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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 726885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722439

RESUMO

Background: This research analyzed whether South Korean companies adopted remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic by focusing on the dual labor market structure comprising of primary sector (large corporations) and secondary sector [small and medium enterprises (SMEs)]. Companies in the dual labor market were classified based on firm size. Methods: We used August supplementary data from the Economically Active Population Survey covering 2017-2020 provided by Statistics Korea. In this empirical study, a Linear Probability Model was used to analyze the probability that employees would work for companies that introduced remote work since COVID-19 depending on the size of the company. Results: This study showed three main results. First, unlike other flexible work systems, the use of remote work has increased rapidly since COVID-19. Second, the larger the size of the company, the higher the probability that employees would work for companies that introduced remote work after COVID-19. Third, according to the analysis by industry, the difference in remote work utilization between large corporations and SMEs was relatively small because of a similar working method in manufacturing. Conclusion: Results of this study suggested that polarization within the dual labor market structure also spilled over to adoption of remote work, which was initially introduced to prevent the spread of the pandemic. This study examined the system and factors of labor-management relations contributing to such polarization and presented policy directions for the current labor market structure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Indústrias , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733129

RESUMO

Drawing on life course theory and research, we explored how socioeconomic circumstances during childhood and adulthood shape self-reported health trajectories among older Mexican adults. We used data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study panel survey (2001-2015) and used sequence analysis to estimate types of self-reported health trajectories in older adulthood. We then explored the association between those health trajectories and socioeconomic determinants at different life stages, including education, occupation, employment, economic status, parental education, and adverse living conditions and illnesses during childhood. Our contributions are threefold. First, we identified four types of health trajectories for men and eight for women, representing a more nuanced longitudinal health status profile than previously shown. Second, we found that childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence self-reported health trajectories at older age. Third, our results suggest there is no simple monotonic relationship between life course circumstances and self-reported health trajectories.


Assuntos
Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728596

RESUMO

The Agreement of the Council of Ministers of November 30, 2018 approving instructions to eliminate certain medical causes of exclusion in access to public employment, such as HIV, diabetes, celiac disease and psoriasis, has meant an important advance in the protection of the labor rights of people in these conditions. Since then, the tables of medical exclusions have been revised and modified for the National Police, National Police, the Civil Guard, the Customs Surveillance Corps, the Corps of Penitentiary Institutions Assistants, the Military Training Centers, the Training Centers, for the incorporation to the Troops and Marines scales and the National School of Police. In addition, the repeal of the Orders of the National Police (Order of January 11, 1988) and the regulatory modification of the Civil Guard (Order PCI/155/2019) guarantee that the diagnosis of HIV, diabetes, celiac disease and psoriasis, will continue without being an impediment for access to the National Police and the Civil Guard in the calls for the next exercises. So, that the mere diagnosis of a disease such as HIV, diabetes, celiac disease and psoriasis will not be a generic cause for exclusion from public employment, but will take into account medical advances and existing scientific evidence, as well as the health situation of each person.


Assuntos
Clero , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Emprego , Humanos , Polícia , Espanha
4.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S169-S176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740425

RESUMO

Poverty threatens child health. In the United States, financial strain, which encompasses income and asset poverty, is common with many complex etiologies. Even relatively successful antipoverty programs and policies fall short of serving all families in need, endangering health. We describe a new approach to address this pervasive health problem: antipoverty medicine. Historically, medicine has viewed poverty as a social problem outside of its scope. Increasingly, health care has addressed poverty's downstream effects, such as food and housing insecurity. However, strong evidence now shows that poverty affects biology, and thus, merits treatment as a medical problem. A new approach uses Medical-Financial Partnerships (MFPs), in which healthcare systems and financial service organizations collaborate to improve health by reducing family financial strain. MFPs help families grow assets by increasing savings, decreasing debt, and improving credit and economic opportunity while building a solid foundation for lifelong financial, physical, and mental health. We review evidence-based approaches to poverty alleviation, including conditional and unconditional cash transfers, savings vehicles, debt relief, credit repair, financial coaching, and employment assistance. We describe current national MFPs and highlight different applications of these evidence-based clinical financial interventions. Current MFP models reveal implementation opportunities and challenges, including time and space constraints, time-sensitive processes, lack of familiarity among patients and communities served, and sustainability in traditional medical settings. We conclude that pediatric health care practices can intervene upon poverty and should consider embracing antipoverty medicine as an essential part of the future of pediatric care.


Assuntos
Renda , Pobreza , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Emprego , Família , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769672

RESUMO

Organisations use non-standard employment as a means of flexibility and reduction of fixed costs. An increasingly growing group of employees are self-employed, have work contracts such as part-time and temporary contracts or are employed by a temporary agency, a development catalysed by the COVID pandemic. Whereas there is some evidence that temporary work might affect health via job insecurity (JI) there are hardly any studies focussing on the effects and mechanisms of temporary agency work (TAW). This study sheds light on TAW's potential health impact and the role of JI in this respect using a mediation analysis. Based on the BIBB/BAuA-Employment Survey 2018 (N = 20.021, representative of the German working population), we analysed the direct effect of TAW on cognitive and psychosomatic aspects of well-being. In particular, we considered JI as mediator for this association. In line with the potentially detrimental effects of temporary employment on well-being, we found that TAW was related to unfavourable outcomes in terms of job satisfaction, general health status and musculoskeletal complaints. JI partially mediated all three underlying associations. Organisations need to be flexible and adaptable. However, by using temporary agency employment as a means to achieve this flexibility, managers and leaders should be aware that it is related to unfavourable well-being and hence hidden costs. In using this type of employment, both the temporary work agency and the user company should consider these health risks by providing health care, options for increasing the temporary agency workers (TA), workers employability, and equal treatment between permanent and TA workers at the actual workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , SARS-CoV-2 , Local de Trabalho
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769684

RESUMO

Economic crises cause significant shortages in disposable income and a sharp decline in the living conditions, affecting healthcare sector, hitting the profitability and sustainability of companies leading to raises in unemployment. At micro level, these sharp decreases in earnings associated with unemployment and furthermore with the lack of social protection will impact the quality of life and finally the health of individuals. In time of crisis, it becomes vital to support not only the critical sectors of the economy, the assets, technology, and infrastructure, but to protect jobs and workers. This health crisis has hit hard the jobs dynamics through unemployment and underemployment, the quality of work (through wages, or access to social protection), and through the effects on specific groups, with a higher degree of vulnerability to unfavorable labor market outcomes. In this context, providing forecasts as recent as possible for the unemployment rate, a core indicator of the Romanian labor market that could include the effects of the market shocks it becomes fundamental. Thus, the paper aims to offer valuable forecasts for the Romanian unemployment rate using univariate vs. multivariate time series models for the period 2021-2022, highlighting the main patterns of evolution. Based on the univariate time series models, the paper predict the future values of unemployment rate based on its own past using self-forecasting and implementing ARFIMA and SETAR models using monthly data for the period January 2000-April 2021. From the perspective of multivariate time series models, the paper uses VAR/VECM models, analyzing the temporal interdependencies between variables using quarterly data for the period 2000Q1-2020Q4. The empirical results pointed out that both SETAR and VECM provide very similar results in terms of accuracy replicating very well the pre-pandemic period, 2018Q2-2020Q1, reaching the value of 4.1% at the beginning of 2020, with a decreasing trend reaching the value of 3.9%, respectively, 3.6% at the end of 2022.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desemprego , Economia , Emprego , Humanos , Renda , Romênia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769737

RESUMO

Precarious employment (PE) has been linked to adverse health effects, possibly mediated through psychosocial hazards. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore if higher levels of PE are associated with psychosocial hazards (experiences of violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, high demands, and low control) and to explore gender differences in these patterns. The study is based on survey- and register data from a sample of 401 non-standard employees in Stockholm County (2016-2017). The level of PE (low/high) was assessed with the Swedish version of the employment precariousness scale (EPRES-Se) and analysed in relation to psychosocial hazards by means of generalized linear models, with the Poisson family and robust variances. After controlling for potential confounders (gender, age, country of birth, and education), the prevalence of suffering bullying (PR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13) and discrimination (PR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.00-2.32) was higher among individuals with a high level of PE. Regarding the demand/control variables, a high level of PE was also associated with low control (PR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.96) and passive work (the combination of low demands and low control) (PR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.08). Our findings suggest that workers in PE are more likely to experience psychosocial hazards, and these experiences are more prevalent among women compared to men. Future longitudinal studies should look further into these associations and their implications for health and health inequalities.


Assuntos
Bullying , Assédio Sexual , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 746580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778181

RESUMO

A rising rate of suicide among the elderly in rural China has been recognized to be triggered by mental health-associated factors. This study uses 3,397 sampled rural elderly adults from China Labor-force Dynamic Survey in 2016 to explore the response mechanism through which non-agricultural employment participation by the elderly adults in rural China can influence their mental health. Utilizing the Multivariate Regression, Instrumental Variable and Propensity Score Matching methods, we find that, the rural elderly adults who participate in local non-agricultural employment significantly improve their mental health. Self-employment tends to have a greater positive contribution to the mental health of the elderly population than waged employment. Further, work income, need for belongingness and respect, and human capital development significantly mediates the influence of participation in local non-agricultural employment on the mental health of the elderly adults. Finally, we put forward relevant policy suggestions to improving the mental health of the elderly in the countryside.


Assuntos
Emprego , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , População Rural
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2032, 2021 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research aimed to formulate and test a model concerning COVID-19 perceptions effects on job insecurity and a set of psychosocial factors comprising anxiety, depression, job burnout and job alienation in the Middle East and North African (hereafter, MENA) regional context. Also, the study attempted to examine whether locus of control can moderate these hypothesised linkages amongst customer service employees working in MENA hospitality organisations. METHODS: The study is based on a sample of 885 responses to an online survey and Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). RESULTS: The main findings show the existence of a significant correlation between COVID perceptions and job insecurity and all psychosocial factors, i.e., more intense COVID-19 perceptions accompany higher levels of job insecurity, anxiety, depression, job burnout and job alienation. Furthermore, our results revealed that, in pandemic time, hospitality customer service employees with external locus of control are more likely to suffer higher alienation, anxiety and depression than those with internal locus of control. CONCLUSIONS: The research originality centres on the establishment that COVID-19 has a severe negative impact within the hospitality customer service labour force (in the MENA region). These effects were more profound for participants who claimed external locus of control than those with internal locus of control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Emprego , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Satisfação no Emprego , Análise de Classes Latentes , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731199

RESUMO

We investigated changes in the quantity and quality of time spent on various activities in response to the COVID-19-induced national lockdowns in the UK. We examined effects both in the first national lockdown (May 2020) and the third national lockdown (March 2021). Using retrospective longitudinal time-use diary data collected from a demographically diverse sample of over 760 UK adults in both lockdowns, we found significant changes in both the quantity and quality of time spent on broad activity categories (employment, housework, leisure). Individuals spent less time on employment-related activities (in addition to a reduction in time spent commuting) and more time on housework. These effects were concentrated on individuals with young children. Individuals also spent more time doing leisure activities (e.g. hobbies) alone and conducting employment-related activities outside normal working hours, changes that were significantly correlated with decreases in overall enjoyment. Changes in quality exacerbated existing inequalities in quantity of time use, with parents of young children being disproportionately affected. These findings indicate that quality of time use is another important consideration for policy design and evaluation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731212

RESUMO

A key goal for society as a whole is the pursuit of well-being, which leads to the happiness of its individual members; as such, it is of critical socioeconomic relevance. In this regard, it is important to study which factors primarily affect the happiness of the population. In principle, these factors are associated with income level and residential and job stability, or more specifically, citizens' quality of life. This research, which is based on a multidimensional concept of quality of life, uses a regression model to explain the dependence of Spaniards' happiness on the well-being or quality of life provided by their work, their family situation, their income level and aspects of their place of residence, among other factors. The data were collected through an anonymous survey administered to a representative sample of Spanish citizens. The methodology used approaches the intangible concept of happiness as resulting from different individual and social causes selected from dimensions addressed in the literature, and calculates their effects or importance through regression coefficients. One of the findings is that people with the highest level of well-being or quality of life in the most important dimensions mostly claim to be happy. With respect to gender, it has a significant influence on the dimensions included in the model of citizen happiness and on personal issues. It is also shown that the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic negatively influenced the quality of life of Spanish citizens and therefore their happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida , Teoria Social , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Emprego , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 598083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744563

RESUMO

Objectives: Examining whether specific population groups who are not working and those who have an employment have the same health literacy level. Methods: Data were retrieved from a nationally representative cross-sectional study of the Danish population conducted with the health literacy questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16) in 2016 and 2017. Socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from national registers. Odds ratio for the association between employment status and health literacy was estimated from logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. Probability weights were used to adjust for differences in responses. Results: Logistic regression analyses showed that receiving unemployment benefits, social assistance, employment and support allowance, retirement pension and sickness benefit were significantly associated with having inadequate health literacy compared to being employed in any industry. The highest odds ratio for inadequate health literacy was present for receiving unemployment benefit OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23-2.56). Conclusion: Population groups not working and receiving economic public support have higher odds of inadequate health literacy competencies compared to those active in the labor force, considering age and socioeconomic factors. The result contributes to understanding health disparities in connection to occupational situation.


Assuntos
Emprego , Letramento em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv40-iv49, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are widespread concerns that workers in precarious employment have suffered the most in the COVID-19 pandemic and merit special attention. The aim of this rapid scoping umbrella review was to examine what evidence exists about how COVID-19 has affected the health of this highly vulnerable group, and what gaps remain to be investigated. METHODS: Five databases were searched for systematic or scoping reviews from January 2020 to May 2021. The quality of the included reviews was determined using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews. RESULTS: We identified 6 reviews that reported 30 unique relevant primary studies. The included studies indicate that essential (non-health) workers are at greater risk of COVID-19 infection and case fatality than others in their surrounding community. The occupational risk of exposure to COVID-19 also seems to be greater among more precarious categories of workers, including younger workers and workers in low-income and low-skilled occupations. Further, hazardous working conditions faced by many essential workers appear to have amplified the pandemic, as several occupational sites became 'super-spreaders', due to an inability to socially distance at work and high contact rates among workers. Finally, employment and financial insecurity generated by the pandemic appears to be associated with negative mental health outcomes. The quality of the included reviews however, and their primary studies, were generally weak and many gaps remain in the evidence base. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that COVID-19 is creating new health risks for precarious workers as well as exacerbating the pre-existing health risks of precarious employment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Ocupações , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 772236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778197

RESUMO

Background: The mental health of racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. has been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the extent to which disruptions in employment and housing, coronavirus-specific forms of victimization and racial bias independently and conjointly contributed to mental health risk among Asian, Black, and Latinx adults in the United States during the pandemic. Methods: This study reports on data from 401 Asian, Black, and Latinx adults (age 18-72) who participated in a larger national online survey conducted from October 2020-June 2021, Measures included financial and health information, housing disruptions and distress in response to employment changes, coronavirus related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias, depression and anxiety. Results: Asian participants had significantly higher levels of COVID-related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias than Black and Latinx. Young adults (<26 years old) were more vulnerable to depression, anxiety, and coronavirus victimization distress than older respondents. Having at least one COVID-related health risk, distress in response to changes in employment and housing disruptions, pandemic related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias were positively and significantly related to depression and anxiety. Structural equation modeling indicated COVID-related increases in racial bias mediated the effect of COVID-19 related victimization distress on depression and anxiety. Conclusions: COVID-19 has created new pathways to mental health disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. by exacerbating existing structural and societal inequities linked to race. Findings highlight the necessity of mental health services sensitive to specific challenges in employment and housing and social bias experienced by people of color during the current and future health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vítimas de Crime , Racismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego , Habitação , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781349

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Occupational therapy practitioners should use evidence-based practices, such as video modeling, to address work occupations supporting people with autism spectrum disorder, including those with co-occurring intellectual and developmental disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence and relevance of video modeling supporting engagement in work occupations for people with autism and to translate these findings to occupational therapy practice. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Collection Plus, CINAHL, PubMed, ERIC, ProQuest, and peer-reviewed occupational therapy literature from 2008 to 2018. Study Selection and Data Collection: This review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study selection and data collection focused on occupational therapy scope of practice, autism spectrum disorder, co-occurring intellectual and developmental disabilities, video modeling, and work occupations for people age 16 yr and older. FINDINGS: A total of 464 articles were screened. Six articles met inclusion criteria. Results indicated moderate evidence for video modeling to support work occupations for people with autism, specifically employment seeking and acquisition and specific job-performance skills. Samples were limited to people younger than age 28 yr and represented varied intellectual abilities, indicating potential for benefits across the spectrum of cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This systematic review highlights the promising potential of video modeling to address work occupations for people with autism. However, more rigorous effectiveness research is needed, including studies by occupational therapy practitioners. What This Article Adds: Occupational therapy expertise paired with video modeling, as a strengths-based, client-centered, customizable, socially acceptable intervention, can provide meaningful support for work occupations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Terapia Ocupacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Ocupações
16.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781356

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Occupational therapy practitioners use a range of habilitative and compensatory approaches to teach new skills or modify tasks and environments to address occupational performance among adults with intellectual disability (ID); therefore, they must identify and use available evidence to guide intervention planning. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the scope of evidence that can inform occupational therapy intervention with adults with primary or comorbid ID. DATA SOURCES: Articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2002 and January 2018 and indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Study Selection and Data Collection: A total of 159 articles met inclusion criteria and contained information on occupational therapy intervention with adults ages 18 yr or older with primary or coexisting ID. FINDINGS: Fifty-seven of the 159 articles focused on intervention to address occupational performance outcomes (i.e., employment, self-care, leisure and social interaction, community participation). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A wide range of literature is available to support occupational therapy intervention with adults with ID. Occupational therapy practitioners may be less knowledgeable about this evidence because much of it is located in non-occupational therapy or international journals. What This Article Adds: This scoping review provides occupational therapy practitioners with evidence to support high-quality occupational therapy intervention with adults with ID.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Terapia Ocupacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770000

RESUMO

Disability employment programs play a key role in supporting people with disability to overcome barriers to finding and maintaining work. Despite significant investment, ongoing reforms to Australia's Disability Employment Services (DES) are yet to lead to improved outcomes. This paper presents findings from the Improving Disability Employment Study (IDES): a two-wave survey of 197 DES participants that aims to understand their perspectives on factors that influence access to paid work. Analysis of employment status by type of barrier indicates many respondents experience multiple barriers across vocational (lack of qualifications), non-vocational (inaccessible transport) and structural (limited availability of jobs, insufficient resourcing) domains. The odds of gaining work decreased as the number of barriers across all domains increased with each unit of barrier reported (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07, 1.38). Unemployed respondents wanted more support from employment programs to navigate the welfare system and suggest suitable work, whereas employed respondents wanted support to maintain work, indicating the need to better tailor service provision according to the needs of job-seekers. Combined with our findings from the participant perspective, improving understanding of these relationships through in-depth analysis and reporting of DES program data would provide better evidence to support current DES reform and improve models of service delivery.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Emprego , Austrália , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770017

RESUMO

Employment can play an important role for humanitarian migrants in their successful integration into a new country. For humanitarian migrants to Australia, there are no skill or language restrictions imposed on resettlement. Despite the benefits, humanitarian migrants often find themselves in low-status jobs and precarious working conditions. The present study examines perceptions of job quality and exposure to workforce psychosocial risk factors such as job strain, bullying, and discrimination. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 humanitarian migrants from South Sudan, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Thematic analysis of transcripts identified three overarching themes: Uncertainty and Insecurity, Working Hard and Pushing Through, and Positive Attitudes and Actions. Overall, our findings show that despite high levels of education and long-term residency in Australia, many of the participants struggled to find a safe and secure place in the workforce. While some spoke about their work in positive terms, their comments should not be taken as confirmation of a positive work environment. Humanitarian migrants face an uphill battle against oppressive working conditions and underemployment.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , Austrália , Emprego , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770019

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently after road traffic crashes (RTCs), and the effect on work participation is not fully understood. The primary aim of this review was to determine the impact of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury during an RTC on the rate of return to work (RTW), sick leave, and other work outcomes. The secondary aim was to determine factors associated with these work-related outcomes. An electronic search of relevant databases to identify observational studies related to work and employment, RTC, and musculoskeletal injuries was conducted. Where possible, outcome data were pooled by follow-up period to answer the primary aim. Fifty-three studies were included in this review, of which 28 were included in meta-analyses. The pooled rate of RTW was 70% at 1 month, 67% at 3 months, 76% at 6 months, 83% at 12 months, and 70% at 24 months. Twenty-seven percent of participants took some sick leave by one month follow-up, 13% by 3 months, 23% by 6 months, 36% by 12 months, and 22% by 24 months. Most of the factors identified as associated with work outcomes were health-related, with some evidence also for sociodemographic factors. While 70% of people with RTC-related musculoskeletal injury RTW shortly after accident, many still have not RTW two years later.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Emprego , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Retorno ao Trabalho , Licença Médica
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 956, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany and other European countries, many occupations still involve manual handling of loads (MHL), an activity that puts the musculoskeletal system at risk of low back pain (LBP). This study aims to describe the current prevalence of MHL in different occupational groups stratified by gender in Germany, the association between MHL and LBP and the adjusted prevalence of LBP in different respond-categories of MHL. METHODS: Data was collected in telephone interviews conducted as part of the 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey, which covers work-related topics like working conditions, education, health status and job satisfaction. The analyses were limited to full-time workers (> 35 h/week) aged between 15 and 67. The frequency of MHL was analysed descriptively. BLOSSFELD classification was used to group the participants in occupational categories. The analysis of the association between MHL and the prevalence of LBP over the last 12 months was based on robust log-linear Poisson regression that results in prevalence ratios (PR). The main regression model was adjusted for gender, age, working hours, and working conditions. Adjusted estimates for the prevalence of LBP were calculated based on regression analysis. RESULTS: The sample consists of n = 14,331 participants (men: n = 8828, 61.6%; women: n = 5503, 38.4%; median age 49 years). Of these, 52.8% say they were exposed to MHL at work. MHL is most common in agricultural occupations, skilled and unskilled occupations. In the regression model, participants who said they were "often" exposed to MHL reported more frequently LBP than those participants who said they were "never" exposed to MHL. The PR as estimate for the association is 1.41 (95%CI [1.32; 1.49]). Postestimation of the prevalence of LBP began with 47.3% (95%CI [43.8%; 51.1%]) for participants who said they were "never" exposed to MHL and rose to 66.5% (95%CI [62.4%; 71.0%]) for participants who indicated they were "often" exposed to MHL. CONCLUSIONS: The 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey emphasizes that MHL is still common in the German workforce and shows a significant association to LBP. Prevention policies for avoiding MHL remain vital.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Doenças Profissionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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