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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 43-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016904

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states across the United States implemented various strategies to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of COVID-19-related state closures on consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, while controlling for changes in COVID-19 incidence and death. DESIGN: The analysis estimated a difference-in-difference model, utilizing temporal and geographic variation in state closure orders to analyze their impact on the economy, while controlling for COVID-19 incidence and death. PARTICIPANTS: State-level data on economic outcomes from the Opportunity Insights data tracker and COVID-19 cases and death data from usafacts.org. INTERVENTIONS: The mitigation strategy analyzed within this study was COVID-19-related state closure orders. Data on these orders were obtained from state government Web sites containing executive or administrative orders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes include state-level estimates of consumer spending, business revenue, and employment levels. RESULTS: Analyses showed that although state closures led to a decrease in consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, they accounted for only a small portion of the observed decreases in these outcomes over the first wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 on economic activity likely reflects a combination of factors, in addition to state closures, such as individuals' perceptions of risk related to COVID-19 incidence, which may play significant roles in impacting economic activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Comércio , Emprego , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
2.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 37(1): 28-34, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complexity in nursing practice creates an intense and stressful environment that may lead to moral distress (MD) and registered nurses (RNs) seeking other employment. LOCAL PROBLEM: In 2020, the RN turnover rate was 8%, with postpandemic turnover projected to reach 13%. METHODS: The Measure of Moral Distress for Health Care Professionals (MMD-HP) was used to measure the frequency and level of RNs' MD. RESULTS: t tests showed significant differences for 16 of 27 MMD-HP items in RN intent to leave. RNs had 2.9 times the odds of intent to leave (P = .019) due to perceived issues with patient quality and safety and 9.1 times the odds of intent to leave (P < .001) due to perceived issues with the work environment. Results explained 40.3% of outcome variance. CONCLUSIONS: MD related to work environment or patient quality and safety were significant factors in RN intent to leave their position.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Emprego , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769672

RESUMO

Organisations use non-standard employment as a means of flexibility and reduction of fixed costs. An increasingly growing group of employees are self-employed, have work contracts such as part-time and temporary contracts or are employed by a temporary agency, a development catalysed by the COVID pandemic. Whereas there is some evidence that temporary work might affect health via job insecurity (JI) there are hardly any studies focussing on the effects and mechanisms of temporary agency work (TAW). This study sheds light on TAW's potential health impact and the role of JI in this respect using a mediation analysis. Based on the BIBB/BAuA-Employment Survey 2018 (N = 20.021, representative of the German working population), we analysed the direct effect of TAW on cognitive and psychosomatic aspects of well-being. In particular, we considered JI as mediator for this association. In line with the potentially detrimental effects of temporary employment on well-being, we found that TAW was related to unfavourable outcomes in terms of job satisfaction, general health status and musculoskeletal complaints. JI partially mediated all three underlying associations. Organisations need to be flexible and adaptable. However, by using temporary agency employment as a means to achieve this flexibility, managers and leaders should be aware that it is related to unfavourable well-being and hence hidden costs. In using this type of employment, both the temporary work agency and the user company should consider these health risks by providing health care, options for increasing the temporary agency workers (TA), workers employability, and equal treatment between permanent and TA workers at the actual workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , SARS-CoV-2 , Local de Trabalho
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769684

RESUMO

Economic crises cause significant shortages in disposable income and a sharp decline in the living conditions, affecting healthcare sector, hitting the profitability and sustainability of companies leading to raises in unemployment. At micro level, these sharp decreases in earnings associated with unemployment and furthermore with the lack of social protection will impact the quality of life and finally the health of individuals. In time of crisis, it becomes vital to support not only the critical sectors of the economy, the assets, technology, and infrastructure, but to protect jobs and workers. This health crisis has hit hard the jobs dynamics through unemployment and underemployment, the quality of work (through wages, or access to social protection), and through the effects on specific groups, with a higher degree of vulnerability to unfavorable labor market outcomes. In this context, providing forecasts as recent as possible for the unemployment rate, a core indicator of the Romanian labor market that could include the effects of the market shocks it becomes fundamental. Thus, the paper aims to offer valuable forecasts for the Romanian unemployment rate using univariate vs. multivariate time series models for the period 2021-2022, highlighting the main patterns of evolution. Based on the univariate time series models, the paper predict the future values of unemployment rate based on its own past using self-forecasting and implementing ARFIMA and SETAR models using monthly data for the period January 2000-April 2021. From the perspective of multivariate time series models, the paper uses VAR/VECM models, analyzing the temporal interdependencies between variables using quarterly data for the period 2000Q1-2020Q4. The empirical results pointed out that both SETAR and VECM provide very similar results in terms of accuracy replicating very well the pre-pandemic period, 2018Q2-2020Q1, reaching the value of 4.1% at the beginning of 2020, with a decreasing trend reaching the value of 3.9%, respectively, 3.6% at the end of 2022.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desemprego , Economia , Emprego , Humanos , Renda , Romênia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769737

RESUMO

Precarious employment (PE) has been linked to adverse health effects, possibly mediated through psychosocial hazards. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore if higher levels of PE are associated with psychosocial hazards (experiences of violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, high demands, and low control) and to explore gender differences in these patterns. The study is based on survey- and register data from a sample of 401 non-standard employees in Stockholm County (2016-2017). The level of PE (low/high) was assessed with the Swedish version of the employment precariousness scale (EPRES-Se) and analysed in relation to psychosocial hazards by means of generalized linear models, with the Poisson family and robust variances. After controlling for potential confounders (gender, age, country of birth, and education), the prevalence of suffering bullying (PR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13) and discrimination (PR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.00-2.32) was higher among individuals with a high level of PE. Regarding the demand/control variables, a high level of PE was also associated with low control (PR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.96) and passive work (the combination of low demands and low control) (PR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.08). Our findings suggest that workers in PE are more likely to experience psychosocial hazards, and these experiences are more prevalent among women compared to men. Future longitudinal studies should look further into these associations and their implications for health and health inequalities.


Assuntos
Bullying , Assédio Sexual , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 746580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778181

RESUMO

A rising rate of suicide among the elderly in rural China has been recognized to be triggered by mental health-associated factors. This study uses 3,397 sampled rural elderly adults from China Labor-force Dynamic Survey in 2016 to explore the response mechanism through which non-agricultural employment participation by the elderly adults in rural China can influence their mental health. Utilizing the Multivariate Regression, Instrumental Variable and Propensity Score Matching methods, we find that, the rural elderly adults who participate in local non-agricultural employment significantly improve their mental health. Self-employment tends to have a greater positive contribution to the mental health of the elderly population than waged employment. Further, work income, need for belongingness and respect, and human capital development significantly mediates the influence of participation in local non-agricultural employment on the mental health of the elderly adults. Finally, we put forward relevant policy suggestions to improving the mental health of the elderly in the countryside.


Assuntos
Emprego , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , População Rural
8.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 9356452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745514

RESUMO

In the current information age, the human lifestyle has become more knowledge-oriented, leading to sedentary employment. This has given rise to a number of health and mental disorders. Mental wellness is one of the most neglected, however crucial, aspects of today's fast-paced world. Mental health issues can, both directly and indirectly, affect other sections of human physiology and impede an individual's day-to-day activities and performance. However, identifying the stress and finding the stress trend for an individual that may lead to serious mental ailments is challenging and involves multiple factors. Such identification can be achieved accurately by fusing these multiple modalities (due to various factors) arising from a person's behavioral patterns. Specific techniques are identified in the literature for this purpose; however, very few machine learning-based methods are proposed for such multimodal fusion tasks. In this work, a multimodal AI-based framework is proposed to monitor a person's working behavior and stress levels. We propose a methodology for efficiently detecting stress due to workload by concatenating heterogeneous raw sensor data streams (e.g., face expressions, posture, heart rate, and computer interaction). This data can be securely stored and analyzed to understand and discover personalized unique behavioral patterns leading to mental strain and fatigue. The contribution of this work is twofold: firstly, proposing a multimodal AI-based strategy for fusion to detect stress and its level and, secondly, identifying a stress pattern over a period of time. We were able to achieve 96.09% accuracy on the test set in stress detection and classification. Further, we were able to reduce the stress scale prediction model loss to 0.036 using these modalities. This work can prove important for the community at large, specifically those working sedentary jobs, to monitor and identify stress levels, especially in current times of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132777, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779849

RESUMO

Importance: A slow or incomplete civil registry makes it impossible to determine excess mortality due to COVID-19 and difficult to inform policy. Objective: To quantify the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with excess mortality and household income in rural Bangladesh in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated survey study is based on an in-person census followed by 2 rounds of telephone calls. Data were collected from a sample of 135 villages within a densely populated 350-km2 rural area of Bangladesh. Household data were obtained first in person and subsequently over the telephone. For the analysis, mortality data were stratified by month, age, sex, and household education. Mortality rates were modeled by bayesian multilevel regression, and the strata were aggregated to the population by poststratification. Data analysis was performed from February to April 2021. Exposures: Date and cause of any changes in household composition, as well as changes in income and food availability. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality rates were compared for 2019 and 2020, both without adjustment and after adjustment for nonresponse and differences in demographic variables between surveys. Income and food availability reported for January, May, and November 2020 were also compared. Results: Enumerators collected data from an initial 16 054 households in January 2020; 14 551 households (91%) responded when contacted again by telephone in May 2020, and 11 933 households (74%)responded when reached again over the telephone in November 2020, for a total of 58 806 individuals (29 726 female participants [50.5%]; mean [SD] age, 26.4 [19.8] years). A total of 276 deaths were reported between February and the end of October 2020 for the subset of the population that could be contacted twice over the telephone, slightly below the 289 deaths reported for the same population over the same period in 2019. After adjustment for survey nonresponse and poststratification, 2020 mortality changed by -8% (95% CI, -21% to 7%) compared with an annualized mortality of 6.1 deaths per 1000 individuals in 2019. However, in May 2020, salaried primary income earners reported a 40% decrease in monthly income (from 17 485 to 10 835 Bangladeshi Taka), and self-employed earners reported a 60% decrease in monthly income (23 083 to 8521 Bangladeshi Taka), with only a small recovery observed by November 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of households in rural Bangladesh, all-cause mortality was lower in 2020 compared with 2019. Restrictions imposed by the government may have limited the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural areas, although economic data suggest that these restrictions need to be accompanied by expanded welfare programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Características da Família , Renda , Pandemias , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/mortalidade , Criança , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2032, 2021 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research aimed to formulate and test a model concerning COVID-19 perceptions effects on job insecurity and a set of psychosocial factors comprising anxiety, depression, job burnout and job alienation in the Middle East and North African (hereafter, MENA) regional context. Also, the study attempted to examine whether locus of control can moderate these hypothesised linkages amongst customer service employees working in MENA hospitality organisations. METHODS: The study is based on a sample of 885 responses to an online survey and Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). RESULTS: The main findings show the existence of a significant correlation between COVID perceptions and job insecurity and all psychosocial factors, i.e., more intense COVID-19 perceptions accompany higher levels of job insecurity, anxiety, depression, job burnout and job alienation. Furthermore, our results revealed that, in pandemic time, hospitality customer service employees with external locus of control are more likely to suffer higher alienation, anxiety and depression than those with internal locus of control. CONCLUSIONS: The research originality centres on the establishment that COVID-19 has a severe negative impact within the hospitality customer service labour force (in the MENA region). These effects were more profound for participants who claimed external locus of control than those with internal locus of control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Emprego , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Satisfação no Emprego , Análise de Classes Latentes , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 202021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779181

RESUMO

Employee turnover is a growing challenge for health-care providers delivering patient care today. US population demographics are shifting as the population ages, which leaves the field of health care poised to lose key leaders and employees to retirement at a time when patient care has grown more complex. This means health care will lose its core of key employees at a time when skilled leadership and specialized knowledge is most needed and directly impacts health care's ability to deliver quality care. Operational succession planning (OSP) may be one solution to manage this looming challenge in health care, as the process identifies and develops the next generation of leadership. Thus, this exploratory national study used a quantitative and cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between OSP and employee turnover. Demographic and 10-point Likert scale data were collected from n = 66 medical practices, using an online survey instrument. Data were analyzed using various descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Distribution (frequency and chi-square) analyses of the study sample, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression analyses were performed across seven demographic characteristics of the medical practices: Specialty, Ownership Structure, Number of full-time equivalent (FTE) Physicians, Number of FTE Clinical Employees, Number of FTE Nonclinical Employees, Number of FTE Employees Left Position, and Region. Study results provided statistically significant evidence to support the relationship between OSP and employee turnover, highlighting that OSP was associated with lower employee turnover. The finding suggests that OSP can serve as an effective mechanism for increasing employee retention.


Assuntos
Liderança , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Humanos , Aposentadoria , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735499

RESUMO

When emerging technologies transform an organization's way of working, explorative business process management (BPM) becomes a new challenge. Although digital innovations can boost process efficacy and business productivity, employees do not necessarily accept the implied work changes. We therefore looked at the increased digitalization efforts during the COVID-19 lockdowns, during which employees were forced to drastically rethink work by heavily depending on technology for communication and almost all business tasks. This global setting allowed us to scrutinize disruptive work changes and how employees can cope with disruptive work adaptations. We also looked into the explorative skillset needed to adapt to these changes. To theorize about an explorative BPM acceptance model, eleven hypotheses were supported based on a solid theoretical foundation. We followed a quantitative research design using partial least squares for structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) at the university administration settings in two regions, including purposive sampling. Data analysis covered both a measurement model assessment and structural model assessment. Our findings reveal that employees' perceived work modalities, feeling creative and feeling flexible are more promising features than perceived influence and attitude related to explorative work and skill development. We also offer novel insights into explorative business process management (BPM) skills, and which skills are more productive in uncertain or dynamic working conditions. This research is a learning path for managers struggling with flexible or competitive business environments, and more specifically to facilitate employee willingness.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comércio , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Emprego , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Criatividade , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Organizacionais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748585

RESUMO

A lockdown implies a shift from the public to the private sphere, and from market to non-market production, thereby increasing the volume of unpaid work. Already before the pandemic, unpaid work was disproportionately borne by women. This paper studies the effect of working from home for pay (WFH), due to a lockdown, on the change in the division of housework and childcare within couple households. While previous studies on the effect of WFH on the reconciliation of work and family life and the division of labour within the household suffered from selection bias, we are able to identify this effect by drawing upon the shock of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. The corresponding legal measures left little choice over WFH. In any case, WFH is exogenous, conditional on a small set of individual and household characteristics we control for. We employ data from a survey on the gendered aspects of the lockdown. The dataset includes detailed information on time use during the lockdown and on the quality and experience of WFH. Uniquely, this survey data also includes information on the division, and not only magnitude, of unpaid work within households. Austria is an interesting case in this respect as it is characterized by very conservative gender norms. The results reveal that the probability of men taking on a larger share of housework increases if men are WFH alone or together with their female partner. By contrast, the involvement of men in childcare increased only in the event that the female partner was not able to WFH. Overall, the burden of childcare, and particularly homeschooling, was disproportionately borne by women.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidado da Criança , Emprego , Quarentena , Teletrabalho , Áustria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 562-568, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814430

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the basic qualities, practitioners will and related influences, of undergraduate, master, and doctoral students majoring in public health (hereinafter referred to as public health students), and explore the influencing factors of practitioners will. Methods: Through the online questionnaire survey, we collected information on the basic qualities of the public health students, their practitioners will and related influencing factors, and their opinions on the current state of public health in China. χ2 test and multi-factor logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of public health students' willingness to engage in public health related work, and word frequency analysis was used to conduct a descriptive analysis of public health students' views on public health in China. Results: A total of 2 081 pieces of valid information were collected, of which 86.54% (1 801/2 081) of the students in the school chose to engage in public health related work in the future. For public health students, the higher the target after-tax monthly income (OR=0.345, 95%CI: 0.158-0.751), the lower the willingness to engage in public health related work in the future; Very satisfied with school employment guidance work (OR=4.072, 95%CI: 1.234-13.436) compared with very dissatisfied, the willingness to engage in public health related work in the future is higher. Conclusion: The willingness of students in public health related majors to engage in public health related majors in China is mainly affected by three factors: payment levels, employment guidance and professional post recognition. It is recommended to appropriately raise the salaries of public health related positions. Strengthening school employment guidance training and professional identity training is conducive to enhancing the willingness of public health students to engage in relevant work in their profession.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Estudantes , China , Emprego , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S169-S176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740425

RESUMO

Poverty threatens child health. In the United States, financial strain, which encompasses income and asset poverty, is common with many complex etiologies. Even relatively successful antipoverty programs and policies fall short of serving all families in need, endangering health. We describe a new approach to address this pervasive health problem: antipoverty medicine. Historically, medicine has viewed poverty as a social problem outside of its scope. Increasingly, health care has addressed poverty's downstream effects, such as food and housing insecurity. However, strong evidence now shows that poverty affects biology, and thus, merits treatment as a medical problem. A new approach uses Medical-Financial Partnerships (MFPs), in which healthcare systems and financial service organizations collaborate to improve health by reducing family financial strain. MFPs help families grow assets by increasing savings, decreasing debt, and improving credit and economic opportunity while building a solid foundation for lifelong financial, physical, and mental health. We review evidence-based approaches to poverty alleviation, including conditional and unconditional cash transfers, savings vehicles, debt relief, credit repair, financial coaching, and employment assistance. We describe current national MFPs and highlight different applications of these evidence-based clinical financial interventions. Current MFP models reveal implementation opportunities and challenges, including time and space constraints, time-sensitive processes, lack of familiarity among patients and communities served, and sustainability in traditional medical settings. We conclude that pediatric health care practices can intervene upon poverty and should consider embracing antipoverty medicine as an essential part of the future of pediatric care.


Assuntos
Renda , Pobreza , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Emprego , Família , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv40-iv49, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are widespread concerns that workers in precarious employment have suffered the most in the COVID-19 pandemic and merit special attention. The aim of this rapid scoping umbrella review was to examine what evidence exists about how COVID-19 has affected the health of this highly vulnerable group, and what gaps remain to be investigated. METHODS: Five databases were searched for systematic or scoping reviews from January 2020 to May 2021. The quality of the included reviews was determined using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews. RESULTS: We identified 6 reviews that reported 30 unique relevant primary studies. The included studies indicate that essential (non-health) workers are at greater risk of COVID-19 infection and case fatality than others in their surrounding community. The occupational risk of exposure to COVID-19 also seems to be greater among more precarious categories of workers, including younger workers and workers in low-income and low-skilled occupations. Further, hazardous working conditions faced by many essential workers appear to have amplified the pandemic, as several occupational sites became 'super-spreaders', due to an inability to socially distance at work and high contact rates among workers. Finally, employment and financial insecurity generated by the pandemic appears to be associated with negative mental health outcomes. The quality of the included reviews however, and their primary studies, were generally weak and many gaps remain in the evidence base. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that COVID-19 is creating new health risks for precarious workers as well as exacerbating the pre-existing health risks of precarious employment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Ocupações , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731199

RESUMO

We investigated changes in the quantity and quality of time spent on various activities in response to the COVID-19-induced national lockdowns in the UK. We examined effects both in the first national lockdown (May 2020) and the third national lockdown (March 2021). Using retrospective longitudinal time-use diary data collected from a demographically diverse sample of over 760 UK adults in both lockdowns, we found significant changes in both the quantity and quality of time spent on broad activity categories (employment, housework, leisure). Individuals spent less time on employment-related activities (in addition to a reduction in time spent commuting) and more time on housework. These effects were concentrated on individuals with young children. Individuals also spent more time doing leisure activities (e.g. hobbies) alone and conducting employment-related activities outside normal working hours, changes that were significantly correlated with decreases in overall enjoyment. Changes in quality exacerbated existing inequalities in quantity of time use, with parents of young children being disproportionately affected. These findings indicate that quality of time use is another important consideration for policy design and evaluation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
18.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731212

RESUMO

A key goal for society as a whole is the pursuit of well-being, which leads to the happiness of its individual members; as such, it is of critical socioeconomic relevance. In this regard, it is important to study which factors primarily affect the happiness of the population. In principle, these factors are associated with income level and residential and job stability, or more specifically, citizens' quality of life. This research, which is based on a multidimensional concept of quality of life, uses a regression model to explain the dependence of Spaniards' happiness on the well-being or quality of life provided by their work, their family situation, their income level and aspects of their place of residence, among other factors. The data were collected through an anonymous survey administered to a representative sample of Spanish citizens. The methodology used approaches the intangible concept of happiness as resulting from different individual and social causes selected from dimensions addressed in the literature, and calculates their effects or importance through regression coefficients. One of the findings is that people with the highest level of well-being or quality of life in the most important dimensions mostly claim to be happy. With respect to gender, it has a significant influence on the dimensions included in the model of citizen happiness and on personal issues. It is also shown that the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic negatively influenced the quality of life of Spanish citizens and therefore their happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida , Teoria Social , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Emprego , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 726885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722439

RESUMO

Background: This research analyzed whether South Korean companies adopted remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic by focusing on the dual labor market structure comprising of primary sector (large corporations) and secondary sector [small and medium enterprises (SMEs)]. Companies in the dual labor market were classified based on firm size. Methods: We used August supplementary data from the Economically Active Population Survey covering 2017-2020 provided by Statistics Korea. In this empirical study, a Linear Probability Model was used to analyze the probability that employees would work for companies that introduced remote work since COVID-19 depending on the size of the company. Results: This study showed three main results. First, unlike other flexible work systems, the use of remote work has increased rapidly since COVID-19. Second, the larger the size of the company, the higher the probability that employees would work for companies that introduced remote work after COVID-19. Third, according to the analysis by industry, the difference in remote work utilization between large corporations and SMEs was relatively small because of a similar working method in manufacturing. Conclusion: Results of this study suggested that polarization within the dual labor market structure also spilled over to adoption of remote work, which was initially introduced to prevent the spread of the pandemic. This study examined the system and factors of labor-management relations contributing to such polarization and presented policy directions for the current labor market structure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Indústrias , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728596

RESUMO

The Agreement of the Council of Ministers of November 30, 2018 approving instructions to eliminate certain medical causes of exclusion in access to public employment, such as HIV, diabetes, celiac disease and psoriasis, has meant an important advance in the protection of the labor rights of people in these conditions. Since then, the tables of medical exclusions have been revised and modified for the National Police, National Police, the Civil Guard, the Customs Surveillance Corps, the Corps of Penitentiary Institutions Assistants, the Military Training Centers, the Training Centers, for the incorporation to the Troops and Marines scales and the National School of Police. In addition, the repeal of the Orders of the National Police (Order of January 11, 1988) and the regulatory modification of the Civil Guard (Order PCI/155/2019) guarantee that the diagnosis of HIV, diabetes, celiac disease and psoriasis, will continue without being an impediment for access to the National Police and the Civil Guard in the calls for the next exercises. So, that the mere diagnosis of a disease such as HIV, diabetes, celiac disease and psoriasis will not be a generic cause for exclusion from public employment, but will take into account medical advances and existing scientific evidence, as well as the health situation of each person.


Assuntos
Clero , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Emprego , Humanos , Polícia , Espanha
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