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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 132: 105266, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594621

RESUMO

Determining the biomechanical properties of human tissues commonly involves the immersion or spraying of the tissues to maintain them in a hydrated state. However, the influence of the pH value of these solutions on the biomechanical properties of the tissues is not well understood. This study investigated the effects of the pH value on the biomechanical properties of the collagen-rich human iliotibial band (ITB). A total of 124 samples were allocated to polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of pH values between 3 and 13 for 24 h, which is a frequently used immersion time prior to biomechanical tests. After this, the samples were biomechanically tested in a uniaxial tensile testing setup using an established testing routine. Similarly, 69 samples were allocated to pH groups of 6, 7 and 8 and biomechanically tested after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The cross-sectional area of all samples was determined after immersion into the PEG solutions for the specified time frames. In the 24-h experiment, the elastic modulus (pH 12: p ≤ 0.045; pH 13: p ≤ 0.020) and the ultimate tensile strength (pH 12: p ≤ 0.031; pH 13: p ≤ 0.026) of the pH groups 12 and 13 were significantly lower and their cross-sectional areas were higher (pH 12: p ≤ 0.005; pH 13: p ≤ 0.003) compared to several groups of acidic to alkaline pH values. There was no difference in the maximum forces between the different groups within a 24-h immersion time (p > 0.999). In the 3-week-test, a decrease of the ultimate tensile strength was noted between the 24-h and 3 week values for the pH groups 7 (p = 0.034) and 8 (p = 0.029). It is concluded that pH-dependent tissue swelling influences the cross-sectional area-dependent biomechanical properties of the human ITB. Therefore, the pH value of storage and hydration solutions for the preparation of biomechanical tests should be recorded. From a biomechanical perspective, the collagen stability of the human ITB is largely unaltered in PEG solutions with pH values between 3 and 13 over 24 h.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Fascia Lata , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Colágeno , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resistência à Tração
2.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(7): 425-436, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583522

RESUMO

The funeral service profession has used formaldehyde-containing embalming solutions for the preparation of decedents since the early 1900s. The available literature regarding funeral director exposure to formaldehyde largely consists of data collected prior to 2000, with most studies reporting task-length exposure concentrations rather than full-shift time-weighted average concentrations. As formaldehyde undergoes review in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) risk evaluation process, accurately characterizing long-term exposure potential in this profession is critical. This study presents passive badge sampling and air change rate measurement results conducted at 13 funeral home locations across the United States. Full-shift (approximately 8-hr) samples were collected on one embalmer per day in each funeral home and on one occupational non-user (ONU), e.g., a receptionist. Additionally, task-length samples were collected during each embalming that occurred during the shift, were one to occur. Full-shift concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 1.1 ppm and 0.007 to 0.042 ppm for embalmers and ONUs, respectively. Task-length formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 0.058 to 1.4 ppm, with the average embalming taking 72.8 min to complete. Air change rates in the preparation rooms ranged from 2.8 to 28.3 air changes per hour; however, no correlation between task-length formaldehyde concentrations and air change rate was observed. Following empirical data collection, a Monte Carlo analysis of estimated annual 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) exposure was conducted to determine the potential exposure distribution for embalmers employed at private funeral homes. Inputs to the simulation were derived from responses to a National Funeral Directors Association survey and from empirical measurements collected during the study. With respect to the reconstructed 8-hr TWAs, the median 8-hr TWA was 0.037 ppm, with 93.6% of the predicted concentrations below 0.1 ppm. This study provides a robust characterization of contemporary formaldehyde exposures in the funeral service profession. Further, it provides a strategy for interpreting the results along with surveyed responses regarding embalming frequency to better inform risks associated with formaldehyde exposure in this profession.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Exposição Ocupacional , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/análise , Funerárias , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória , Estados Unidos
3.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(3): 273-282, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460067

RESUMO

The traditional apprenticeship approach to surgical skill education for young surgeons has drastically changed to more systematic surgical training using cadavers. Cadavers fixed with formalin are not suitable for surgical training because of their associated health hazards and overhardening. Recently, we established a formalin-free soft preservation method for human cadavers using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. Since 2012, 61 cadavers have been embalmed with pyrrolidone in our institution. Tissues of pyrrolidone-embalmed cadavers are soft and pliable, and their bodies can be preserved for as long as 37 months without any signs of corruption. In this review, we introduce our recent attempts to apply pyrrolidone-embalmed cadavers in surgical and medical procedure training, including endotracheal intubation, motion physiology of the vocal folds, laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic skull base surgery, and development of novel medical devices. Future research perspectives on pyrrolidone embalming are discussed.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Formaldeído , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Humanos , Pirrolidinonas
4.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(3): 283-289, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482209

RESUMO

Thiel embalmed and fresh-frozen cadavers have been mainly used for hand surgery training. We held a training seminar on skin flap elevation using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of such training and to validate the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers for hand surgery training. Participants were trained in elevation procedures for the oblique triangular, reverse digital artery, reverse radial forearm, and reverse dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. Forty-eight surgeons participated in three seminars (one held in 2017, 2018, and 2019 each). A self-assessment of the participants' confidence levels for their surgical skills was performed before and immediately after the seminar, and the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers was determined in terms of visual perception, tactility, comparison with real-world surgical settings, and usefulness. The confidence level for all skills increased immediately after the seminar. The surgeons reported that the visual perception and tactility of the saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers were comparable to those of a living body, and the cadavers were rated higher with respect to their usefulness. Hand surgery seminars using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method are considered useful for training in skin flap techniques.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Mãos , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Mãos/cirurgia , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio
5.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 198(6): 582-592, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403891

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thiel embalming followed by freezing in the desired position and acquiring CT + MRI scans is expected to be the ideal approach to obtain accurate, enhanced CT data for delineation guideline development. The effect of Thiel embalming and freezing on MRI image quality is not known. This study evaluates the above-described process to obtain enhanced CT datasets, focusing on the integration of MRI data obtained from frozen, Thiel-embalmed specimens. METHODS: Three Thiel-embalmed specimens were frozen in prone crawl position and MRI scanning protocols were evaluated based on contrast detail and structural conformity between 3D renderings from corresponding structures, segmented on corresponding MRI and CT scans. The measurement error of the dataset registration procedure was also assessed. RESULTS: Scanning protocol T1 VIBE FS enabled swift differentiation of soft tissues based on contrast detail, even allowing a fully detailed segmentation of the brachial plexus. Structural conformity between the reconstructed structures on CT and MRI was excellent, with nerves and blood vessels imported into the CT scan never intersecting with the bones. The mean measurement error for the image registration procedure was consistently in the submillimeter range (range 0.77-0.94 mm). CONCLUSION: Based on the excellent MRI image quality and the submillimeter error margin, the procedure of scanning frozen Thiel-embalmed specimens in the treatment position to obtain enhanced CT scans is recommended. The procedure can be used to support the postulation of delineation guidelines, or for training deep learning algorithms, considering automated segmentations.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(3): 297-302, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312964

RESUMO

The usefulness of cadaver surgical training in the clinical field is already well known. In Japan, the number of universities introducing cadaver surgical training is increasing. In addition to formalin fixation, various fixation methods are used, such as the Thiel method, saturated salt solution method, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone method, and fresh-frozen cadavers. Although protection against infections during fixation and cadaver surgical training has been implemented in most universities, it is currently inadequate. Furthermore, the possibility of undiagnosed infectious diseases in donors cannot be excluded. Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are relatively rare, but they are fatal, with no effective treatment. The abnormal prion protein that causes prion diseases is resistant to formaldehyde and cannot be inactivated by all methods of cadaver fixation presently in use. Recently developed real-time quaking-induced conversion has been reported to be a useful screening method for prion infection. In addition, this article aims to raise awareness of prion diseases in cadaver surgical training by reviewing the current understanding of prion diseases in cadavers and their screening methods.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob , Doenças Priônicas , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Formaldeído , Humanos
8.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268632

RESUMO

The study of animal mummification in ancient Egypt has recently received increasing attention from a number of modern scholars given the fact that this part of ancient Egyptian funerary and religious history is a practice yet to be fully understood. In this study, nine samples of embalming matter were extracted from six gazelle mummies from the archaeological site of Kom Mereh (modern village of Komir), dated to the Roman period of dominance in ancient Egypt. All samples were analyzed for the presence of inorganic and organic matter applying a multi-analytical approach based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, in order to identify more specific compounds such as bitumen and beeswax in studied balms, each sample was subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE) and saponification separation process, respectively. The results of this study revealed that the majority of the analyzed embalming substances sampled from six gazelle mummies from Kom Mereh were complex mixtures of plant oils, animal fats, conifer resin, and beeswax. In this regard, this study was able to report a practice until now unmentioned in the scientific literature, namely, the use of cruciferous oil, derived from seeds of Brassicaceae plants, in animal mummification.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Brassicaceae , Múmias , Animais , Egito , Antigo Egito , Embalsamamento/métodos , História Antiga , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(3): 264-272, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239164

RESUMO

Formaldehyde has been traditionally used for embalming human cadavers for gross anatomy education and surgical skills training. However, exposure to formaldehyde negatively affects human health. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of reperfusing urea solution to a formalin-embalmed cadaver for surgical skills training and then investigate the cadaver's tissue elasticity alteration after being soaked into the urea solution. Twelve surgeons evaluated the similarity of tissue characteristics between the cadaver (embalmed by formalin solution and reperfused by urea solution) and a living human body. Furthermore, the tissue formaldehyde content and mechanical properties of the formalin-fixated femoral skin and artery specimens with or without soaking into urea solution were measured. Results showed that the tactile assessment, skin incision, vessel ligation and suture, and decollement were better and more useful in the cadaver reperfused by urea solution than in the cadaver merely fixated by formalin solution. In the urea-reperfused cadaver, the volatilized, or tissue formaldehyde levels declined. The stiffness and Young's modulus of the femoral skin and artery were also lower in the specimen than in the mere formalin-fixated specimen. In conclusion, reperfusion of urea solution to the formalin-fixated cadaver makes anatomical education and surgical skills training more efficient with fewer requirements for cadaver management.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Formaldeído , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Humanos , Reperfusão , Ureia
10.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(3): 290-296, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137346

RESUMO

Current teaching and training methods for surgical techniques in the pediatric population involve artificial models (manikins), animals or adult human cadavers embalmed using various techniques. We found no references in the literature concerning the use of the Thiel method in the pediatric population. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the viability of using pediatric human cadavers embalmed through Thiel's technique and to compare them with standard pediatric manikins. After donation of a 24-week stillborn, the Thiel technique was carried out for fixation following the usual protocol. A video recording with eye-tracking glasses was used to perform an examination, and techniques. The same procedures were conducted on a pediatric manikin. Medical students, medical residents and physicians were asked to respond to questions in an online survey after being shown the video. A total of 92 responses were obtained. The Thiel-embalmed stillborn was assessed as superior to the manikin in all items. Our study confirmed that this technique is feasible even with extremely small donors. The value of this form of preservation for medical training is not widely known though it is receiving increasing interest. Our results show that Thiel fixation in pediatrics is clearly more highly valued than a manikin and offers great potential. This innovative application of the Thiel method in the pediatric population is technically possible. It poses no additional difficulties and is very positively assessed for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Animais , Cadáver , Criança , Embalsamamento/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1356: 299-317, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146627

RESUMO

Within the discipline of anatomical education, the use of donated human cadavers in laboratory-based learning activities is often described as the 'gold standard' resource for supporting student understanding of anatomy. Due to both historical and educational factors, cadaveric dissection has traditionally been the approach against which other anatomy learning modalities and resources have been judged. To prepare human donors for teaching purposes, bodies must be embalmed with fixative agents to preserve the tissues. Embalmed cadavers can then be dissected by students or can be prosected or plastinated to produce teaching resources. Here, we describe the history of cadaveric preservation in anatomy education and review the practical strengths and limitations of current approaches for the embalming of human bodies. Furthermore, we investigate the pedagogic benefits of a range of established modern embalming techniques. We describe relevant cadaveric attributes and their impacts on learning, including the importance of colour, texture, smell, and joint mobility. We also explore the emotional and humanistic elements of the use of human donors in anatomy education, and the relative impact of these factors when alternative types of embalming process are performed. Based on these underpinnings, we provide a technical description of our modern Newcastle-WhitWell embalming process. In doing so, we aim to inform anatomy educators and technical staff seeking to embalm human donors rapidly and safely and at reduced costs, while enhancing visual and haptic tissue characteristics. We propose that our technique has logistical and pedagogic implications, both for the development of embalming techniques and for student visualisation and learning.


Assuntos
Dissecação , Embalsamamento , Cadáver , Fixadores , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
12.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(3): 345-352, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thiel's body preservation method allows the donor body to retain color and soft tissue that are similar to those of a living individual. Since its initial description, the technique has not been developed much. Here, we propose a simpler protocol applied to the head and neck, making the technique easier, cheaper, and more accessible to a greater number of medical schools. METHODS: The modified Thiel technique was applied to three heads separated from the body, followed by 6 h of perfusion and 6 weeks of fixation. This technique was compared with formalin (three heads) and freeze (three heads) preservations during academic training in head and neck surgery. Anatomical dissections included a parotid gland dissection, a submandibular gland dissection, an otologic and an endonasal dissection. Twelve surgeons blindly assessed the three types of preservations using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The modified Thiel technique made possible better quality of dissection and tissue identification, with the exception of endonasal dissection. Concerning the endonasal dissection, the modified Thiel technique ranked best for smell, but all other criteria ranked lower than the freezing method. For the submandibular and parotid gland dissections, the modified Thiel technique was ranked best, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.002) for all items. The modified Thiel technique also ranked significantly better during otologic surgery regarding the quality of the skin/eardrum, bone, and muscle, and the smell. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the modified Thiel technique is an embalming technique which improves the quality of head and neck surgical anatomy education.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Formaldeído , Cadáver , Dissecação/métodos , Embalsamamento/métodos , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina
13.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(4): 347-357, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113344

RESUMO

Tissue-hardening effect and health-hazard issue of formaldehyde (FA) have long been a great disadvantage of this conventional fixative in anatomical research. We recently developed a FA-free embalming method for cadavers which utilizes N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and enables assessment of motion kinetics by maintaining the softness of embalmed tissue. By assessing the feasibility of NVP-embalmed tissue to mimic vocalization, this study aimed to prove the potential of embalmed cadavers, which have previously been used only for the understanding of anatomical morphology, for the assessment of precise motion physiology in the human body. Ten cadavers embalmed in NVP (n = 6) and FA (n = 4) were incorporated in this study. Excised larynges underwent experimental phonation to mimic vocalization with fast and pliable vibration of vocal folds. High-speed digital imaging was utilized for the assessment of vocal fold vibration. Furthermore, acoustic analysis of the voiced sound, and reproducibility examination were also performed. Regular vocal fold vibrations successfully produced voiced sounds during experimental phonation using NVP-embalmed larynges. The vibratory frequency, vibration amplitude, and stretch rate of the vocal folds were comparable to those of living humans. Six months after the first experiment, the vocal parameters were reproduced, to suggest the long-term preservation potential of our NVP-embalming technique. On the other hand, neither voiced sound nor vocal fold vibration were observed in FA-embalmed larynges. This novel embalming technique could pioneer the next era to utilize embalmed cadavers for the examination of motion physiology in the human body.


Assuntos
Laringe , Prega Vocal , Cadáver , Embalsamamento , Humanos , Pirrolidinonas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vibração , Prega Vocal/fisiologia
14.
Transplant Proc ; 54(2): 230-232, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of brain-dead donors has been increasing; however, the opportunity for young surgeons to experience deceased donor surgeries is extremely limited, especially in many Asian countries including Japan. Deceased donor surgeries require unique surgical skills and knowledge; however, it is difficult to provide on-the-job guidance and education. Therefore, cadaver training is meaningful and suitable for the training of deceased donor surgeries. Thiel's embalming method (TEM) provides natural coloration, flexibility, and tissue plasticity, and is widely used for cadaver surgical training. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of Thiel's embalmed cadaver training for organ procurement surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Each trainee performed hepatectomy, pancreatectomy, and nephrectomy using conventional open techniques. Faculty experts of transplantation surgery and organ procurement took attendees through surgical steps. After the procedure, all participants were asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous survey, consisting of a 10-point satisfaction scale, to evaluate their perceptions of the training. RESULTS: A total of 33 gastrointestinal surgeons participated in the training program for procuring the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. In the questionnaire administered to the participants, the evaluation was generally satisfactory, with an average of 9.1 points on the 10-point scales. Some participants expressed that Thiel-embalmed cadavers are more suitable for training on organ procurement compared with animals used in wet-lab training. CONCLUSION: We conclude that organ procurement training in human cadavers preserved by TEM is useful and suitable for practicing deceased donor organ procurement, especially in countries where deceased donors are not common, as in Japan.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Animais , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Humanos , Nefrectomia/educação
15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262415, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051207

RESUMO

Published cerebrovascular injection techniques have mostly used decapitated, fresh cadavers or heads embalmed with 10% formaldehyde. There have been no reports using vascular-injected cadavers for head and neck surgical training models or using vascular injections in saturated salt method-embalmed cadavers. Thus, we performed vascular labeling of five saturated salt method-embalmed cadavers without decapitation. Latex mixed with red ink was injected into the common carotid artery via a 3D-printed vascular adapter. The injection force was provided by a peristaltic pump. Thyroidectomy, submandibular gland excision, neck dissection, parotidectomy, and mandibulotomy were performed on both sides of each cadaver (n = 10). The consistency of the cadavers was softer than fresh ones. Subcutaneous tissues were well preserved, and muscles were moist and elastic. Five physicians graded the resemblance of the heads and necks of the latex-injected, saturated salt method-embalmed, non-decapitated of five cadavers compared to living humans using a Likert scale from 0 (no resemblance) to 5 (maximum resemblance). Fifty-two percent of the head and neck region resemblance scale ratings were four or five. Although the cadavers were practical for head and neck surgical simulations, the brain parenchyma was only partially preserved and unsuitable for use. The most distal arterial branches reached by the injected latex were measured. The external caliber of the smallest vessels reached were lacrimal arteries (mean caliber ± SD, 0.04 ± 0.04 mm; 95% CI [0, 0.09]). There were no significant differences in the mean caliber of the smallest vessels reached between the left- and right-sided arterial branches (all p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Cabeça/cirurgia , Modelos Anatômicos , Pescoço/cirurgia , Treinamento por Simulação , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Látex , Tireoidectomia/educação
16.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 39(4): 477-480, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219498

RESUMO

Embalming of the dead is more common in the United States than anywhere else in the world. Battles far from home during the Civil War with concern for contagion from dead bodies being shipped home compelled President Lincoln to direct the troops to use embalming to allow the return of the Union dead to their homes. Viewings were common with war heroes and culminated with the viewing of Lincoln himself. In the 20th century embalming became a tradition despite substantial evidence indicating environmental and occupational hazards related to embalming fluids and carbon dioxide generated from manufacturing steel coffins before placing in concrete burial vaults. Embalming is promoted and considered helpful to the grieving process. Embalmers are expected to produce an illusion of rest, an image that in some ways disguises death for the benefit of mourners. The dead are carefully displayed in a condition of liminal repose where the 'true' condition is hidden, and death is removed from the actual event. In this paper we highlight the spiritual and cultural complexities of embalming related issues. We propose an innovative process to empower people facing serious illness, and their families to make shared and informed decisions, especially when death is an expected outcome.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Pesar , Cadáver , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Anat ; 239(5): 1221-1225, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633083

RESUMO

Teaching and learning anatomy by using human cadaveric specimens has been a foundation of medical and biomedical teaching for hundreds of years. Therefore, the majority of institutions that teach topographical anatomy rely on body donation programmes to provide specimens for both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching of gross anatomy. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to anatomy teaching because of the suspension of donor acceptance at most institutions. This was largely due to concerns about the potential transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the absence of data about the ability of embalming solutions to neutralise the virus. Twenty embalming solutions commonly used in institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland were tested for their ability to neutralise SARS-CoV-2, using an established cytotoxicity assay. All embalming solutions tested neutralised SARS-CoV-2, with the majority of solutions being effective at high-working dilutions. These results suggest that successful embalming with the tested solutions can neutralise the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby facilitating the safe resumption of body donation programmes and cadaveric anatomy teaching.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Embalsamamento/métodos , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , COVID-19/transmissão , Cadáver , Células Cultivadas , Fixadores/farmacologia , Humanos
18.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 412-419, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the suitability of larynges preserved with Thiel's embalming method for phonosurgery training. METHODS: A training model for phonosurgery techniques simulating vocal pathology and glottal insufficiency is developed to compare and evaluate the perception of embalmed vocal cords through a voluntary and anonymous survey rated on a scale of 1-5. A total of 10 residents and young otolaryngologists participated in the surgical training in phonosurgery. RESULTS: Ten larynges preserved in formalin and 10 Thiel's embalmed larynges were used for the investigation. Phonosurgery procedures were performed following microflap and injection laryngoplasty techniques. The larynges preserved with Thiel's method demonstrated vocal cords that maintain their pliability and good tissue quality allowing a sensation of realism compared to the living body and providing suitable conditions for realistic laryngeal training. Participants held a positive experience, believed them to be useful and that these models of embalmed larynges were similar to the clinical setting and improved skills and confidence in performing phonosurgery. CONCLUSIONS: The human larynges embalmed with Thiel's method maintain the pliability of the vocal cords, thus representing a unique model to practice and reproduce training for endolaryngeal procedures without the risks of contamination, anatomical variation, or rigidity of other models.


Assuntos
Laringoplastia , Laringe , Cadáver , Embalsamamento/métodos , Formaldeído , Humanos , Laringe/cirurgia , Prega Vocal/cirurgia
19.
Endeavour ; 45(3): 100780, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364062

RESUMO

In this article we document the role of Ivan Matveevich Sokolov, anatomy professor at Moscow University, in the mummification of Julia Pastrana, born in Mexico (afterwards an American citizen by marriage), and her son. Sokolov had investigated and described the corpse of this famous "hairy woman" as an example of a congenital anomaly of the genus Homo. Due to the art of Sokolov's embalming, the mummies of Julia and her son were presented to the scientific world, which made it possible to study similar cases of deformity in the human population. However, the historical role of Sokolov was not limited to his study of a congenital disease. His thorough postmortem examination and description of Pastrana's and her son's bodies allowed Sokolov to make an indirect contribution to evolutionary thought. Sokolov's confirmation that Pastrana belonged to the genus Homo refuted all speculation about her hybrid origins and status as a missing link in the evolution of apes into humans.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Múmias , Animais , Autopsia , Embalsamamento , Feminino , Humanos , Núcleo Familiar
20.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 30(2): 112-115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181529

RESUMO

Physical examination education begins early for medical learners. A hindrance to physical exam competency is lack of exposure to pathology in standardized patient settings. This research focuses on improving medical education through the utilization of cadavers that have undergone a soft-embalming technique: the Thiel method. Three scenarios were created in four Thiel cadavers: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear, and sham incision. Students were asked to diagnose ACL tears using the Lachman exam. A total of 54 learners participated in the study. Post-surveys indicated most learners: (1) prefer to use standardized patients (SPs) and soft-embalmed cadavers in their physical examination courses, (2) increased their confidence in performing the Lachman exam on real patients, and (3) enhanced their Lachman technique. SPs ultimately cannot volitionally reproduce the physical exam findings of ACL deficiency. Consequently, learners cannot accurately identify positive versus negative examination findings. Thiel-embalmed cadavers are a valuable resource for physical examination education. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 30(2):112-115, 2021).


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Embalsamamento , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico , Cadáver , Humanos , Exame Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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