Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27.166
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280324, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656879

RESUMO

Previous studies have examined the impact of COVID-19 on mortality and fertility. However, little is known about the effect of the pandemic on constraining international migration. We use Eurostat and national statistics data on immigration and ARIMA time-series models to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on immigration flows in 15 high-income countries by forecasting their counterfactual levels in 2020, assuming no pandemic, and comparing these estimates with observed immigration counts. We then explore potential driving forces, such as stringency measures and increases in unemployment moderating the extent of immigration change. Our results show that immigration declined in all countries, except in Finland. Yet, significant cross-national variations exist. Australia (60%), Spain (45%) and Sweden (36%) display the largest declines, while immigration decreased by between 15% and 30% in seven countries, and by less than 15% in four nations where results were not statistically significant. International travel restrictions, mobility restrictions and stay-at-home requirements exhibit a relatively strong relationship with declines in immigration, although countries with similar levels of stringency witnessed varying levels of immigration decline. Work and school closings and unemployment show no relationship with changes in immigration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política Pública
2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 141(2): e427-e433, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657152

RESUMO

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the health and well-being of all who seek obstetric and gynecologic care and advocates to secure quality health care for all, without regard to immigration status. Policies that infringe on the health and rights of immigrants and limit access to health care, anti-immigrant rhetoric, and punitive immigration-enforcement activities all have detrimental effects on health. Depending on individual circumstances, immigrants may have unique health needs, such as injuries sustained in the process of immigrating or in the workplace, exposure to communicable diseases, exposure to toxins in the workplace, and advanced presentation of disease due to barriers to obtaining health care, among others.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Emigração e Imigração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Políticas
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(1): 53-62, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623228

RESUMO

Anti-immigrant public policies and rhetoric during 2017-19 may have eroded enrollment in safety-net programs, such as the enrollment of children of immigrants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). At the same time, states' expansion of Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act may have mitigated erosion through coordinated enrollment across safety-net programs, including SNAP and Medicaid. We examined changes in SNAP participation rates by parental immigration status among low-income households in 2015-16 versus 2017-19 for differences by child race and ethnicity or state Medicaid expansion status. Relative to those among citizen children with US-born parents, SNAP participation rates among citizen children from mixed-status families and noncitizen children significantly decreased between 2015-16 and 2017-19, with the magnitude of disparity widening over time. Declines in SNAP participation were sharper for Hispanic and Latino children from mixed-status families, Hispanic and Latino noncitizen children, and noncitizen children residing in nonexpansion states. Findings are consistent with some policy makers' concerns of erosion in SNAP participation. Mechanisms that could be employed to help reverse these trends include policies, outreach strategies, and enrollment processes.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Medicaid , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Emigração e Imigração , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pais
4.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 163-180, 2023.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629677

RESUMO

The article analyzes the contributions of psychiatry to the debate on health and immigration in the post-Second World War, when Brazil received war refugees and displaced persons from Eastern Europe. The concern with mental disorders attributed to war traumas made mental health a topic of debate in the specialized press. From the analysis of medical articles published in the journals Arquivos Brasileiros de Higiene Mental and Arquivos Brasileiros de Neuriatria e Psiquiatria and in Revista de Imigração e Colonização, we seek to understand the relevance of immigration as a field in which psychiatrists took action and vied for legitimacy as authorities in the preparation of Brazil's immigration policies.


O artigo analisa as contribuições da psiquiatria no debate sobre saúde e imigração no período pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial, quando o Brasil recebeu refugiados e deslocados de guerra vindos do Leste Europeu. A preocupação com desordens mentais atribuídas aos traumas de guerra tornava a saúde mental tema de debate na imprensa especializada. A partir da análise de artigos médicos publicados nas revistas Arquivos Brasileiros de Higiene Mental e Arquivos Brasileiros de Neuriatria e Psiquiatria e na Revista de Imigração e Colonização , busca-se compreender a relevância da imigração como um campo de atuação e disputa por legitimidade dos psiquiatras no papel de autoridades na elaboração das políticas imigratórias brasileiras.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , II Guerra Mundial , Humanos , Brasil , Emigração e Imigração
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2217937120, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652474

RESUMO

We leverage metadata on over 36 million journal articles and reviews indexed by Scopus in order to estimate migration of scholars based on information on changes in their institutional affiliations over time. We produce a database of yearly international migration flows of scholars, for all countries from 1998 to 2017. We use the open-access database to provide descriptive evidence on the relationship between economic development and the emigration propensity of scholars. Statistical analysis using generalized additive mixed models reveals that emigration rates initially decrease as GDP per capita increases. Then, starting from around 25,000 dollars (2017 constant international dollars at purchasing power parity), the trend reverses and emigration propensity increases as countries get richer. This U-shaped pattern contrasts with what has been found in the literature for emigration rates for the general population and calls for theoretical frameworks to understand the heterogeneous responses of migration to development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , Economia , Países em Desenvolvimento
7.
Hum Resour Health ; 21(1): 2, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670505

RESUMO

The increasing complexity of the migration pathways of health and care workers is a critical consideration in the reporting requirements of international agreements designed to address their impacts. There are inherent challenges across these different agreements including reporting functions that are misaligned across different data collection tools, variable capacity of country respondents, and a lack of transparency or accountability in the reporting process. Moreover, reporting processes often neglect to recognize the broader intersectional gendered and racialized political economy of health and care worker migration. We argue for a more coordinated approach to the various international reporting requirements and processes that involve building capacity within countries to report on their domestic situation in response to these codes and conventions, and internationally to make such reporting result in more than simply the sum of their responses, but to reflect cross-national and transnational interactions and relationships. These strategies would better enable policy interventions along migration pathways that would more accurately recognize the growing complexity of health worker migration leading to more effective responses to mitigate its negative effects for migrants, source, destination, and transit countries. While recognizing the multiple layers of complexity, we nevertheless reaffirm the fact that countries still have an ethical responsibility to undertake health workforce planning in their countries that does not overly rely on the recruitment of migrant health and care workers.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Migrantes , Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde
8.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 43: 100532, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460458

RESUMO

We propose two different mathematical models to study the effect of immigration on the COVID-19 pandemic. The first model does not consider immigration, whereas the second one does. Both mathematical models consider five different subpopulations: susceptible, exposed, infected, asymptomatic carriers, and recovered. We find the basic reproduction number R0 using the next-generation matrix method for the mathematical model without immigration. This threshold parameter is paramount because it allows us to characterize the evolution of the disease and identify what parameters substantially affect the COVID-19 pandemic outcome. We focus on the Venezuelan scenario, where immigration and emigration have been important over recent years, particularly during the pandemic. We show that the estimation of the transmission rates of the SARS-CoV-2 are affected when the immigration of infected people is considered. This has an important consequence from a public health perspective because if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, we can expect that the SARS-CoV-2 would disappear. Thus, if the basic reproduction number is slightly above one, we can predict that some mild non-pharmaceutical interventions would be enough to decrease the number of infected people. The results show that the dynamics of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through the population must consider immigration to obtain better insight into the outcomes and create awareness in the population regarding the population flow.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Emigração e Imigração , Pandemias , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2246525, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512360

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study examines the association of avoidance of public programs among California immigrants with delayed access to health care services and prescriptions owing to concerns about how their interaction with these services may affect their immigration status.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , California , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
10.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 85, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate Human Resources for Health is indispensable to achieving Universal Health Coverage and physicians play a leading role. Nigeria with low physician-population ratio, is experiencing massive exodus of physicians. This study investigated emigration intention of physicians, the factors influencing it and discussed the implications to guide policy formulation and reforms, curtail the trend and safeguard the country's health system. METHODS: Through cross-sectional survey, 913 physicians from 37 States were interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire using Google form shared via WhatsApp and Telegram forums of Nigeria Medical Association. Data were analysed with IBM-SPSS version-25 and charts were created with Microsoft-Excel. Chi-square and multiple regression tests were done with p-value set at 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents is 37.6 ± 7.9 years; majority of them are males (63.2%), married (75.5%) with postgraduate qualifications (54.1%) and working in public health facilities (85.4%). Whereas 13% and 19.3% are, respectively, satisfied with their work and willing to continue practice in Nigeria, 43.9% want to emigrate and 36.8% are undecided about future location of their practice. The commonest reasons for emigration are poor remuneration (91.3%), rising insecurity (79.8%) and inadequate diagnostic facilities (61.8%). Physicians working in public health facilities are 2.5 times less satisfied than their counterparts in non-public sector (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). Physicians in their thirties, forties and fifties are 3.5 (95% CI = 1.5-8.0), 5.5 (95% CI = 2.1-14.5) and 13.8 (95% CI = 3.9-49.3) times, respectively, more willing to retain practice in Nigeria than those younger and those satisfied with their work are 4.7 (AOR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.9-7.4) times more willing to practice in Nigeria than those not satisfied. CONCLUSION: Majority of Nigerian physicians want to emigrate for professional practice and top among the push factors are poor remuneration, rising insecurity and inadequate diagnostic facilities. The observed trend portends danger to the country's health system due to the foreseeable negative consequences of physician deficit to the system. We recommend upward review of physician remuneration, a root cause analysis of insecurity to determine workable preventive measures and increased funding of the health sector to improve the diagnostic infrastructure, retain physicians and save the health system from imminent collapse.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Médicos , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Nigéria , Estudos Transversais , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 96: e202212091-e202212091, Dic. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214594

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El conocimiento de los determinantes sociales y de género que influyen en el ámbito de exposición al SARS-CoV-2 puede ser relevante en el planteamiento de estrategias preventivas y de control de la transmisión. No se han encontrado estudios previos que evalúen cómo influyen la clase social ocupacional y el país de origen en el ámbito de exposición del SARS-CoV-2. El objetivo de estetrabajo fue conocer el contexto en que se contagiaron los casos de COVID-19 (ámbito: hogar, trabajo, sanitario, sociosanitario y social-ocio) según país de origen, clase social ocupacional y género, lo cual es esencial para orientar estrategias de Salud Pública. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de un registro epidemiológico de 56.628 casos incidentes de COVID-19 en los que seestudió el ámbito de exposición/contagio en función de las variables anteriormente indicadas entre el 15 de junio y el 23 de diciembre de 2020 en la Región de Murcia. Se utilizó una prueba exacta de Fisher para el estudio de la distribución de los casos de COVID-19 en función de las variables anteriores. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada fue mayor en personas procedentes de África (5.133,5 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes) y Latinoamérica (11.351,1) que en no inmigrantes (3.145,7) y superior en mujeres (3.885,6) que en hombres (3.572,6). Es destacable que el 53,3% de los casos COVID-19 con empleo registrado eran operarios en industria o construcción, artesanos, trabajadores agrarios ocon ocupaciones elementales (15 de junio y el 23 de diciembre de 2020). En contraste, el 41,3% de la población ocupada en la Región de Murcia realizaba dichos empleos (promedio 3º y 4º trimestre de 2020). El hogar fue el principal ámbito de contagio (56,5% de los casos con ámbito conocido), seguido del social-ocio (20,7%) y el laboral (18,2%). Este último tuvo mayor peso en personas procedentes de África (28,4%) y Latinoamérica (35,7%) que en no inmigrantes (12%), a la inversa que el socialcio...(AU)


BACKGROUND: Knowledge of social and gender determinants, which influence the places where people are exposed to COVID-19, may be relevant in the development of preventive and control strategies. The aim of this paper was to determine the context in which COVID-19 cases were infected (household, work/labor, health, social-health, and social-leisure settings) according to country of origin, occupational social class and gender, which is essential in order to designing public health strategies.METHODS: A cross-sectional study of an epidemiological registry of 56,628 COVID-19 incident cases was made, whose exposure/contagion setting was studied according to the previous variables from June 15 to December 23, 2020, in the Region of Murcia (Spain). An exact Fisher test was used to study the distribution of COVID-19 cases based on the above variables.RESULTS: The cumulative incidence was higher in people from Africa (5,133.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants) and Latin America (11,351.1) than in non-immigrants (3,145.7). It was also higher in women (3,885.6) than in men (3,572.6). It is noteworthy, that 53.3% of the cases with employment were workers in industry or construction, artisans, agricultural workers, or elementary occupations. In contrast, during the second semester of 2020, 41.3% of the employed population in the Region of Murcia performed such jobs. The household was the main exposure setting (56.5% of cases with a known setting), followed by social-leisure (20.7%) and work/labor (18.2%). The labor settings were more important in immigrants from Africa (28.4%) and Latin America (35.7%) than in non-immigrants (12%), inversely to social-leisure settings. Labor context was more important in women (19.6%) than in men (16.5%) and in manual workers (44.1%) than in non-manual workers (26.6%)...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Classe Social , Emigração e Imigração , 50334 , Região do Mediterrâneo , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Espanha
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276764, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383529

RESUMO

International migration patterns, at the global level, can to a large extent be explained through economic factors in origin and destination countries. On the other hand, it has been shown that global climate change is likely to affect economic development over the coming decades. Here, we demonstrate how these future climate impacts on national income levels could alter the global migration landscape. Using an empirically calibrated global migration model, we investigate two separate mechanisms. The first is through destination-country income, which has been shown consistently to have a positive effect on immigration. As countries' income levels relative to each other are projected to change in the future both due to different rates of economic growth and due to different levels of climate change impacts, the relative distribution of immigration across destination countries also changes as a result, all else being equal. Second, emigration rates have been found to have a complex, inverted U-shaped dependence on origin-country income. Given the available migration flow data, it is unclear whether this dependence-found in spatio-temporal panel data-also pertains to changes in a given migration flow over time. If it does, then climate change will additionally affect migration patterns through origin countries' emigration rates, as the relative and absolute positions of countries on the migration "hump" change. We illustrate these different possibilities, and the corresponding effects of 3°C global warming (above pre-industrial) on global migration patterns, using climate model projections and two different methods for estimating climate change effects on macroeconomic development.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Emigração e Imigração , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , Renda , Economia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361179

RESUMO

Industrialization and urbanization are critical paths to modernization for a country or region. The coordination of industrialization and urbanization fosters the development of a regional economy. In academic circles, this is usually measured by the IU ratio (ratio of labor industrialization rate to urbanization rate) and the NU ratio (ratio of non-agricultural employment rate to urbanization rate). However, these methods are inapplicable to large countries' inland areas. The traditional methods failed to explain the real situation and produced contradictory results. The IU ratio shows that industrialization lags behind urbanization, while the NU ratio shows that industrialization is ahead of urbanization. According to studies conducted in the Sichuan Province of China, through comparison with Jiangsu Province, it is found that the non-agricultural employment growth is not dependent on the development of local industrialization, and rural-urban migration is not entirely dependent on the evolution of the non-agricultural employment rate. Other factors that promote urbanization, such as the country's capital policies and funds for migrant labor force transfer, should also be considered. This research attempts to improve the traditional methods for measuring the degree of urbanization and industrialization synergy in inland areas. The new empirical approach can effectively identify the critical characteristics of urbanization in inland provinces, such as the development of non-agricultural employment with external assistance and urban migrants "unrelated to employment opportunities". Based on these key characteristics, it can provide the basis for local urbanization policy formulation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial , Urbanização , Humanos , Demografia , População Urbana , Emigração e Imigração , Geografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , China , Economia
14.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(11): e426-e430, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343179

RESUMO

The landscape of pediatric vaccination has changed dramatically due to changing attitudes toward immunizations and recent world events. The rise of vaccine hesitancy and refusal related to the concurrent rise of social media and anti-vaccination messages with misinformation campaigns have led to populations of children being unimmunized or under-immunized. These populations have been left vulnerable to the rapid spread of vaccine-preventable infection. Additionally, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the clinical syndrome known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in the emergence of a worldwide pandemic. Control measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 resulted in numerous reports of children missing routine vaccines along with the stopping of many public health immunization programs. Finally, armed conflicts and war have led to large family migrations from their homelands to various countries and regions leading to increased risk for missed maternal and child immunization as well as difficulty in keeping vaccination records. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(11):e426-e430.].


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Hesitação Vacinal , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/epidemiologia , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Programas de Imunização , Desinformação , Emigração e Imigração , Mães , Recusa de Vacinação
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1635-1644, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343326

RESUMO

The relationship between immigrant entry and COVID-19 spread in the United States has driven much political discussion and policy, including the implementation of Title 42 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To examine the relationship between COVID-19 spread and immigrant entry, we compared 2020-21 immigrant flows with local COVID-19 rates, using estimates of border crossings from the Border Patrol and visas issued through the Department of Labor's seasonal guest worker program. Our analysis capturing seasonal guest worker entry at the national level showed no statistically significant relationship with COVID-19 rates. Our analyses of Southwest border crossings showed a small, statistically significant relationship between immigrant flows and COVID-19 rates in border counties (0.14 percent increase in local cases per 100,000 residents for each additional 100 immigrants). However, this estimate is modest compared with the fact that half of all month-to-month changes in case rates were greater than 59 percent. Furthermore, the modest increase became nonsignificant with increasing local vaccination rates. Estimates also did not maintain their statistical significance when analyzed with some alternative approaches. Our findings support existing evidence that the short-term impacts of immigrant flow on local COVID-19 rates were minimal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Grupos Populacionais
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 956956, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408001

RESUMO

Introduction: Problem gambling is a public health issue both in the United States and internationally and can lead to mental health and socioeconomic concerns for individuals, families, and communities. Large epidemiological studies on problem gambling have neglected to include working-class, immigrant Asian Americans, who are at higher risk for problem gambling. The lack of data on Asian American gambling may explain a subsequent lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate treatment and prevention services. Additionally, the invisibility of Asian American data in published literature has helped to perpetuate a commonly held myth of an Asian gambling culture. This stereotype of the "Asian gambler" is a form of anti-Asian racism which serves to ignore and minimize the root causes of problem gambling in the Asian American community. Methods: Utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, 40 interviews were conducted with the local Khmer (n = 12), Chinese (n = 20), Korean (n = 3), and Vietnamese (n = 5) immigrant communities in the Greater Boston region to assess how problem gambling manifests in the local Asian community. Interviews were conducted in language by bilingual/bicultural community fieldworkers experienced in serving their respective communities. Flyers and social media were used to recruit participants. The interviews were coded into themes which provided a better understanding of the patterns of systemic issues contributing to problem gambling in the Asian American community. Results: Interviewees provided insights into the underlying issues of poverty and social and cultural loss due to immigration as root causes for problem gambling in the Asian American community. The interviews indicate that many individuals in these Asian immigrant communities, who are striving to make a living off low-wage and stressful jobs, struggle to integrate into American society. They often lack culturally appropriate and accessible social and recreational activities, a void that casinos capitalize on through targeted behaviors. Discussion: Research must address the social and structural barriers in the Asian American communities rather than relying on the "Asian gambler" stereotype and assuming interventions for a general American problem gambler will work for Asian immigrants. The research points to a need for gambling interventions and services that are centered on lived experiences.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração , Estereotipagem
17.
Am J Nurs ; 122(12): 17, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384784

RESUMO

A Trump-era rule that penalized immigration and citizenship applicants has been rescinded.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Política Pública , Dinâmica Populacional
18.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(11-12): 457-465, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Youth initiation may drive differences in smoking prevalence across Canadian provinces. Provincial differences in initiation relate to tobacco control strategies and public health funding, but have also been attributed to population characteristics. We test this hypothesis by examining the extent to which seven characteristics-immigration, language, family structure, education, income, home ownership and at-school status-explain differences in initiation across provinces. METHODS: We used data from 16 897 youth aged 12 to 17 years in the Canadian Community Health Survey collected from 2015 to 2018. To examine the proportion of provincial differences explained by population characteristics, we compared average marginal effects (AMEs) from partially and fully adjusted models regressing "having ever initiated" on province and other characteristics. We also tested interactions to examine differences in the association between population characteristics and initiation across provinces. RESULTS: Initiation varied from 4% in British Columbia to 10% in Quebec. Being born in Canada, speaking French, not living in a two-parent household, being in the lowest household income quintile, having parents without postsecondary education, living in rented accommodation and not being in school were each associated with initiation. Taking these results into consideration, the AME of residing in another province compared with Quebec was attenuated by between 3% and 9%. Family structure and household income were more strongly associated with initiation in the Atlantic region and Manitoba, but not in Quebec. CONCLUSION: Differences in initiation between Quebec and other provinces are unlikely to be substantially explained by their demographic or socioeconomic composition. Reprioritizing tobacco control and public health funding are likely key in attaining the "tobacco endgame" across provinces.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Fumar , Adolescente , Humanos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Renda , Emigração e Imigração , Colúmbia Britânica
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19874, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400943

RESUMO

While the function of migration varies among species, environmental temperature is known to be one of the most important abiotic variables that drive animal migration; however, quantifying the thresholds and timing of the cues that influence a mass emigration is difficult, often due to lack of monitoring resolution, particularly for large, highly mobile species. We used acoustic telemetry tracking and high-resolution water temperature data over a relatively large spatial scale (5.5 km2) to identify and quantify a thermal threshold for mass emigration of juvenile white sharks. Sixteen tagged sharks were observed to initiate a search for warmer water within 10-12 hours of an upwelling event where water temperatures dropped below 14 °C. Eleven sharks traveled ~ 35 km away where they experienced similar cold temperatures before returning to the aggregation site within 24 hours. Five days following the upwelling event, most sharks emigrated from the site for the season. Quantifying movement patterns across different spatial and temporal scales is necessary to understand cues and thresholds influencing animal migration, which may be greatly affected by climate anomalies and climate change, resulting in potential impacts on the dynamics of local prey species, management, and conservation policy and practice.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Tubarões , Animais , Emigração e Imigração , Migração Animal , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276992, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395263

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to explore the spatial heterogeneity of internal migration in China and to discuss the influence of economic, social and environmental characteristics on this demographic process. The overall results suggest that migration in China occurred from inland to coastal areas and from rural areas to urban areas. By stepwise regression, we identified that 9 out of 15 factors with potential influence on internal migration were retained, and the multicollinearity among them was reduced. In addition, we used the OLS and GWR regression analysis to discuss the global and local effects of relevant factors on internal migration. Economic scale (GDP), population concentration (population density) and demographic dividend (labour force proportion) were the three main driving forces of internal migration. In turn, internal migration further widened the gap of economic scale, population agglomeration and demographic dividend between counties and cities. Internal migration in southern coastal areas of China was most affected by economic aspects and demographic dividend. In the central China, the population was more concentrated in high-density cities, while in the eastern regions, areas with high level of education were conducive to immigration, thus forming talent reserve highlands. In the west, areas with highly educated level faced out-migration, which might cause brain drain and widen further the gap in talent reserves between the east and the west in China. From the perspective of location, the net immigration of the provincial capital was accompanied by the net immigration of the surrounding area, which was conducive to the formation of city clusters or urban sprawl. On the other side, the net immigration in prefecture-level cities often meant the net out-migration in surrounding areas. The correlation is particularly strong in eastern coastal provinces.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Dinâmica Populacional , Densidade Demográfica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...