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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130769, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461509

RESUMO

A colorimetric indicator cube for use in smart packaging was designed and fabricated to detect ethanol produced by microbial fermentation in preserved baby mangoes. The presence and level of ethanol was indicated by color variations of the indicator cube, which consists of porous melamine foam (MF) that entraps an indicator solution of potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. Within the packaging, the cube sits behind a gas-permeable membrane. The morphological structure of MF was studied by digital microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the optimal condition, the indicator cube exhibited distinct color changes from yellow to brown, green and blue over an ethanol concentration range from 0.25% to 5.0%. Color changes were clearly visible to the naked eye. The repeatability of the ethanol indicator cube was good and storage stability was maintained for up to 19 and 74 days at room and refrigeration temperatures, respectively. The smart packaging was applied to detect ethanol in preserved baby mangoes at different storage times.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Mangifera , Etanol , Embalagem de Produtos , Refrigeração
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) among young adult cigarette smokers in the period July-August 2018 to examine their preference for cigarillos in response to various packaging-related attributes, including flavor, flavor description, quality descriptors, pack size, and prices. METHODS: A convenience sample of 566 US young adult cigarette smokers aged 18-34, among whom 296 were current little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smokers, were recruited using Facebook ads and invited to participate in an online (Qualtrics) tobacco survey containing DCE and tobacco use questions. In the experiment, participants chose among two cigarillo products or "neither" (opt-out). RESULTS: We analyzed preferences for LCCs using multinomial, nested, random parameter logit models. Results showed that young adult cigarette smokers preferred grape over menthol, tobacco/regular, and wine flavors; "color only" and "color and text" flavor depictions over text only; "smooth" and "sweet" quality descriptors over "satisfying"; and larger pack sizes and lower prices. CONCLUSIONS: Regulating packaging-related features will impact LCC choices among US young adult smokers. FDA regulation over these packaging-related features may impact LCC use among young adult smokers.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Mentol , Embalagem de Produtos , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 585434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744557

RESUMO

Objectives: Cigarette packs are relevant to branding strategies, designed to appeal to specific groups. There is little research on how pack features increase product appeal among key constituents such as youth in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) with adolescents and 5 FGDs with young adult smokers in Mexico City, separated by age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Participants separated 23 cigarette packs into "appealing" and "unappealing" groups, and were asked to explain their decisions, describing the features that supported their views. FGDs were video-recorded, transcribed in Spanish, translated into English, and subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Pack groupings did not differ greatly across FGDs; bold, contrasting colors and elements communicating flavor and promotion increased cigarette pack appeal and desire to try. Participants perceived packs with these features to be used by and designed for youth, like themselves. Conclusion: Our findings reinforce the importance of packaging design in attracting new consumers and maintaining current ones. Mexico should consider stronger tobacco advertising policies that include packaging color and depiction of flavor to reduce product appeal.


Assuntos
Percepção , Embalagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27492, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678880

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: With the rapid development of medical technology, the use of electrosurgical instruments is dramatically increased in various types of surgery. However, the damage of the insulation layer of the reusable electrosurgical instrument often causes surgical accidents. The procedures of packaging and cleaning contribute to many damages to insulating layer of reusable electrosurgical instruments.Various types of reusable electrosurgical instruments were detected for insulation failures, conduction failures, short-circuit by using a high-voltage detector, DIATEG (Morgate company). In addition, reusable electrosurgical instruments were detected for insulation failures after packaging and cleaning by different procedures.13.1% (129/740) electrosurgical instruments had an insulation test failure; 6.2% (9/146) monopolar wires were with conduction failure; and 7.7% (16/207) bipolar wires were with short-circuit. Different packaging and cleaning procedures contribute to various degrees of damages to insulating property of reusable electrosurgical instruments.Insulation failure was a wide problem of reusable electrosurgical instruments, while fixed packaging method and mild cleaning procedures result in fewer damages to insulating property of reusable electrosurgical instruments.


Assuntos
Eletrocirurgia/instrumentação , Falha de Equipamento , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Esterilização/métodos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Humanos
5.
Waste Manag ; 136: 213-218, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700161

RESUMO

The large-amount production and application of plastics since the 1950s has led to different environmental problems, and the production amount is still increasing. In 2015, 79 wt% of all plastic waste was accumulated in landfills or the natural environment. Due to their negative influence to the environment, the problems of landfilling and marine litter need urgent treatments. Accordingly, measures like excavation of landfill sites and ocean clean-ups were conducted to reduce their environmental influences and move further towards a closed loop of material cycles. For a possible recycling, the valuable material fractions need to be separated from other materials. Besides, to ensure a high-quality recycling and enable the different recycling processes of plastics in different degradation levels, it is necessary to separate degraded and non-degraded plastics. In this study, the possibility to classify and sort landfill and marine litter plastics is investigated. For this purpose, waste plastics from different origins (lightweight packaging (LWP) waste, landfill, and marine litter) were collected and analyzed with the state-of-the-art technology in sorting plants: near-infrared spectroscopy. With self-developed programs, the classification possibility and performance was determined. The classification accuracy of degraded plastics (from landfill and marine litter) is improved from > 75% to > 97% through adjusting the sorting recipe. Besides, the long-term degraded plastics under natural environment were able to be separated from LWP waste: the same kind of materials can be classified according to their origin (LWP or after long-term degradation), which makes a quality control possible and enables an extra treatment for degraded plastics.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Reciclagem , Embalagem de Produtos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
6.
Waste Manag ; 136: 253-265, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710801

RESUMO

Sensor-based material flow characterization (SBMC) promises to improve the performance of future-generation sorting plants by enabling new applications like automatic quality monitoring or process control. Prerequisite for this is the derivation of mass-based material flow characteristics from pixel-based sensor data, which requires known individual particle masses. Since particle masses cannot be measured inline, the prediction of particle masses of lightweight packaging (LWP) waste using machine learning (ML) algorithms is investigated. Five LWP material classes were sampled, preprocessed, and scanned on a custom-made test rig, resulting in a dataset containing 3D laser triangulation (3DLT) images, RGB images, and corresponding masses of n = 3,830 particles. Based on 66 extracted shape measurements, six ML models were trained for particle mass prediction (PMP). Their performance was compared with two state-of-the-art reference models using (i) material-specific mean particle masses and (ii) grammages. Obtained particle masses showed a high variation and significant differences between material classes and particle size classes. After feature selection, both reference models achieving R2-scores of (i) 0.422 ± 0.121 and (ii) 0.533 ± 0.224 were outperformed by all investigated ML models. A random forest regressor with an R2-score of 0.763 ± 0.091 and a normalized mean absolute error of 0.243 ± 0.050 achieved the most accurate PMP. In contrast to studies on primary raw materials, PMP of LWP waste is challenging due to influences of packaging design and post-consumer disposal behavior. ML algorithms are a promising approach for PMP that outperform state-of-the-art methods by 43% higher R2-scores.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Embalagem de Produtos , Algoritmos , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenômenos Físicos
7.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475810

RESUMO

Objective: Limited research has examined feminine marketing appeals on cigarette packs in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We reviewed a systematically collected sample of cigarette packs sold across 14 LMICs in 2013 (Wave 1) and 2015-2017 (Wave 2). Methods: Packs in Wave 1 (n = 3,240) and Wave 2 (n = 2,336) were coded for feminine imagery and descriptors (flowers, fashion, women/girls, color "pink"). We examined trends in feminine appeals over time, including co-occurrence with other pack features (slim or lipstick shape, flavor, reduced harm, and reduced odor claims). Results: The proportion of unique feminine cigarette packs significantly decreased from 8.6% (n = 278) in Wave 1 to 5.9% (n = 137) in Wave 2 (p < 0.001). Among all feminine packs, flower-and fashion-related features were most common; a substantial proportion also used flavor and reduced odor appeals. Conclusion: While there was a notable presence of feminine packs, the decline observed may reflect global trends toward marketing gender-neutral cigarettes to women and a general contempt for using traditional femininity to market products directly to women. Plain packaging standards may reduce the influence of branding on smoking among women.


Assuntos
Feminilidade , Marketing , Embalagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Embalagem de Produtos/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Waste Manag ; 133: 89-98, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388536

RESUMO

To date, PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is the most widely used plastic in packaging and also one of the most recycled polymers worldwide. However, the high transport costs and stagnated prices of recycled PET undermine recycling process profits. Transport costs can lower through compaction, which is still not a completely well-known process. Due to heterogeneous designs, the output density of the compaction process varies. This poses problems during equipment design, selection or operation processes as recovery costs sharply increase if the required density is not met. In this manuscript, the authors develop a constitutive model for the compaction of recovered PET packaging. This experimentally validated model, based on the elasto-plastic behaviour of PET packages, allows the output density range to be predicted according to the compression pressure during PET compaction. Unlike other generic compaction models that need more than two parameters, this model uses only one and better correlates with the experimental results. Unlike existing generic models, the model parameters have a physical meaning, which allows the influence of different factors on the compaction process to be assessed. Finally as a result of the model analysis, we provide some tips to enhance compaction equipment efficiency.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Reciclagem , Plásticos , Polímeros , Embalagem de Produtos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360244

RESUMO

The emergence of e-commerce and express delivery services has significantly transformed business operations and consumer shopping experience. However, the resulting problem of packaging waste, particularly from overpackaging, poses serious challenges to environmental sustainability and human health. Existing research has proposed many solutions from various perspectives, but very few have considered the acceptability and consumer preference for these proposals. Using the value co-creation (VCC) theory, we established a research model to explore consumer preferences for e-commerce overpackaging solutions. A survey of 632 online consumers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen was conducted, and data were analyzed using the SmartPLS software. The results show that establishing a recycling system, government policy, and consumers' environmental awareness have a significant positive impact on consumer preference, while combined packaging has a significant negative impact. We also found that government policy plays an intermediary role in establishing a recycling system and consumer preference. Based on these findings, we recommend that enterprises establish and improve their packaging recycling systems and that e-commerce platforms provide alternative options to combined packaging. Also, the government should play a guiding and coordinating role for enterprises and consumers, and environmental awareness among consumers should actively be promoted.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Governo , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
10.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(10): 1291-1301, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407698

RESUMO

A powerful legal tool in evolving solid waste management (SWM) systems is extended producer responsibility (EPR). It is a mechanism that shifts the responsibility of a product to manufacturers/importers at the 'end-of-life' stage. Yet, implementation of the EPR concept has faced difficulties in developing countries. In Iran, as one such country, the principle of EPR system was issued in executive regulation of SWM in 2005, however, so far, it has been limited to a voluntary scheme. The problem merits further investigation. Therefore, this study aims to shed light on the obstacles in the path of developing EPR system for product packaging. The research examines the current SWM systems in four functional classified frameworks: legal, institutional, financial and technical. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the system are elaborated through semi-structured interviews with a senior executive in the Ministry of Interior (MoI). Then, viable methods to increase resource efficiency and sustainable waste treatment are suggested. The change in the financing mechanism in the Budget Law 2020 forces the manufacturers/importers of products containing recyclable components to pay the revenue from one in 1000 products to MoI for developing recycling facilities and incinerators through partnerships with the private sector. This new strategy would promote proper management of product packaging, create more jobs and a market for international cooperation. However, poor source-separation of wet/dry waste, informal sector activities, exclusive focus on the economic aspect of waste management, lack of expertise and public awareness campaigns are the barriers in this regard.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Irã (Geográfico) , Embalagem de Produtos , Resíduos Sólidos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1420, 2021 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational evidence suggests that cigarette pack size - the number of cigarettes in a single pack - is associated with consumption but experimental evidence of a causal relationship is lacking. The tobacco industry is introducing increasingly large packs, in the absence of maximum cigarette pack size regulation. In Australia, the minimum pack size is 20 but packs of up to 50 cigarettes are available. We aimed to estimate the impact on smoking of reducing cigarette pack sizes from ≥25 to 20 cigarettes per pack. METHOD: A two-stage adaptive parallel group RCT in which Australian smokers who usually purchase packs containing ≥25 cigarettes were randomised to use only packs containing either 20 (intervention) or their usual packs (control) for four weeks. The primary outcome, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day, was measured through collecting all finished cigarette packs, labelled with the number of cigarettes participants smoked. An interim sample size re-estimation was used to evaluate the possibility of detecting a meaningful difference in the primary outcome. RESULTS: The interim analysis, conducted when 124 participants had been randomised, suggested 1122 additional participants needed to be randomised for sufficient power to detect a meaningful effect. This exceeded pre-specified criteria for feasible recruitment, and data collection was terminated accordingly. Analysis of complete data (n = 79) indicated that the mean cigarettes smoked per day was 15.9 (SD = 8.5) in the intervention arm and 16.8 (SD = 6.7) among controls (difference - 0.9: 95%CI = - 4.3, 2.6). CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether reducing cigarette pack sizes from ≥25 to 20 cigarettes reduces cigarette consumption. Importantly, the results of this study provide no evidence that capping cigarette pack sizes would be ineffective at reducing smoking. The limitations identified in this study can inform a more efficient RCT, which is urgently required to address the dearth of experimental evidence on the impact of large cigarette pack sizes on smoking. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN34202533.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Austrália , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Embalagem de Produtos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299003

RESUMO

Here, we designed paper sheets coated with chitosan, bacterial cellulose (nanofibers), and ZnO with boosted antibacterial and mechanical activity. We investigated the compositions, with ZnO exhibiting two different sizes/shapes: (1) rods and (2) irregular sphere-like particles. The proposed processing of bacterial cellulose resulted in the formation of nanofibers. Antimicrobial behavior was tested using E. coli ATCC® 25922™ following the ASTM E2149-13a standard. The mechanical properties of the paper sheets were measured by comparing tearing resistance, tensile strength, and bursting strength according to the ISO 5270 standard. The results showed an increased antibacterial response (assigned to the combination of chitosan and ZnO, independent of its shape and size) and boosted mechanical properties. Therefore, the proposed composition is an interesting multifunctional mixture for coatings in food packaging applications.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Biopolímeros/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Nanocompostos/química , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Anti-Infecciosos , Celulose/ultraestrutura , Escherichia coli , Testes Mecânicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Nanofibras/química , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Difração de Raios X
13.
Waste Manag ; 131: 423-432, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252692

RESUMO

Billion tons of post-consumer Tetra Pak cartons are discarded annually as land and ocean wastes, creating significant environmental problems and resource losses. Recycling of the carton wastes is hindered by its multi-material compositions and low values of the recycled products. In this study, a novel upcycling of the cartons was investigated. A post-consumer carton consisting of paper, polyolefin, and polyamide was directly converted in 210-230 °C tetrahydrofuran containing 10-20 mM acid to produce up to 19.2% of levoglucosenone and 8.6% of furfural by selectively decomposing paper fraction. The remaining solids containing mostly intact polyethylene and polyamide but also a smaller fraction of paper-derived char were separated using a solvent-dissolution method. The xylene-soluble fraction was a recycled polymer similar to the original polyethylene, which was verified by its functional groups, the composition of the pyrolysis products, and the melt rheology results. The xylene-insoluble fraction was a mixture of polyamide and paper-derived char. Upon pyrolysis, caprolactam was produced as the only major vapor product. The remaining, thermally stable paper-derived char could be used as a high-quality solid fuel. Overall, the demonstrated recycling method could potentially maximize the values of the products recovered from carton wastes.


Assuntos
Nylons , Polímeros , Gases , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148570, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323748

RESUMO

In China, the food delivery packaging waste is increasing due to the rapid growth of the sector and the use of single-use packaging to transport the meals. In addition, the recycling rates of current municipal waste management are low. In this regard, this study aims at estimating the climate change impact of current food delivery packaging and its waste treatment, by performing a Life Cycle Assessment with a cradle-to-grave approach. In addition, this article explores the potential benefits of increasing the current recycling rates, the recycled content of the packaging as well as the use of reusable packaging. For this study, the food packaging of a typical dumpling-based meal of the popular Chinese restaurant Xijiade was selected. Based on this menu and the current Chinese consumption patterns, the food delivery packaging in China would have emitted about 13 million tons of CO2eq. Increasing current recycling rates to 35% would reduce 16% the emissions of single-use packaging, and further decrease (60%) could be found if half of the packaging was made of recycled material. In addition, if single-use packaging was replaced by reusable PP-based packaging (food container and carrier bag), the emissions would potentially be 63% lower than the current situation. In this case, doubling the recycling rates and the recycled content of the reusable food packaging would represent an extra 6 and 17% reduction of emissions, respectively.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Produtos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Embalagem de Alimentos , Reciclagem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since 2008, Egypt has four existing generic bi-annually rotating warning labels (WLs) on 50% of the waterpipe tobacco packs (WTPs). The Ministry of Health Tobacco Control Unit proposed increasing WL size to 80%, removing colours and flavour imagery from WTPs, and plain packaging to help curb the rising epidemic of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Therefore, we measured the perceived efficacy of existing against novel enhanced (generic and waterpipe-specific) WTP WLs and the associated factors among Egyptian waterpipe smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: A purposive quota sample of 2014 adults was surveyed in two rounds using face interviews. At each round, participants were randomly shown one of four existing WLs, then one of four novel WLs. Participants rated the perceived efficacy of existing and novel WLs regarding the salience, depth of processing, affective reactions, credibility, relevance, perceived harm and perceived behavioural control. Data were analysed using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: Participants rated novel WTP WLs with higher mean perceived efficacy scores than existing WLs for all measures, although both sets collectively scored modestly (59.7; 95% CI: 58.9-60.5 vs 53.0; 95% CI: 52.1-54.0, respectively; p<0.001). Relative to the existing WTP WLs, novel WLs were particularly able to induce higher salience, affective reactions, and depth of processing. Relative to the generic novel WTP WLs, waterpipe-specific WLs induced higher relevance, perceived harm, and affective reactions. Nonsmokers scored higher than waterpipe tobacco smokers, specifically for perceived behavioral control (65.0±32.5 vs 43.6±19.8, respectively; p<0.001). WTP WLs featuring proximal risks, such as dental effects (ß = 9.70; 95% CI: 7.00-12.40), fetal harm (ß = 9.42; 95% CI: 6.75-12.10), or toxic contents (ß = 9.14; 95% CI: 6.58-11.70) were strongly associated with participants' perceived efficacy scores. Among other independent factors, rural residence (ß = 24.09; 95% CI: 22.21-25.97), being a nonsmoker (ß = 10.51; 95% CI: 8.92-12.10), survey round 2 (ß = 6.96, 95% CI: 5.73-8.19), the novel WTP WL set (ß = 6.68; 95% CI: 6.19-7.17), and having higher education (ß = 6.31; 95% CI: 4.34-8.27) were highly associated with participants' perceived efficacy scores. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe-specific WLs on plain WTPs that feature proximal risks and address different population subgroups need to be developed in conjunction with awareness raising campaigns on WTS harms to reinforce the credibility of WTP WLs. Our findings suggest the proposed WTP WL enhancements by the Tobacco Control Unit may support a more effective WTP labelling policy within a comprehensive waterpipe-specific tobacco control framework.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Autoeficácia , Fumantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , não Fumantes/psicologia , Embalagem de Produtos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Cachimbos de Água , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto Jovem
16.
Appetite ; 167: 105590, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242733

RESUMO

While consumers have been increasingly trying to reduce their meat consumption due to rising concerns about its impact on their health and the environment, many still find animal-based foods more attractive than plant-based foods, thus hindering their adoption. Could marketing cues such as product descriptors and packaging colors help make these products more attractive to consumers? Across two studies, we tested the effects of product descriptors and packaging colors on meat eating consumers' perceptions of, and behavioral intentions toward, plant-based meat alternative products. Study 1 revealed that a "plant-based" (vs. "meat alternative") descriptor positively impacted perceptions of healthiness and eco-friendliness, as well as trial likelihood, and negatively impacted predicted quantity consumed. Study 2 provided some evidence for the moderating role of packaging color, and more specifically for the (mis)matching effects of product descriptor and packaging color on product perceptions and behavioral intentions. Results revealed that, when using a "meat alternative" descriptor, mismatching (vs. matching) it with a green (vs. red) packaging color negatively impacted perceptions of eco-friendliness and trial likelihood. Conversely, when using a "plant-based" descriptor, matching (vs. mismatching) it with a green (vs. red) packaging color negatively impacted predicted satiety. Overall, our research suggests that marketing cues can, to some extent, impact consumers' perceptions of plant-based meat alternative products and related behavioral intentions, and offers many avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Embalagem de Produtos , Animais , Cor , Percepção de Cores , Carne
17.
Biomed Instrum Technol ; 55(s3): 78-84, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153997

RESUMO

The terminal sterilization of sterile orthopedic implants is a key process that, in addition to providing sterility, changes the material properties of the product and packaging. These changes might be observed during functionality testing and/or biological evaluation. We are establishing an additional sterilization process that appears promising from both a technical and business perspective. Our project aims to add X-ray sterilization to the established gamma sterilization for metallic hip and shoulder implants. To limit complexity, we started with a narrow product range. The main steps of our project journey are described here. Given that X-ray sterilization remains relatively new in terms of understanding the changes that might occur for product materials and functionality compared with changes observed following gamma radiation processing, this article highlights key steps in the change from gamma ray to X-ray sterilization.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Produtos , Esterilização , Raios gama , Raios X
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 584-592, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171256

RESUMO

High utilization of thermoplastic polymers with low degradation rates as packaging materials generates a large amount of waste. Therefore, it should be replaced by natural polymers that can be degraded by microorganisms. In this paper, chitosan (CTS)/tannic acid (TA) materials in the weight ratios of 80CTS/20TA and 50CTS/50TA were prepared as potential packaging materials. The results showed that these materials were similarly degraded in soil and compost. However, in comparison to 50CTS/50TA, 80CTS/20TA was slightly better degraded in soil. After 14 days of biodegradation, the chemical structure of materials was changed resulting from adhesion of the microorganisms. The smallest changes were observed on 80CTS/20TA film. Bacterial species were collected and identified from materials after the degradation process. Microorganisms with the highest hydrolytic activity were chosen for the degradation study. Biodegradation and hydrolytic activity were observed only in a few strains, which indicate difficulties in material degradation. Soil bacteria degraded the films better than bacteria isolated from the compost. This study showed also that consortia of bacteria added to soil and compost had a positive effect on the biodegradation of the tested materials and increased the biodegradation of these materials in the studied environments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/química , Taninos/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostagem , Hidrólise , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Embalagem de Produtos , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(8): 3251-3263, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165303

RESUMO

Lignin/tannin/ZnONP composite coatings were designed for paper-based green packaging. Multiple functions, such as high strength, moisture resistance, low air permeance, heat endurance, UV aging resistance, and antibacterial/mold properties, were successfully integrated into one biobased coating. Prepolymerization improved the physical properties of coatings at high lignin contents. The best ingredient ratio was: 40% lignin, 15% tannin, and 10% ZnONPs (based on tannin weight), and the as-prepared biocoating was labeled LTZn-10. After coated with LTZn-10, the tensile strength and bursting strength of the packaging were efficiently enhanced by more than 3 times and were dramatically increased by 51.6 and 5.6 times at the wet state, respectively, which reveals that the packaging has favorable moisture resistance and it can be used in high humidity environments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that most of the pores on the paper were blocked by the coatings, which helped to decrease the air permeance by 10.3 times. Meanwhile, ZnONPs were evenly spread on the coatings, which endowed the packaging with excellent antibacterial/mold performance. No colony or mycelium was found in the test against Gram-negative/positive bacteria and eight common molds. Besides, antibacterial activity is only available while the bacteria come in contact with the coating and no active substances were released into the culture medium, which is a good property that can keep the cargo from contamination of antibacterial agents. In addition, the coated paper presented an improved Tg and thermal degradation temperature, indicating that the coated package has favorable thermostability and can maintain its outstanding physical properties in a wider temperature range. Lignin and tannin promoted the UV stability and service life of the coated paper, as a rare physical decrease was observed after UV aging for 72 h. The function-integrated biobased coating with favorable sustainability is a good candidate to be widely used in paper-based green packaging fields.


Assuntos
Celulose , Lignina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Produtos , Taninos , Resistência à Tração
20.
Waste Manag ; 131: 88-97, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111827

RESUMO

Plastic packaging exemplifies recycling's potential; 95 percent of plastic's material use vanishes after a short first-use cycle. Yet over half of plastic packaging could be recycled effectively, economically, and in an environmentally sound manner, with individuals and households playing a focal role in raising recycling rates. This paper draws on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to identify and examine household plastic sorting and recycling factors in Finland's new recycling scheme. The results of a regression analysis generally support existing research, except paradoxically, the easier it was to obtain recycling information the less people recycled. TPB's attitude (environmental concerns) and perceived behavioural control factors (low behavioural costs, and dealing with waste) showed significant positive relationships with Finnish recycling behaviour; the subjective norm (social norms) had an insignificant relationship. Age, living quarters, the time spent recycling, the distance to collection points, and the willingness to improve also related significantly to diligent plastic waste sorting. In addition to re-examining the information type and delivery, the significant role of costs and facilitating conditions offer intervention possibilities to support households to recycle more plastic packaging.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Finlândia , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
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