for 72 h. The function-integrated biobased coating with favorable sustainability is a good candidate to be widely used in paper-based green packaging fields.


Assuntos
Celulose , Lignina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Produtos , Taninos , Resistência à Tração
11.
Waste Manag ; 131: 88-97, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111827

RESUMO

Plastic packaging exemplifies recycling's potential; 95 percent of plastic's material use vanishes after a short first-use cycle. Yet over half of plastic packaging could be recycled effectively, economically, and in an environmentally sound manner, with individuals and households playing a focal role in raising recycling rates. This paper draws on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to identify and examine household plastic sorting and recycling factors in Finland's new recycling scheme. The results of a regression analysis generally support existing research, except paradoxically, the easier it was to obtain recycling information the less people recycled. TPB's attitude (environmental concerns) and perceived behavioural control factors (low behavioural costs, and dealing with waste) showed significant positive relationships with Finnish recycling behaviour; the subjective norm (social norms) had an insignificant relationship. Age, living quarters, the time spent recycling, the distance to collection points, and the willingness to improve also related significantly to diligent plastic waste sorting. In addition to re-examining the information type and delivery, the significant role of costs and facilitating conditions offer intervention possibilities to support households to recycle more plastic packaging.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Finlândia , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
12.
Waste Manag ; 131: 187-200, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157580

RESUMO

Single-use and packaging plastic (SUPP) strategies are intended to transform the linear make-use-dispose economy of SUPPs into a more circular, resource-efficient one. The aim of this study was to identify optimal SUPP management concepts from a circular-economy-perspective by assessing the effects of different SUPP strategies on household waste management. Data on the generation and management of SUPP-containing household waste in Germany in 2017 were compiled and a material flow model was established. Regulatory SUPP strategies were translated into scenarios (with effects on waste generation and waste composition) and implemented in the material flow model. The effects on material efficiency, waste generation and lower heating values were evaluated and trade-offs between these target dimensions were identified. In Germany in 2017, 32 kg per person and year of SUPP household waste were generated, of which 28 kg per person and year was packaging waste. From a material efficiency perspective, the combination of banning specific non-packaging SUPPs and optimizing source-separation leads to the maximum increase in final recycling rates of SUPPs in household waste, from 38% to 50%. However, in this scenario the amount of SUPP-containing household waste is hardly reduced as compared to the status quo. The trade-offs observed in different waste management target dimensions highlight the importance of understanding the systemic effects of SUPP strategies on waste management in order to identify optimal solutions from a circular-economy-perspective.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Alemanha , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 584-592, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171256

RESUMO

High utilization of thermoplastic polymers with low degradation rates as packaging materials generates a large amount of waste. Therefore, it should be replaced by natural polymers that can be degraded by microorganisms. In this paper, chitosan (CTS)/tannic acid (TA) materials in the weight ratios of 80CTS/20TA and 50CTS/50TA were prepared as potential packaging materials. The results showed that these materials were similarly degraded in soil and compost. However, in comparison to 50CTS/50TA, 80CTS/20TA was slightly better degraded in soil. After 14 days of biodegradation, the chemical structure of materials was changed resulting from adhesion of the microorganisms. The smallest changes were observed on 80CTS/20TA film. Bacterial species were collected and identified from materials after the degradation process. Microorganisms with the highest hydrolytic activity were chosen for the degradation study. Biodegradation and hydrolytic activity were observed only in a few strains, which indicate difficulties in material degradation. Soil bacteria degraded the films better than bacteria isolated from the compost. This study showed also that consortia of bacteria added to soil and compost had a positive effect on the biodegradation of the tested materials and increased the biodegradation of these materials in the studied environments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/química , Taninos/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostagem , Hidrólise , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Embalagem de Produtos , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Waste Manag ; 130: 61-64, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051604

RESUMO

In 1994, the European directive on packaging and packaging waste introduced the principle that biodegradable packaging can be recovered together with bio-waste by organic recycling (e.g. composting). Recently, critical voices have been raised against this principle on the basis that packaging does not add nutrients to the compost and is also "lost", i.e. mostly mineralized in CO2 and water. These opinions do not take into account the specificity of composting and are unfounded. The term compost comes from composite. In fact, it is necessary to mix together feedstocks with different biodegradation behaviour and different C/N ratios to start a composting process and obtain quality compost. For example, cellulose is a feedstock at medium biodegradation rate that brings energy and biomass. Energy is needed to heat the compost pile and ensure that the composting process, including pasteurization, takes place without any external energy source. On the other hand, lignin is quite recalcitrant, brings no energy to the process and forms the basic structure of compost. Cellulose does not contain nitrogen, but it is the most relevant feedstock in composting. Likewise, packaging is nitrogen-free and can be equated with cellulose in terms of biodegradation behaviour and role in the composting process. In fact, biodegradability of packaging is assessed by using cellulose as the reference material. A compostable packaging, whether based on cellulose-fibres (paper, cardboard) or based on biodegradable plastics behaves similarly to other composting feedstock and contributes to the composting process and to the production of good quality compost.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Nitrogênio/análise , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem , Solo
15.
Waste Manag ; 130: 65-73, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051605

RESUMO

The increasing use of aluminimum in packaging applications results in many different aluminium-based products ending up in consumer mixed-waste bins. This waste is typically incinerated, generating an aluminium-containing bottom ash. The current work investigates the recyclability of the aluminium fraction in the bottom ash from waste incineration plants in the USA, UK and Denmark. Incinerated Al-samples from different size fractions (2-6 mm, 6-12 mm and 12-30 mm) were characterized in terms of inherent oxide thickness, re-melting yield/coagulation and composition. The measured average oxide thickness on Al particles was 68 µm (SD=100), with the metal yield and coagulation efficiency measured to between 76 and 92% and 87-99% respectively. Larger particle size fractions resulted in a higher metal yield due to their higher mass to surface ratio. A simplified model correlating metal yield and particle size was proposed. The aluminium content of the melted material was determined to between 95.6 and 98.5% with main impurities being Fe, Si, Mn, Zn, Mg and Cu, corresponding to major aluminium alloying elements and waste charge components.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Cinza de Carvão , Alumínio/análise , Incineração , Metais , Embalagem de Produtos , Resíduos Sólidos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117338, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051562

RESUMO

Packaging is necessary for preserving and delivering products and has significant impacts on human health and the environment. Particle matter (PM) may be released from packages and transferred to the air during a typical peeling process, but little is known about this package-to-air migration route of particles. Here, we investigated the emission profiles of total and biological particles, and the horizontal and vertical dispersion abilities and community structure of viable microbes released from packaging to the air by peeling. The results revealed that a lot of inhalable particles and viable microbes were released from package to the air in different migration directions, and this migration can be regulated by several factors including package material, effective peeling area, peeling speed and angles, as well as the characteristics of the migrant itself. Dispersal of package-borne viable microbes provides direct evidence that viable microbes, including pathogens, can survive the aerosolization caused by peeling and be transferred to air over different distances while remaining alive. Based on the experimental data and visual proof in movies, we speculate that nonbiological particles are package fibers fractured and released to air by the external peeling force exerted on the package and that microbe dispersal is attributed to surface-borne microbe suspension by vibration caused by the peeling force. This investigation provides new information that aerosolized particles can deliver package-borne substances and viable microbes from packaging to the ambient environment, motivating further studies to characterize the health effects of such aerosolized particles and the geographic migration of microbes via packaging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Embalagem de Produtos
17.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(5): 512-517, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973914

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study demonstrate that Smart Touch Technology packaging, which is designed to reduce and simplify contact lens handling before insertion, is effective in reducing the frequency of bacterial contamination of the back surface of contact lenses after short-term wear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lens packaging type, chelating agent, and finger contamination on microbial contamination on the back surface of worn soft contact lenses. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects completed each contralateral lens wear comparison in this randomized study: Smart Touch Technology versus conventional blister packaging for (1) silicone hydrogel lenses with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and (2) hydrogel lenses without EDTA in the packaging, and (3) silicone hydrogel lenses without EDTA versus hydrogel lenses with EDTA both in Smart Touch Technology packaging. Participants washed hands, underwent finger swabs, and inserted the lenses. After 45 minutes, lenses were removed aseptically and the posterior lens surfaces cultured. RESULTS: Thirty-eight subjects (average age, 30.9 ± 12.5 years) participated in this study. Overall, the level of back surface contamination was low for both lens materials, ranging from 0 to 43 colony-forming unit (CFU)/lens for the silicone hydrogel and 0 to 17 CFU/lens for the hydrogel lenses. The proportion of lenses with zero back surface contamination ranged from 16 to 64% for silicone hydrogel lenses and 28 to 64% for hydrogel lenses. Contact lenses from conventional packaging containing EDTA had 3.38 times increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 11.11; P = .05) of contamination being present compared with lenses from Smart Touch packaging with EDTA. Contact lenses from conventional packaging without EDTA had 3.4 times increased risk (95% CI, 1.02 to 11.36; P = .05) of contamination being present compared with Smart Touch packaging without EDTA, and silicone hydrogel lenses had a 6.28 times increased risk (95% CI, 1.65 to 23.81; P = .007) of contamination being present compared with hydrogels. The median (interquartile range) number of bacteria isolated from fingers used to perform lens insertion after handwashing but before lens insertion was not significantly different between the silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses (63.7 [204.2] vs. 59 [84.5], P = .09). Finger contamination was not significantly associated with lens contamination in the presence or absence of EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: Smart Touch Technology packaging was effective in reducing the proportion of contaminated lenses. Although silicone hydrogel lenses were more likely to be contaminated, the presence of EDTA ameliorated this effect. Finger contamination was not associated with lens contamination.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Produtos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Soluções para Lentes de Contato , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 118012, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910716

RESUMO

Transparent-wood (TW) is an emerging research topic that can be applied to biobased products. However, it is necessary to fill pores in TW with natural substances to prepare all-biobased TW. This paper reports an all-biobased TW by infiltrating cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and chitosan (CTS) suspensions into the bleached wood. CNF was isolated by combining the chemical and physical methods, and CTS was dissolved in acetic acid, and they were infiltrated into the pores of the bleached Fir veneer wood using a vacuum jar. The CNF and chitosan effects on the mechanical properties of the TW were studied, and the morphologies, crystallinity index, water contact angle, antioxidant, thermal degradation, and UV-shielding properties were investigated. The prepared TW showed 80 % total transmittance and 30-60 % haze, suitable for solar cell application. The all-biobased TW showed good thermal stability up to 315 °C and excellent UV shielding property for UV-B and UV-C. The antioxidant property of the CTS-TW significantly increased as compared to the original wood. The CNF-TW showed considerable tensile strength and yield strength of more than 200 % improved from the original wood. The potential for environment-friendly packaging applications was demonstrated by making a bag, medicine packaging, and straw for a drink.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Nanofibras/química , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Madeira/química , Abies/química , Antioxidantes/química , Clareadores/química , Meio Ambiente , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Temperatura , Resistência à Tração , Raios Ultravioleta , Vácuo
19.
Addict Behav ; 120: 106951, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895661

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pictorial warning labels and standardized "plain" packaging are policy interventions to reduce smoking, in part, by making cigarette packs and smoking less appealing. To inform potential policy decisions, this study examined the relative effects of message text framing (gain vs. loss) and cigarette packaging (standardized vs. branded) on appeal in a sample of young adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Cigarette smokers (N = 339) ages 18-30 completed two within-subjects experimental tasks. Tasks assessed the effects of message text framing (gain vs. loss) and packaging (standardized vs. branded) on cigarette packaging appeal. Task 1 was a 2 × 2 discrete choice experiment, where participants chose between each experimental pack and a standard branded cigarette pack without a pictorial warning label. Task 2 was a ranking task where participants ranked all packs on measures of appeal. RESULTS: In Task 1, there were no significant differences in measures of appeal between packs displaying gain- vs. loss-framed message text, but all packs with pictorial warning labels significantly decreased appeal relative to standard branded packs without pictorial warning labels. Standardized packs with pictorial warning labels significantly reduced appeal relative to branded packs with pictorial warning labels and standard branded packs without pictorial warning labels. Task 2 pack rankings showed similar effects of pictorial warning labels and standardized packaging on appeal. CONCLUSIONS: Pictorial warning labels with gain- and loss-framed text were equally powerful at reducing appeal of cigarette packs in young adult smokers relative to branded packs without pictorial warning labels, especially when combined with standardized packaging.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Embalagem de Produtos , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Jovem
20.
Waste Manag ; 126: 423-432, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836393

RESUMO

Solid recovered fuel (SRF) ash consists of element oxides, which are valuable materials for cement manufacturers. When SRF is co-processed in the cement industry, its mineral content is incorporated into the clinker. Therefore, from a technical perspective, SRF ash is recycled. However, since recycling processes for materials that may be present in SRF exist, and since recycling goals are defined for different waste types, understanding the origin of these ash constituents and the contribution of different materials to the Recycling-index (R-index, i.e., the material-recyclable share of SRF) is important. In this work, the origins of Al, Ca, Fe, Si, Ti, Mg, Na, K, S, and P were first reviewed. Subsequently, ten SRF samples were sorted, and the ash content and composition of the sorting fractions (e.g., <10 mm, plastics, paper&cardboard) determined. Additionally, selected samples of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), liquid packaging board (LPB), wood, and paper&cardboard (P&C) extracted from SRF were investigated. The results demonstrated that the materials that contributed most of the valuable oxides and ash content, and thereby to the R-index of SRF, are mixed or composite fractions, for example, the fine fraction, composites, and the sorting residues. Except for the composite LPB, no other material recovery options exist for most of these fractions. For this reason, the recycling of mixed and soiled materials or residues in the cement industry may be considered a complementary option to existing recycling processes.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Incineração , Plásticos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
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