Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 434
Filtrar
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 285: 114281, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352508

RESUMO

We strongly support efforts to generate, rigorously test, and falsify hypotheses derived from the Environmental Affordances (EA) Model of Health Disparities, as originated by the late Dr. James S. Jackson (1940-2020). Such efforts are critical to establishing robust, theoretically grounded scientific frameworks that explain the fundamental causes of racial disparities in health and wellbeing. Pamplin et al. (2021) fundamentally misrepresents the EA Model as a framework that (falsely) reifies the role of race as a determinant of health behaviors and health outcomes. Further, both their study design and analytic approach are inappropriate for testing predictions of this framework. We address these issues with the goal of recentering the scholarly conversation about how stress contributes to health, and disparities in health, over the life course.


Assuntos
Empirismo , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 57(4): 409-429, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311493

RESUMO

The current interlinked environmental and socioeconomic global crises constitute the gravest threat to humanity's well-being, indeed survival, today. Studies of the historical roots and contemporary manifestations of the various elements of these crises-including accelerating environmental degradation, unfettered capitalist technoscientific/industrial expansion, overpopulation, and overconsumption-are plentiful. Also well-known is the influence of Francis Bacon's writings, particularly The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organon (1620), and the utopian New Atlantis (1627), on the development of empiricism and the modern scientific method as well as the reform and organization of scientific research. Bacon's significance for the founding of the Royal Society of London (1660) and for the plan and structure of the Encyclopedie (1751-1772), coupled with his oft-cited aphoristic injunctions to study nature to control/dominate it, are staples in the lore and justification of technoscience. I argue that the enduring appeal of so-called Baconianism derives, in part, from a fundamental misappropriation of certain of Bacon's original ideas. Specifically, the complex ethical and religious framework within which Bacon situated his vision of scientific and technological development was discarded (or ignored) so that, by the early decades of the 18th century, Baconianism had come to be understood almost exclusively for its utilitarian role in society. This deracinated version became the familiar trope of technoscience's unlimited potential to transform nature (including human nature and behavior) in the service of an ideology of industrial/consumerist expansion since then. Linkage between the history of science/technology and addictive consumerism, apparent by the close of the 19th century, has been insufficiently examined. Such addictive consumerist behavior and continued virtually unregulated industrialization and production, were effectively removed from ethical scrutiny and a high degree of material acquisition and personal/societal rapaciousness became the norm rather than the exception in most countries. I suggest that further historical deconstruction of this denuded Baconianism will yield important insights in the search for viable solutions to the present global socioenvironmental crises.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Sociedades , Empirismo , Humanos , Londres , Princípios Morais
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199279

RESUMO

Control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a key target for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030. Available information indicates that countries in the Asia-Pacific Region accounted for 63% of the global NCD mortality burden in 2016. The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for the Asia Pacific (UNESCAP) Regional SDG progress report for 2020 included estimates of trends in NCD mortality rates from 2000 to 2016, which showed considerable variation in national NCD mortality by sex and location.However, while the UNESCAP report states that there was sufficient primary data to derive these NCD mortality estimates for all countries, the critical gaps in availability of national data on causes of death in the Asia-Pacific region are well known. A closer review identified that the UNESCAP obtained these estimates from the United Nations Statistics Division, which in turn obtained the same estimates from WHO. Further analysis revealed that these organisations used varying and often inconsistent terms to describe estimation methodology as well as primary data availability for different countries, with substantial potential for misinterpretation.The analysis also found that for countries without primary data, WHO reported NCD mortality estimates were based on complex epidemiological models developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, and this contradicts the UNESCAP rating of primary data sufficiency. The GBD Study also derives modelled cause of death estimates for countries with national data, but these were different from WHO estimates for these countries. This article discusses prevailing international practices in using modelled estimates as a substitute for empirical data, and the implications of these practices for health policy. In conclusion, a strategic approach to strengthen national mortality statistics programmes in data deficient countries is presented, to improve NCD mortality measurement in the Asia-Pacific Region.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Ásia/epidemiologia , Empirismo , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos
7.
Bioessays ; 42(9): e2000120, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776361

RESUMO

The gene is one of the most fundamental concepts in life sciences, having been developed in the mold of the Mendelian paradigm of heredity, which shaped genetics across 150 years. How could Mendel possibly be so prophetic in the middle of 19th century, using only the small garden of the monastery as his experimental breeding field? I believe that we are indebted to Mendel's mastery of the scientific method, which was far ahead of his time. Although his experimental technology was literally garden-variety, Mendel's excellence in the method of science, algebra, and logical analysis helped him in designing the right experiment and in interpreting the results insightfully. This may be valuable to recall in today's technology-focused culture, where the center of interest tends to be on the generation and description of high-throughput datasets from specialized genomics screens. As Mendel's story suggests, progress in 21st century genetics may also depend on the development of robust concepts and generalizations.


Assuntos
Empirismo , Hereditariedade , Genômica , História do Século XX , Tecnologia
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 39, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852629

RESUMO

The new mythology for which the German Romantic period called was not envisioned as antithetical to empiricism or experiential/experimental knowledge, but rather as emerging in dialogue with it to form a cultural foundation for such inquiry. Central to the mytho-scientific project were problematic theories of sexual division and generativity that established cultural baselines. This article examines the mythological investments of two influential thinkers of the period-Goethe and Schelling. It then analyzes Goethe's unique merger of mythological approaches to sex and generation with empirical observation in The Metamorphosis of Plants. It next traces Schelling's expansion of Goethe's theories of nature beyond their empirical justifications to develop a metaphysics of sexual differentiation. Finally, the article illuminates Goethe's final reply to the sexual dynamics of Naturphilosophie at the end of his life, through the analysis of a single poem, "Finding Again," in the collection God and World. Ultimately and in spite of its empirical commitments, Goethe's more flexible view of sexual correlations would lose ground to the powerful metaphysical mythology of sexual opposition as both scientific and cultural bedrock.


Assuntos
Empirismo/história , Mitologia , Sexo , Comportamento Sexual , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
9.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(4): 166-177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713950

RESUMO

In addition to genocide, slavery, and the dispossession of indigenous people, colonialism, as a form of control, meant the suppression of traditional knowledge. The imposition of Christianity, the modern Western paradigm, and modern science that followed perpetrated this suppression. The universal role held by modern science is supported neither by epistemic nor social aspects. It is ineffective and complicit in the collapse of civilization, and it is worsened by comprehensive and unifying ideas to be reduced to an input-process of technological innovation for the benefit of social control industries such as the military, information technology, communication, or health. Furthermore, it suppresses ancestral knowledge related to health and medicine that may be beneficial and must be researched (stimulant medicines). Coupled with the health industry, it promotes the medicalization of life, spreading uncertainty, anxiety, and unease. Therefore, it is an instrument of neocolonialism that imposes its priorities, supplanting problems in subordinated countries, and extracts substantial resources, which is detrimental to social policies and programs. The biggest objection to the universality of modern science is derived from its empiricist and reductionist nature. Through the practically impossible idea of a unifying and explanatory knowledge, it impedes researchers the understanding of the complexity of the world and their historical moment and to act accordingly. It transforms great creative and liberating potential to submissiveness for the interests of capital and its representatives.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Saúde , Conhecimento , Ciência , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Capitalismo , Cristianismo , Doença/psicologia , Dominação-Subordinação , Empirismo , Humanos , Invenções , Medicalização , Medicina Tradicional , Política Pública , Problemas Sociais , Ocidente
12.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 15(3): 630-642, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027577

RESUMO

Empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics study two main issues: the valuation of sensory objects and art experience. These two issues are often treated as if they were intrinsically interrelated: Research on art experience focuses on how art elicits aesthetic pleasure, and research on valuation focuses on special categories of objects or emotional processes that determine the aesthetic experience. This entanglement hampers progress in empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics and limits their relevance to other domains of psychology and neuroscience. Substantial progress in these fields is possible only if research on aesthetics is disentangled from research on art. We define aesthetics as the study of how and why sensory stimuli acquire hedonic value. Under this definition, aesthetics becomes a fundamental topic for psychology and neuroscience because it links hedonics (the study of what hedonic valuation is in itself) and neuroeconomics (the study of how hedonic values are integrated into decision making and behavioral control). We also propose that this definition of aesthetics leads to concrete empirical questions, such as how perceptual information comes to engage value signals in the reward circuit or why different psychological and neurobiological factors elicit different appreciation events for identical sensory objects.


Assuntos
Empirismo , Estética , Medicina nas Artes , Neurociências , Observação , Psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Motivação , Recompensa
13.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 14(4): 1-14, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1115075

RESUMO

Sob a égide de um clima intelectual firmado a partir do séc. XVII com o advento do mecanicismo e do empirismo, o conceito de "natureza" acompanhou o alvorecer de uma ciência moderna que se norteava pelos princípios de causalidade e materialidade. Breves percursos pela História da Ciência e da Filosofia, contudo, revelam conceituações díspares, algumas das quais pressupunham certa harmonia de fatores físicos com assertivas vitalistas e metafísicas, mediante ideias que se dispunham na forma de "pares de opostos". O objetivo deste ensaio é demonstrar a contribuição da teoria junguiana à noção de Physis, no sentido de integrar aspectos antagônicos no conjunto do conhecimento acerca da natureza. Como resultado desta reflexão, verifica-se que a epistemologia do pensamento junguiano, em muito sintonizada com a revolução quântica da física de partículas, resgata a antiga noção da Physis grega, na medida em que sua conceituação abarca o conjunto mais completo das diversas fenomenologias.


Under the aegis of an intellectual climate established from the 17th century, with the advent of mechanicism and empiricism, the concept of "nature" accompanied the dawn of a modern science that was guided by the principles of causality and materiality. Brief journeys through the History of Science and Philosophy, however, reveal disparate conceptions, some of which presupposed a certain harmony of physical factors with vitalist and metaphysical assertions, through ideas that were available in the form of "pairs of opposites". The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the contribution of Jungian theory to the notion of Physis, in the sense of integrating antagonistic aspects into the set of knowledge about nature. As a result of this reflection, it is verified that the epistemology of Jungian thought, very attuned with the quantum revolution of the physics of particles, rescues the old notion of Greek Physis, insofar as its conceptualization encompasses the most complete set of diverse phenomenologies.


Bajo la égida de un clima intelectual firmado a partir del s. XVII con el advenimiento del mecanicismo y del empirismo, el concepto de "naturaleza" acompañó el amanecer de una ciencia moderna que se orientaba por los principios de causalidad y materialidad. Breves recorridos por la Historia de la Ciencia y la Filosofía, sin embargo, revelan conceptualizaciones dispares, algunas de las cuales presuponen cierta armonía de factores físicos con asertivas vitalistas y metafísicas, mediante ideas que se disponían en la forma de "pares de opuestos". El objetivo de este ensayo es demostrar la contribución de la teoría junguiana a la noción de Physis, en el sentido de integrar aspectos antagónicos en el conjunto del conocimiento acerca de la naturaleza. Como resultado de esta reflexión, se verifica que la epistemología del pensamiento junguiano, en muy sintonizada con la revolución cuántica de la física de partículas, rescata la antigua noción de la Physis griega, en la medida en que su concepción abarca el conjunto más completo de las diversas fenomenologías.


Assuntos
Empirismo , Metafísica , Filosofia , Psicologia , Pensamento , Causalidade , Natureza , Conhecimento , Teoria Junguiana
14.
Ciênc. cogn ; 24(1): 144-161, 15 nov. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048029

RESUMO

Discuto alguns problemas conceituais nos debates filosóficos acerca do processo perceptual. Especificamente, interessa-me refletir sobre características "fundamentais" do modo de ser (ontologia) da percepção. Proponho análises formais (de base semiótica) destas questões, partindo da hipótese de que muitos dos problemas conceituais associados a elas são derivados de considerações ontológicas da percepção no campo empírico. Alguns direcionamentos para se avaliar os discursos acerca destas questões são propostos. A análise da ontologia da percepção em termos formais, ao invés de empíricos, pode aproximar-nos de uma compreensão das condições gerais e eidéticas do processo perceptual, e dela derivar uma teoria "profunda" do conhecimento. Também representa uma tentativa de depurar categorias perceptuais de confusões e ambiguidades que obstruem o desenvolvimento de uma ciência empírica da percepção, eximindo as investigações empíricas de questões e problemas inadequadamente chamados para este campo de análise


Discussing a few conceptual issues raised in debates over perceptual process, my concern is to reflect upon "essentials" features of the way of perception be. I propose formal analyses (semiotics-based) of these issues, suggesting that conceptual problems associated to them are drawn from ontological statements about perception within the empirical field. Some directions on how these issues may be evaluated are further discussed. Analyses of perceptual ontology in formal terms, rather empirical ones, may allow us to comprehend general and eidetic conditions of perception, and to justify a "deep" theory of knowledge. It attempts also to depurate to perceptual categories from misunderstandings and ambiguities interfering with the development of an empirical science of perception, releasing empirical studies from issues and problems unfittingly evoked to this field of analysis


Assuntos
Cognição , Conhecimento , Teste de Realidade , Empirismo , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
15.
Transfus Med Rev ; 33(4): 248-255, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645275

RESUMO

Immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a chronically relapsing, humorally-mediated autoimmune disorder characterized by unpredictable episodes of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, commonly associated with neurologic dysfunction, kidney injury, and fever. Episodes are caused by immune destruction or inhibition of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF) cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Currently, the standard of care is therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and most add immunosuppression with corticosteroids - a standard that is unchanged for nearly 30 years. There are multiple strategies for adding corticosteroids to TPE and the limited data available suggests that corticosteroids reduce the duration of ADAMTS13 deficiency in iTTP. Rituximab is also frequently used in the treatment of iTTP and evidence suggests that while it may not reduce the number TPE procedures required to induce remission, it likely increases relapse-free survival. Novel approaches to immunosuppression that have been reported include low-dose rituximab (also currently in clinical trials) and proteasome inhibition. A more targeted approach includes the anti-vWF nanobody, caplacizumab, recently approved for iTTP in Europe and United States, which in two large randomized controlled trials significantly shortened the time to normalization of platelet count, appreciably lowered the 30-day recurrence rate, and decreased the rate of the composite endpoint of death, recurrence, and major thromboembolic events. Recombinant ADAMTS13 has been tested in congenital TTP and could be tested in iTTP as well, along with novel approaches of modifying the enzyme to avoid the immune response or leveraging other vWF cleaving proteases such as plasmin to bypass ADAMTS13. Also, therapies that target preformed antibodies that are currently being tested in other humorally-mediated disorders could cross over to iTTP. Finally, progress has long been hampered in iTTP due to difficulty with accrual and disagreement about trial design. A good surrogate endpoint for relapse-free survival is also needed. Despite these challenges, a new era of precision medicine is likely soon emerging for treatment of iTTP, and with it comes the opportunity to further improve outcomes in this rare and deadly disease.


Assuntos
Empirismo , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Proteína ADAMTS13/deficiência , Proteína ADAMTS13/imunologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Troca Plasmática , Contagem de Plaquetas , Medicina de Precisão , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico
16.
EMBO Rep ; 20(10): e49110, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482636

RESUMO

Empirical research is based on observation and experimentation. Yet, experimental controls are essential for overcoming our sensory limits and generating reliable, unbiased and objective results.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Empirismo , Ciência
17.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(4): 155-166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303652

RESUMO

The reductionist empiricism (RE) underlying the current scientific habitus by imposing mechanistic causality (MC) as an explanatory principle of life sciences has obscured the understanding of the life process by equating it with that of a machine. The shapes ideas can take within knowledge are analyzed: as paradigms (anthropocentric and of disjunction, reduction and simplification), implicit logics of human ways of thinking and acting, and as comprehensive-explanatory theories. It is proposed that, by dismissing the ideas, the RE supplants the biological significance of what is observed by the statistical significance of the MC and the linear and probabilistic mathematics. It is argued that objectivity does not derive from experimental control, but from an interpretative framework pertinent to the type of events being studied and that the conviction that objectivity lies in the method of observation constitutes a myth of the RE that circumvents paradigms and its influence. Contextual causality is proposed and contrasted with the MC to highlight its limitations to explain the ungraspable biological complexity. The coincidence of the ongoing collapse of civilization and the apotheosis of reductionist science justifies dismissing it as mostly indifferent, ominous, impotent, accommodating or complicit with the dominance of profit interests without limits that degrade everything. It is concluded that it is time for resolutions: integrate with forces that aim, in various ways, to counteract this dominance and preserve our common habitat or to continue with the suicidal individualist complicity of "each their due and every man for himself."


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Causalidade , Empirismo , Humanos , Conhecimento
19.
Am J Med ; 132(9): 1032-1037, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928346

RESUMO

For many years after its first description in 1924, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura was an intriguing puzzle for clinicians and researchers, not only for its unique pathology, perplexing changes in von Willebrand factor multimers, and high rate of rapid fatality but also for its dramatic response to plasma infusion or exchange. The discovery of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats member-13) and its deficiency in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, due to inhibitory autoantibodies or genetic mutations, provides a mechanistic scheme for understanding its pathogenesis. This new knowledge quickly led to the use of rituximab to promote its remission and prevent recurrence. Recombinant ADAMTS13 is also under development to replace plasma infusion as the therapy for hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Recently, caplacizumab, a bivalent nanobody targeting the glycoprotein 1b binding epitope of von Willebrand factor A1 domain, was approved as an addition to the current regimen of plasma exchange and immunomodulation for adult patients of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. This review discusses how the new treatment may improve patient outcomes and its potential pitfalls.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Proteína ADAMTS13/deficiência , Proteína ADAMTS13/genética , Proteína ADAMTS13/imunologia , Empirismo , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Troca Plasmática , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Fator de von Willebrand/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20171020, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994750

RESUMO

This essay discusses the problem of the lack of dialogue between theory/empirical reality in the construction of the theoretical structure of dissertations and doctorates in Human Sciences in Brazil; taking Geography as an example, Santos (2000) observed this problem, which persists at the national level. The proposal is to present the question and to suggest the relationship between theory/empirical reality coming of the dialogue with specific research questions. It is these research questions that will define the limitations, factors, agents, processes and structures that will be studied. The relationship between the construction of the theoretical references with specific problems allowing theoretical-methodological advances, thus adapting the reading of the general theory to empirical situations. This appropriation generates both methodological directions for how to treat the empirical and the understandings that will be used in the discussion of the results. The confrontation and discussion of the results will suggest affirmations, questions and new perceptions for the theory.


Assuntos
Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto/normas , Empirismo , Geografia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Teoria de Sistemas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...