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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-10, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341792

RESUMO

O trabalho é uma reflexão crítica sobre uma intervenção realizada no Centro Nocturno (Albergue) do Programa de Atención a Personas en Situación de Calle (PASC), do Ministerio de Desarrollo Social (MIDES, Uruguai) que visa à reinserção sociocultural/laboral dos usuários. Trabalhou-se com a equipe do albergue (coordenador, técnicos e educadores), a partir de uma demanda da Coordenação do Albergue ao Departamento de Fotolinguagem da Asociación de Psicopatología y Psiquiatría de la Infancia y la Adolescencia (APPIA). A metodologia combinou Fotolinguagem, Palavra e Psicodrama. O discurso dos participantes foi analisado salvaguardando a identidade dos participantes. Surgiram elementos que colocavam em risco a saúde ocupacional. Estes resultavam de uma tarefa altamente exigente, com insuficientes antecedentes e recursos disponíveis no sistema institucional. Trata-se de um trabalho pioneiro que exige a convivência com o erro em situações extremas. Foi observado um aumento da autoconfiança para desbravar um território desafiador. Foi valorizado o ato de fazer, de transcender e de criar saberes, assim como o conhecimento que surge da experiência para contribuir e trocar ideias com outras instituições e melhorar assim os programas de intervenção.


This work is a critical reflection on an intervention carried out at a night shelter of the Homeless Assistance Program (PASC), under the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES), aimed at the socio-cultural/labour reintegration of the users. The intervention was carried out with the work team (coordinator, technicians and educators) upon request of the Coordinator to the Photolanguage Department of the Uruguayan Association of Psychopathology and Psychiatry of Children and Adolescents (APPIA). The methodology articulated Photolanguage, words and Psychodrama. The discourse of the participants was analyzed without disclosing their identities. There were working conditions that jeopardized their occupational health; they involved a very demanding job combined with a lack of background and resources in the institutional system. It is a pioneering work that requires coping with error in extreme situations. Participants experienced an increase in their self-confidence which was necessary to open new pathways in a challenging territory. Participants placed value on hands-on experience, on going beyond what was already accomplished by creating new knowledge that can contribute to enhance the interaction with other professionals and institutions to improve future programs.


El trabajo es una reflexión crítica sobre una intervención en un Centro Nocturno (Refugio) del Programa de Atención a Personas en Situación de Calle (PASC) del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social (MIDES), cuyo objetivo es la reinserción socio-cultural/laboral de los usuarios. Se trabajó con el equipo del Centro (coordinador, técnicos y educadores) por demanda de la Coordinación del Centro al Departamento de Fotolenguaje de la Asociación de Psicopatología y Psiquiatría de la Infancia y la Adolescencia (APPIA). La metodología articuló Fotolenguaje, Palabra y Psicodrama. Se analizó el discurso de los participantes salvaguardando la identidad de los mismos. Surgieron elementos que ponen en riesgo la salud laboral, y que se generaron por tarea altamente exigente con escasos antecedentes y recursos disponibles en el sistema institucional. Es un trabajo pionero que exige la convivencia con el error en situaciones límites. Se observó un aumento de la auto-confianza para abrir caminos en un terreno desafiante. Se valora el hacer, trascender y crear saberes, así como el conocimiento que surge de la experiencia para intercambiar con otras instituciones para mejorar los programas de intervención.


Assuntos
Psicodrama , Mudança Social , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Campos de Refugiados , Abrigo , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Processos Grupais
2.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 10 28.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate Swedish immigrants to the United States debarred for medical reasons, with particular focus on trachoma. METHOD: Annual official reports of debarred immigrants have been compiled to compare reasons for debarment among Scandinavian immigrants vs. immigrants from all countries. Individual cases of trachoma among Swedish immigrants have been searched for in contemporary newspaper articles and combined with personal sources such as passenger lists and church records. RESULT: Between 1900-1925 about 1% of 850 000 Scandinavian immigrants to the United States were debarred, compared to 2,3% for migrants from all nations. The most common reason for Scandinavians to be debarred was likelihood to become a public charge, which included both poverty and several chronic diseases (46%). The share of individuals with contagious diseases among the debarred was 8%. Mental defects accounted for 3 %, the same number as trachoma during the time this was reported 1908-1925. Three cases of Swedes debarred from emigration due to trachoma are presented.  Conclusion: Scandinavian immigrants could be debarred due to trachoma but were less affected than other nationalities by the restrictions launched in the late 19th century.  Keywords: Emigration, trachoma, Ellis Island, debarment.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tracoma , Emigração e Imigração , Pálpebras , Humanos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770030

RESUMO

We conducted a prospective study, aimed to study whether the prevalence of mental disorders after birth differs by country of origin. Parturient mothers of Ethiopian origin, Former-USSR (FSU) origin, or nonimmigrant, native-Israeli origin (n = 974, all Jewish) were recruited in hospitals in Israel and were followed 6-8 weeks and one year after birth. General linear models were used to study the associations between origin and mental health, comparing Ethiopian and FSU origin with native-Israeli. Ethiopian and FSU mothers were more likely to report on somatic symptoms, compared with native-Israeli women. Ethiopian origin was negatively and significantly associated with anxiety in all three interviews (ß = -1.281, ß = -0.678 and ß = -1.072, respectively; p < 0.05 in all). FSU origin was negatively associated with depression after birth (ß = -0.709, p = 0.036), and negatively associated with anxiety after birth and one-year postpartum (ß = -0.494, and ß = -0.630, respectively). Stressful life events were significantly associated with all mental disorders in the three time points of interviews. Our findings suggest that immigrants tend to express higher mental distress with somatic symptoms. Additional tools are needed for mental distress screening among immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Transtornos Mentais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S117-S125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740418

RESUMO

Although they are an increasing share of the US child population (26% in 2020) and have much higher poverty rates than children in nonimmigrant families (20.9% vs 9.9%), children in immigrant families have much more restricted access to the social safety net, which can lead to increased economic hardship and health and developmental risks. More than 90% of children in immigrant families are US citizens, but they are excluded from the safety net due to restrictions that affect their parents and other family members. Exclusions that affect children in immigrant families include restricted categorical eligibility based on immigrant status, stricter income eligibility, reduced benefit levels, high administrative burden, and interactions with immigration policy such as public charge. These exclusions limit the ability of both existing and enhanced social programs to reduce child poverty among this population. Results derived from the Transfer Income Model simulations for the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine's 2019 report A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty show that the poverty-reducing effects of potential enhancements to three main antipoverty programs result in unequal poverty reduction effects by family citizenship/immigration status with disproportionate negative effects on Hispanic children, 54% of whom live in immigrant families. Policy principles to improve equitable access and poverty-reduction effects of social programs for children in immigrant families include basing eligibility and benefit levels on the developmental, health and nutrition needs of the child instead of the immigration status of other family members, reducing administrative burden, and eliminating the link between immigration policy and access to the safety net.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pobreza , Criança , Emigração e Imigração , Família , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, Indian immigrants are one of the fastest-growing communities. Since oral cancer is widespread in India, the indulgence of Indians in customs of areca (betel) nut use in Australia may be linked to the recent rise in oral cancer cases. Since GPs (general practitioners) are primary healthcare providers, it is pivotal to ensure the oral cancer awareness of GPs. This study aimed to explore oral cancer risk-related knowledge, beliefs, and clinical practices of GPs in Australia. METHODS: Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs practicing across New South Wales and Victoria. Purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. Data were analysed through a directed content analysis approach. RESULTS: All GPs were knowledgeable of major oral cancer causative factors including tobacco and alcohol, but some had limited understanding about the risks associated with areca nut preparations. Positive attitudes were evident, with all participants acknowledging the importance of oral cancer risk assessment. Most GPs recalled not performing oral cancer routine check-ups. CONCLUSION: GPs presented good oral cancer knowledge except for emerging risk factors such as areca nut use. Varied beliefs and inconsistent clinical practices relating to oral cancer screening is concerning. Accessible oral cancer training around emerging risk factors may benefit GPs.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Clínicos Gerais , Neoplasias Bucais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Vitória
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769942

RESUMO

This paper explores loneliness as it is understood and experienced by adolescents, with a special focus on the importance of their migration status. We recruited students from five schools following a maximum variation sampling scheme, and we conducted 15 semi-structured, individual interviews with eighth-grade adolescents (aged 14-15 years) that were immigrants, descendants, and with a Danish majority background. A thematic analysis was applied with a special focus on differences and similarities in understanding and experiencing loneliness between adolescents with diverse migration status. The results showed more similarities than differences in loneliness. Generally, loneliness was described as an adverse feeling, varying in intensity and duration, and participants referenced distressing emotions. Feeling lonely was distinguished from being alone and characterized as an invisible social stigma. A variety of perceived social deficiencies were emphasized as causing loneliness, emerging in the interrelation between characteristics of the individual and their social context. The results add to the current literature by highlighting that it is not the presence of specific individual characteristics that causes loneliness; instead, loneliness is dependent on the social contexts the individual is embedded in. Differences across migration status were few and related to variations in the adolescents' individual characteristics. The findings highlight the importance of (1) studying the characteristics of both the individual and the social context in research on the antecedents to adolescents' loneliness, and (2) applying this perspective in other studies on the importance of migration status.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Solidão , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1518-1522, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814577

RESUMO

HIV infection among foreign personnel is one of the nonnegligible issues to control the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in China. It is necessary for HIV infection among foreign personnel to be taken effective measures in China. This paper consists of information about epidemic characteristics among foreign personnel with HIV in China, including influence on the overall infection, geographical distribution, and prevention status, referencing more effective AIDS knowledge and health education and behavior intervention.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Humanos
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1850-1854, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814623

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the social support, social network, and sexual behavior characteristics of foreigners living in Guangzhou, analyze factors relating to aspects of online social interactions and sexual behaviors of foreigners in Guangzhou, and provide references for targeted HIV intervention services for foreigners. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (both online and offline), among those who met the inclusion criteria was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020. Data were collected on demographics, social support, online social interactions, sexual behaviors, and so on. Statistics were compiled to analyze the factors that may influence casual sexual behaviors. Results: A total of 434 participants were included in the study (241 offline and 193 online). The majority of the participants were male 68.4% (297/434), age (31.0±8.8) years old, African 79.0% (343/434), business people 46.5% (202/434), students 48.2% (209/434), who have business partners and family members in China were 59.4% (258/434) and 28.1% (122/434) separately. They also had the following features: less than 10 close friends 57.1% (248/434); spend 1-3 hours on social applications per day 43.3% (188/434), had casual sexual behaviors in the last 3 months 15.2% (55/363). Multiple logistic regression model analysis showed that compared with those who used social applications for less than 1 hour per day, participants who used social applications for more than 6 hours per day were more likely to have casual sexual behaviors in the last 3 months (OR=3.63, 95%CI: 1.31-10.08). Conclusions: Participants who used social applications for a longer period every day were more likely to have casual sexual behaviors among foreigners in Guangzhou. Good use of social applications for health promotion and education of HIV can increase the health awareness of foreigners in China.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Interação Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604055, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744595

RESUMO

Objective: Cancer screening rates are suboptimal for disadvantaged populations in France, yet little evidence exists on their cancer-related knowledge and screening barriers. The main objective of this study was to examine cancer-related knowledge, awareness, self-efficacy, and perceptions of screening barriers among low-income, illiterate immigrant women in France following an 8-weeks cancer educational intervention. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 164 female participants in the Ain department of France between January 2019 and March 2020. Adopting the Health Belief Model as an intervention and analytic framework, salient themes were identified using qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Increased levels of perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of cancer contributed to higher motivation to get screened. Barriers to screening included low French proficiency, shame surrounding illiteracy, and constant worries due to precarious living conditions. Perceived benefits (e.g., valuing one's health and health-promoting behaviors), cues to action from a trusted source, and greater self-efficacy (e.g., more autonomous in healthcare-seeking) outweighed perceived barriers, including cultural barriers. Conclusions: Implications include developing audience-responsive targeted cancer screening communication strategies and educational materials to increase screening rates and reduce cancer and cancer screening inequities.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Alfabetização , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Autoeficácia
11.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(6): 733-738, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to describe how Latina immigrants living in King County coped with the pandemic, including their attitudes and behaviors related to COVID-19, and the impact of the pandemic on their mental health and wellbeing. METHOD: We conducted surveys by phone with adult Spanish-speaking Latina immigrants (n = 137) in the summer of 2020. RESULTS: Very few women had been infected with COVID-19, and 23% reported having been tested. Most frequent reasons for not being tested were not knowing where to go (14%), concerns over the cost (15%), and not wanting to know if they were infected (12%). Most participants had concerns about paying for housing (76%) and food (73%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were in the moderate range. Almost all participants were practicing recommended preventive behaviors. CONCLUSION: Although few participants had COVID-19 infection, the pandemic had significant impacts on their mental health and ability to meet basic needs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1956, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) disproportionately affects immigrant women, an understudied and underserved population in need for evidence-based rigorously evaluated culturally competent interventions that can effectively address their health and safety needs. METHODS: This study uses a sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) design to rigorously evaluate an adaptive, trauma-informed, culturally tailored technology-delivered intervention tailored to the needs of immigrant women who have experienced IPV. In the first stage randomization, participants are randomly assigned to an online safety decision and planning or a usual care control arm and safety, mental health and empowerment outcomes are assessed at 3-, 6- and 12-months post-baseline. For the second stage randomization, women who do not report significant improvements in safety (i.e., reduction in IPV) and empowerment from baseline to 3 months follow up (i.e., non-responders) are re- randomized to safety and empowerment strategies delivered via text only or a combination of text and phone calls with trained advocates. Data on outcomes (safety, mental health, and empowerment) for early non-responders is assessed at 6 and 12 months post re-randomization. DISCUSSION: The study's SMART design provides an opportunity to implement and evaluate an individualized intervention protocol for immigrant women based on their response to type or intensity of intervention. The findings will be useful for identifying what works for whom and characteristics of participants needing a particular type or intensity level of intervention for improved outcomes. If found to be effective, the study will result in an evidence-based trauma-informed culturally tailored technology-based safety decision and planning intervention for immigrant survivors of IPV that can be implemented by practitioners serving immigrant women in diverse settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04098276 on September 13, 2019.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Empoderamento , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tecnologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049347, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using recent registry data, we aimed to quantify the incidence of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and to examine factors influencing the risk of poststroke mortality among immigrants compared with Danish-born individuals. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study between 2004 and 2018. We estimated age-standardised incidence rate ratios (IRR) of stroke, stroke types and TIA for each ethnic group using Danish-born individuals as the reference by direct method of standardisation. We calculated the risk of poststroke mortality using Cox proportional hazard regression. SETTING: The study was conducted using Danish nationwide registers. PARTICIPANTS: All cases of first-ever stroke and TIA by country of origin (n=132 936) were included. RESULTS: Overall, Western immigrants (IRR=2.25; 95% CI 2.20 to 2.31) and non-Western immigrants (IRR=1.37; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.44) had a higher risk of stroke than Danish-born individuals. The risk of TIA was higher in Western immigrants (IRR=2.08; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.23) followed by non-Western immigrants (IRR=1.45; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.63) than in Danish-born individuals. All-cause 1-year mortality hazard was higher but not significantly different in non-Western men (adjusted HR=1.38; 95% CI 0.92 to 2.08) compared with Danish-born men and additional adjustment for comorbidities reduced the HR to 0.85 (0.51 to 1.40) among ischaemic stroke cases. Among intracerebral haemorrhage cases, the adjusted mortality hazard was decreased in Western men (from HR of 1.76; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.85 to HR of 1.30; 95% CI 0.80 to 2.11) compared with Danish-born men after adjustment for stroke severity. Immigrants with ≤15 years of residence had a lower poststroke mortality hazard than Danish-born individuals after additional adjustment for sociodemographic factors (HR=0.36; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: The age-standardised risk of stroke and TIA was significantly higher among the majority of immigrants than Danish-born individuals. Interventions that reduce the burden of comorbidities, improve acute stroke care and target sociodemographic factors may address the higher risk of poststroke mortality among immigrants.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257912, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618819

RESUMO

Dehumanization is a topic of significant interest for academia and society at large. Empirical studies often have people rate the evolved nature of outgroups and prior work suggests immigrants are common victims of less-than-human treatment. Despite existing work that suggests who dehumanizes particular outgroups and who is often dehumanized, the extant literature knows less about why people dehumanize outgroups such as immigrants. The current work takes up this opportunity by examining why people dehumanize immigrants said to be illegal and how measurement format affects dehumanization ratings. Participants (N = 672) dehumanized such immigrants more if their ratings were made on a slider versus clicking images of hominids, an effect most pronounced for Republicans. Dehumanization was negatively associated with warmth toward illegal immigrants and the perceived unhappiness felt by illegal immigrants from U.S. immigration policies. Finally, most dehumanization is not entirely blatant but instead, captured by virtuous violence and affect as well, suggesting the many ways that dehumanization can manifest as predicted by theory. This work offers a mechanistic account for why people dehumanize immigrants and addresses how survey measurement artifacts (e.g., clicking on images of hominids vs. using a slider) affect dehumanization rates. We discuss how these data extend dehumanization theory and inform empirical research.


Assuntos
Desumanização , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Imigrantes Indocumentados/psicologia , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência/prevenção & controle
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(12): 1807-1813, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Development of mHealth interventions to address health disparities for Latino children in immigrant families requires understanding access to and use of information and communication technology. METHODS: We examined access to information and communication technology and use of common applications/programs by low-income immigrant Latino parents of infants to inform development of mHealth interventions for this population. Latino immigrant parents reported technology use and access of common applications/software via survey. RESULTS: Of the 157 participants, we found nearly all parents owned a smartphone and that 60% accessed the internet only via their smartphone. Around one-quarter of participants had access to unlimited data. Frequent use of text messaging was common, but frequent email use was less common. Less than 10% of participants frequently used health-oriented applications. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that mHealth interventions that use data, email, or an application interface may not have the intended reach or effectiveness among low-income immigrant Latino parents. Consideration of these findings is important in guiding the development of future mHealth programs for the low-income Latino population. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02647814).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Telemedicina , Acesso à Informação , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pais , Tecnologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Marriage-based immigrant women are increasing around the world. Although bi-dimensional acculturation is important for immigrant women's health, the existing scales have mainly been developed for immigrant women in Western countries and hence some items may not be suitable for Asian contexts. Thus, we developed and evaluated the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Marriage-Based Immigrant Women (BAS-MBIW) in Taiwan. METHODS: The BAS-MBIW was developed based on a literature review and clinical observations. Bi-dimensional acculturation involves "adaptation to host culture (acculturation)" and "maintenance of heritage culture (enculturation)." The initial scale included two 24-item subscales. The validation samples were 310 marriage-based immigrant women who were pregnant for at least twelve weeks in Taiwan. The BAS-MBIW was assessed and modified by experts. Data analyses included factor analysis, Pearson's correlation, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: Expert reviews and factor analysis indicated that the scale had acceptable content and construct validity. The validated scale includes two 19-item subscales, encompassing six domains: language, media, food preference, cultural heritage, social interaction, and shopping and merchandise preference, with good internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha coefficient is 0.88 for acculturation and 0.83 for enculturation). Acculturation was positively related to local language ability and duration of immigration but negatively related to age at immigration, stress, and depression; whereas enculturation was positively related to age at immigration, stress, and depression but negatively related to duration of immigration, indicating convergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The BAS-MBIW offers reliable and valid assessments of pregnant immigrant women's level of acculturation and enculturation in Taiwan. The BAS-MBIW could be used to assess bi-dimensional acculturation among marriage-based immigrant women.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Casamento , Psicometria , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puerto Ricans and Mexican immigrants are often exposed to multiple types of adversity across their lifetime (e.g., maltreatment, household dysfunction, discrimination) and this exposure can increase the risk for adult mental health problems. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to (a) identify subgroups of individuals exposed to unique combinations of childhood adversity and lifetime discrimination among Puerto Ricans and Mexican immigrants, and (b) compare the prevalence of mental health problems across different risk profiles. METHOD: We used existing data from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants included Puerto Rican (N = 402) and Mexican adults (N = 1351) born outside but living in the continental U.S. FINDINGS: Through latent profile analysis, we selected a three-profile solution for Puerto Ricans: (a) Low Exposure (low on all adversity items; 58% of sample), (b) Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Only (high on ACEs items, average or lower than average on discrimination items; 32%), and (c) Dual Exposure (high on all adversity items; 10%). For Mexicans, we selected a four-profile solution: (a) Low Exposure (52%), (b) ACEs Only (24%), (c) Maltreatment and Discrimination (15%), and (d) Dual Exposure (9%). For Mexicans, we found that the Dual Exposure and the Maltreatment and Discrimination profiles had the highest levels of mental health problems. For Puerto Ricans, the Dual Exposure and ACEs Only profiles had the highest levels of mental health problems, suggesting that Puerto Ricans may be more vulnerable to the effects of childhood adversities as compared to Mexican immigrants. Results from our study indicate that different patterns of adversity exposure are linked to different levels of mental health outcomes, and therefore, may require different intervention dosage. Understanding which groups of individuals are at highest and lowest risk for mental health problems is critical for developing effective, tailored interventions to prevent the negative effects of childhood adversity and discrimination for Latinxs.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Ira , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade , Porto Rico
20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S224-S231, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709878

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the many broken fragments of US health care and social service systems, reinforcing extant health and socioeconomic inequities faced by structurally marginalized immigrant communities. Throughout the pandemic, even during the most critical period of rising cases in different epicenters, immigrants continued to work in high-risk-exposure environments while simultaneously having less access to health care and economic relief and facing discrimination. We describe systemic factors that have adversely affected low-income immigrants, including limiting their work opportunities to essential jobs, living in substandard housing conditions that do not allow for social distancing or space to safely isolate from others in the household, and policies that discourage access to public resources that are available to them or that make resources completely inaccessible. We demonstrate that the current public health infrastructure has not improved health care access or linkages to necessary services, treatments, or culturally competent health care providers, and we provide suggestions for how the Public Health 3.0 framework could advance this. We recommend the following strategies to improve the Public Health 3.0 public health infrastructure and mitigate widening disparities: (1) address the social determinants of health, (2) broaden engagement with stakeholders across multiple sectors, and (3) develop appropriate tools and technologies. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S224-S231. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306433).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Emprego , Humanos , Racismo
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