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1.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 25, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is recognized as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Dietary fiber is strongly correlated with CVDs. However, the effect of dietary fiber on AAC in the population is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between dietary fiber intake and AAC in the US adult population. METHODS: A total of 2671 individuals with both dietary fiber intake and AAC score data were enrolled from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional health examination in the US. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). To reveal the relationship between dietary fiber intake and AAC, restricted cubic spline was also applied. RESULTS: Out of the total participants, 241 (9%) had severe AAC and 550 (20%) had mild-moderate AAC. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that higher intake of dietary fiber was associated with lower risk of severe AAC, but not with lower risk of mild-moderate AAC. For every one standard deviation increase (9.4 g/day) in dietary fiber intake, the odds of severe AAC were reduced by 28% [OR 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90), p = 0.004], after adjusting for confounding factors. Dose-response relationship revealed that dietary fiber intake was negatively correlated with severe AAC (p for linear < 0.001, p for nonlinear = 0.695). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fiber intake was negatively associated with severe AAC, and showed a dose-response relationship in US adults.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta , Calcificação Vascular , Adulto , Aorta Abdominal , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 802945, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493382

RESUMO

Context: It is still unknown whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) is associated with sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in adult women. Objective: This study examined the association between DII and sex hormones and SHBG in U.S. adult women. Design and Participants: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 2,092 female participants (age ≥ 20) from the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by DII based on 24-h dietary recall. SHBG was assessed using immuno-antibodies and chemo-luminescence, whereas sex hormones were measured by ID-LC-MS/MS. Results: The average DII was 0.21 ± 1.68, ranging from -4.54 (most anti-inflammatory) to 4.28 (most pro-inflammatory). After adjusting all covariates, a per-unit DII increase in DII tertile 3 was related to an 8.05 nmol/L SHBG decrease compared to DII tertile 1 (P = 0.0366). Subgroup analysis stratified by perimenopausal period found that this negative association remained strong but only existed in women before (ß = -3.71, 95% CI: -7.43, -0.12, P = 0.0423) the perimenopausal period. Interaction terms were added to both subgroup analyses and found no significant heterogeneity among different body mass index (BMI) or perimenopausal groups (P > 0.05). Treshold analyses showed that the association of age with SHBG was an inverted U-shaped curve (inflection point: age = 50 yrs). Conclusion: A proinflammatory diet caused decreased SHBG. However, more well-designed studies are still needed to validate and verify the causal relationship between DII and sex hormones and SHBG.


Assuntos
Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 922, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lebanon, an Eastern Mediterranean country, is witnessing a remarkable nutrition transition, and the diets of school-aged children may be amongst those most affected. However, limited studies have examined the food consumption patterns and nutrient adequacy in this age group. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the dietary intakes of school-aged children in Lebanon and assess their adherence to nutrition guidelines and recommendations. METHODS: This study used data for 4-13 y-old children (n = 711) from a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014-2015 on a representative sample of Lebanese households with children. Dietary intake was assessed using single 24-h recall method. Estimated food group and nutrient intakes were compared to dietary recommendations and age-specific dietary reference intakes (DRI), including Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR). Food group, energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intakes were presented for all children in the sample and stratified by age (4-8 y and 9-13 y) and sex. RESULTS: Mean energy intake of 4-13-year-old children was 1804 kcal/d. Almost half of the energy was provided by carbohydrates while 12% of children had protein intakes below EAR. Approximately three-quarters of children (4-13 y) exceeded the AMDR for total fat and saturated fats, and a similar proportion over consumed added sugars. The main sources of energy intake (EI) among children were the sweets, sweetened beverages and desserts followed by grains and mixed dishes. No significant differences were noted in %EI from different food groups, by sex, in either age groups. The highest adherence of children to food group recommendations was observed for the grains' food group (47.2-54.4%EI), while the lowest adherence was found for vegetables (3.1-14.1%EI). A high prevalence of vitamin and mineral inadequacies was noted amongst 4-13 y old children for key micronutrients, including vitamin D (99%), calcium (81%), and vitamin A (69.5%). Risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes was significantly increased among the older age group (p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes of school-aged children in Lebanon reflect suboptimal nutrition. Educational and public health interventions are needed to promote healthier diets among children and prevent micronutrient deficiencies during this critical phase.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Líbano , Micronutrientes , Inquéritos Nutricionais
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 383, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation and malnutrition play important roles in muscle loss. Although albumin, globulin and albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) are considered to be useful inflammatory-nutritional biomarkers, their relationship with muscle mass remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between them in adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 for analysis. Data on albumin, globulin, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounders (sociodemographic characteristics, medical conditions, laboratory parameters) were extracted and analyzed. We conducted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings to investigate the association between albumin, globulin, AGR and muscle mass. Subgroup analysis based on gender and muscle mass were performed. RESULTS: A total of 4110 participants were included, there were 294 participants with low muscle mass (LMM) and 3816 participants with normal muscle mass (NMM). LMM individuals were older, had greater prevalence of diabetes, higher BMI, globulin and triglycerides, lower albumin and AGR. Albumin was positively correlated to muscle mass in men, but negatively correlated with muscle mass in women. There were negative association between globulin and muscle mass, and positive association between AGR and muscle mass among men, but no significant associations were detected among women. Moreover, a linear relationship between albumin, globulin and muscle mass, as well as a non-linear relationship between AGR and muscle mass in men were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between albumin, globulin, AGR and muscle mass were sex-specific. We speculate these indicators may be useful in assessing muscle mass in men.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Músculos , Albuminas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7119, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504934

RESUMO

There was very limited evidence linking high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP) and total bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the relationship between HS-CRP and total BMD in adolescents aged 10-20 years. A cross-sectional study was performed in the normal U.S. population from the data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The correlation between HS-CRP and total BMD was evaluated by using weighted multivariate linear regression models. And further subgroup analysis was conducted. There were 1747 participants in this study, 47.1% were female, 29.4% were white, 19.5% were black, and 22.3% were Mexican-American. In the multi-regression model that after the potential confounders had been adjusted, HS-CRP was negatively associated with total BMD. The negative association was also observed in the subgroup analyses stratified by gender and age. Our results demonstrated that higher HS-CRP was negatively correlated with total BMD in 10-20 years old adolescents.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Proteína C-Reativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268006, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507569

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude of absolute and relative oral health inequality in countries with similar socio-political environments, but differing oral health care systems such as Canada, the United States (US), and the United Kingdom (UK), in the first decade of the new millennium. Clinical oral health data were obtained from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, and the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, for Canada, the US and UK, respectively. The slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used to quantify absolute and relative inequality, respectively. There was significant oral health inequality in all three countries. Among dentate individuals, inequality in untreated decay was highest among Americans (SII:28.2; RII:4.7), followed by Canada (SII:21.0; RII:3.09) and lowest in the UK (SII:15.8; RII:1.75). Inequality for filled teeth was negligible in all three countries. For edentulism, inequality was highest in Canada (SII: 30.3; RII: 13.2), followed by the UK (SII: 10.2; RII: 11.5) and lowest in the US (SII: 10.3; and RII: 9.26). Lower oral health inequality in the UK speaks to the more equitable nature of its oral health care system, while a highly privatized dental care environment in Canada and the US may explain the higher inequality in these countries. However, despite an almost equal utilization of restorative dental care, there remained a higher concentration of unmet needs among the poor in all three countries.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Canadá , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 392, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension-related mortality has been increasing in older adults, resulting in serious burden to society and individual. However, how to identify older adults with hypertension at high-risk mortality remains a great challenge. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the prediction nomogram for 5-year all-cause mortality in older adults with hypertension. METHODS: Data were extracted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We recruited 2691 participants aged 65 years and over with hypertension in the NHANES 1999-2006 cycles (training cohort) and 1737 participants in the NHANES 2007-2010 cycles (validation cohort). The cohorts were selected to provide at least 5 years follow-up for evaluating all-cause mortality by linking National Death Index through December 31, 2015. We developed a web-based dynamic nomogram for predicting 5-year risk of all-cause mortality based on a logistic regression model in training cohort. We conducted internal validation by 1000 bootstrapping resamples and external validation in validation cohort. The discrimination and calibration of nomogram were evaluated using concordance index (C-index) and calibration curves. RESULTS: The final model included eleven independent predictors: age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, body mass index, smoking, lipid-lowering drugs, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen. The C-index of model in training and validation cohort were 0.759 (bootstrap-corrected C-index 0.750) and 0.740, respectively. The calibration curves also indicated that the model had satisfactory consistence in two cohorts. A web-based nomogram was established ( https://hrzhang1993.shinyapps.io/dynnomapp ). CONCLUSIONS: The novel developed nomogram is a useful tool to accurately predict 5-year all-cause mortality in older adults with hypertension, and can provide valuable information to make individualized intervention.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nomogramas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Internet , Inquéritos Nutricionais
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e229953, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503221

RESUMO

Importance: An increasing proportion of people in the US hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are younger than 55 years, with the largest increase in young women. Effective prevention requires an understanding of risk factors associated with risk of AMI in young women compared with men. Objectives: To assess the sex-specific associations of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors with first AMI among adults younger than 55 years, overall, and by AMI subtype. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a case-control design with 2264 patients with AMI, aged 18 to 55 years, from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study and 2264 population-based controls matched for age, sex, and race and ethnicity from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012. Data were analyzed from April 2020 to November 2021. Exposures: A wide range of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs) and population attributable fractions (PAF) for first AMI associated with demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors. Results: Of the 4528 case patients and matched controls, 3122 (68.9%) were women, and the median (IQR) age was 48 (44-52) years. Seven risk factors (diabetes [OR, 3.59 (95% CI, 2.72-4.74) in women vs 1.76 (1.19-2.60) in men], depression [OR, 3.09 (95% CI, 2.37-4.04) in women vs 1.77 (1.15-2.73) in men], hypertension [OR, 2.87 (95% CI, 2.31-3.57) in women vs 2.19 (1.65-2.90) in men], current smoking [OR, 3.28 (95% CI, 2.65-4.07) in women vs 3.28 (2.65-4.07) in men], family history of premature myocardial infarction [OR, 1.48 (95% CI, 1.17-1.88) in women vs 2.42 (1.71-3.41) in men], low household income [OR, 1.79 (95% CI, 1.28-2.50) in women vs 1.35 (0.82-2.23) in men], hypercholesterolemia [OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.81-1.29) in women vs 2.16 (1.49-3.15) in men]) collectively accounted for the majority of the total risk of AMI in women (83.9%) and men (85.1%). There were significant sex differences in risk factor associations: hypertension, depression, diabetes, current smoking, and family history of diabetes had stronger associations with AMI in young women, whereas hypercholesterolemia had a stronger association in young men. Risk factor profiles varied by AMI subtype, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors had higher prevalence and stronger ORs for type 1 AMI compared with other AMI subtypes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, 7 risk factors, many potentially modifiable, accounted for 85% of the risk of first AMI in young women and men. Significant differences in risk factor profiles and risk factor associations existed by sex and by AMI subtype. These findings suggest the need for sex-specific strategies in risk factor modification and prevention of AMI in young adults. Further research is needed to improve risk assessment of AMI subtypes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensão , Infarto do Miocárdio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e149, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparison of the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders (CMDs) and comorbidities in Korea and the United States (US) can be an important indicator for forecasting future risk of cardiovascular events in Korea. This study aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korea and the US. METHODS: A total of 15,872 individuals from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2014 and 26,492 from the Korea NHANES (KNHANES) 2007-2014 were included. Additionally, 164,339 (139,345 from the Health Examinees-Gem Study and 24,994 from the Cardiovascular Disease Association Study) participants enrolled in the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study were included to investigate the differences of CMDs between urban and rural regions. To estimate the age-standardized prevalence of CMDs in individuals aged 40-69 years, direct standardization using the World Health Organization standard population was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of CMDs was lower in Korea than the US (hypertension 49.9% vs. 56.8%; DM 13.4% vs. 14.3%; hypercholesterolemia 16.8% vs. 17.8%; obesity 36.2% vs. 38.6%; and MetS 29.4% vs. 36.5%). According to the median survey years, dyslipidemia has become more prevalent in Korea than in the US since 2010. The prevalence of CMDs was greater in rural than that in urban areas in Korea. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Korea exceeded that of the US after 2010, which was associated with increasing burden of cardiovascular events. The present study suggests that further preventive strategies are needed to mitigate the prevalence of CMDs in Korea.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Dislipidemias , Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7480, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523837

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the association between physical activity (PA) level and dynapenia in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and whether it varied with sex and obesity status. The current cross-sectional study included total of 1033 community-dwelling participants with COPD aged 65-79 from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In the multivariable model, high and moderate PA levels were significantly associated with lower odds of dynapenia than low PA levels (high PA level: odds ratio [OR] = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.09-0.74; moderate PA level: OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.35-0.87). This inverse association was observed only in males with COPD (high PA level: OR = 0.17, CI = 0.04-0.65; moderate PA level: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88) and the normal-weight group (18.5 ≤ body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2; high PA level: OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.05-0.88; moderate PA level: OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.86). In older community-dwelling patients with COPD, a negative dose-dependent relationship exists between PA level and dynapenia. The independent associations between PA level and dynapenia was significant in men and in participants with normal weight.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6628, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459281

RESUMO

Increasing studies have demonstrated the association between heavy metal pollution and micronutrients, especially folate. However, the relationship between cadmium and folate remains rarely discussed. In this study, we aim to explore the potential correlation between cadmium and folate in human population and highlight the possible mechanism of cadmium impacting human health. We utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2018 data with 5690 participants in this study. Multivariable linear regression models were adopted to investigate the serum lead and cadmium levels and RBC folate concentration. A significant reverse relationship was found between serum lead and cadmium and RBC folate. A negative relationship between serum lead and cadmium levels and the levels of RBC folate in the U.S. adult population was found in this study. Nevertheless, due to the general limitations of the NHANES data, as a cross-sectional study, a further prospective investigation is needed to discover the causality of lead and cadmium in folate status and to determine whether the folate supplement has a beneficial influence against heavy metal toxicities.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Eritrócitos , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 828403, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464070

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Evidence about recently proposed data-driven clusters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is mainly about its prognostic effects and Western populations. We tested the applicability of this clustering approach among the Chinese population. We further investigated the cardiorenal risk profiles among different T2D sub-phenotypes cross-sectionally and before diabetes diagnosis. Methods: With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989-2009), 6,728 participants with available fasting blood samples and completed questionnaires in the 2009 survey were included. Glycemic statuses (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and new-onset T2D) were defined according to the 2020 American Diabetes Association criteria. Data-driven cluster analysis was conducted among new-onset T2D based on five variables: age at onset, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model estimates of ß-cell function, and insulin resistance. Linear regression models were used to cross-sectionally examine the differences of cardiorenal risk factors (body fat distribution, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and kidney function) between glycemic statuses. Mixed-effects models were used to explore a maximum of 20-year trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors (body fat distribution and blood pressure) before diabetes diagnosis. Results: Among 557 (8.3%) new-onset T2D, four sub-phenotypes were found, with 57 (10.2%) assigned to the severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD), 72 (12.9%) to the severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD), 167 (30.0%) to the mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD), and 261 (46.9%) to the mild age-related diabetes (MARD). People clustered within different T2D sub-phenotypes had different cardiorenal risk profiles. Three T2D sub-phenotypes (SIRD, SIDD, and MOD) had worse cardiorenal abnormalities, while the risk burden in the MARD sub-phenotype was similar to that in prediabetes. Compared with people with other T2D sub-phenotypes, people in the MOD sub-phenotype had a faster increment in BMI, waist, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold up to 10 years before diagnosis. Blood pressure was less distinct in different T2D sub-phenotypes; however, SIDD and MOD clusters had higher blood pressure levels before diabetes diagnosis. Conclusions: Data-driven T2D sub-phenotyping is applicable in the Chinese population. Certain sub-phenotypes such as MARD only have a minor cardiorenal risk burden, and distinct cardiovascular risk development occurs long before diabetes diagnosis. Our findings can help improve early prevention and targeted treatment for diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insulina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fenótipo
13.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604472, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465388

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess sex and racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and mortality among a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Methods: Data were analyzed from 3,503 adults with diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 and its linked mortality data through 31 December 2011. The outcome was mortality; the independent variables were sex and race/ethnicity. Covariates included demographics, comorbidity, and lifestyle variables. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test associations between mortality and CVD risk factors. Results: In adjusted analyses, the association between diastolic blood pressure and mortality was significantly different by sex and race/ethnicity (unadjusted p = 0.009; adjusted p = 0.042). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed Hispanic women had the highest survival compared to Hispanic men and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) men and women; NHW men had the lowest survival probability. Conclusion: In this nationally representative sample, stratified analyses showed women had higher survival rates compared to men within each race/ethnicity group, and Hispanic women had the highest survival compared to all other groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(2): 15579883221092290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466781

RESUMO

Research indicates that income is significantly associated with allostatic load (AL) and that this association may differ between White and Black Americans. Most existing income-AL link work focuses on women and less is known about this association among men. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined whether race moderates the association between income and AL among Black and White men in the United States (n = 5,685). We find that, regardless of income levels, Black men have significantly higher prevalence of being in the high-AL group compared with high-income White men. Our findings suggest that Black men do not receive the same health benefits for increased income relative to their White counterparts.


Assuntos
Alostase , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
15.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 67(1): 16-27, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466846

RESUMO

We investigated disparities in diabetes between the US-born and foreign-born populations using three diabetes measures: diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and total diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. We analyzed adults aged 30-84 years drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2018 (n = 21,390). Of cohorts in 2009-2018, foreign-born adults had significantly higher age-standardized prevalence of diagnosed (12.6% vs. 10.6%) and undiagnosed diabetes (4.5% vs. 2.6%), and total diabetes (17.1% vs. 13.2%) than US-born adults. Results from logistic and multinomial regressions adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, limited access to healthcare and BMI showed that the foreign-born had significantly higher odds of total diabetes (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04-1.50) and undiagnosed diabetes (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.44-2.32) compared to the US-born. There was no significant difference in diagnosed diabetes by nativity (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.96-1.53). Our results show that foreign-born adults were at higher risk of diabetes than US-born adults, and the difference by nativity was largely attributable to BMI and racial/ethnic composition. In addition, we demonstrated the importance of choosing measures of diabetes in studying diabetes mainly due to the foreign-born group's high prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, which biases the prevalence of diabetes downward when diagnosed diabetes is used.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência
17.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(3): 251-256, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A recent report from the Faroe Islands suggested mild iodine deficiency among women aged 40 years and older. New preliminary results showed an average urinary iodine concentration of 457 µg/L. This spurious finding encouraged the present report. METHODS: A subset of 17 consecutive pregnant women from an ongoing study provided an additional morning spot urine sample; one part was tested for a few seconds with a test strip for glucose, protein, and erythrocytes, and the other was left untouched. The women recorded the previous week's intake of iodine-rich foods. Additionally, 12 tap water samples were collected such that three samples were sealed immediately, the remaining were strip tested for 10, 30 and 60 s, respectively. Urine and water samples were analysed using the ceri/arsen method after alkaline ashing. RESULTS: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pristine urine samples was 116 µg/L (IQR 79-204 µg/L; range 26-475 µg/L), and positively associated with iodine-rich food intake. UIC increase with test-strip dip varied from 10 to 94 times the non-dip value. In tap water, the pristine samples had an iodine concentration of 2-4 µg/L, which increased to 10,000 µg/L after 60 s. CONCLUSION: Urine samples exposed to test strips can be contaminated within a few seconds leading to unreliable iodine results. Therefore, it is crucial that the study protocol clearly states the procedure for urine sample collection and handling, strict adherence to protocol, and that utensils used are dedicated to collecting urine to measure iodine.


Assuntos
Iodo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Água
18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 139, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideal "cardiovascular health" (CVH)-optimal diet, exercise, nonsmoking, BMI, BP, lipids, and glucose-is associated with healthy longevity in adults. Pediatric heart transplant (HT) patients may be at risk for suboptimal CVH. METHODS: Single-center retrospective study of HT patients 2003-2014 who survived 1 year post-transplant. Five CVH metrics were collected at listing, 1, 3 and 5 years post-transplant (diet and exercise were unavailable). CVH was scored by summing individual metrics: ideal = 2, intermediate = 1, and poor = 0 points; total scores of 8-10 points were considered high (favorable). CVH was compared between HT patients and the US pediatric population (GP) utilizing NHANES 2007-2016. Logistic regression was performed to examine the association of CVH 1 year post-transplant with a composite adverse outcome (death, re-listing, coronary vasculopathy, or chronic kidney disease) 3 years post-transplant. RESULTS: We included 110 HT patients (median age at HT: 6 years [range 0.1-21]) and 19,081 NHANES participants. CVH scores among HT patients were generally high at listing (75%), 1 (74%), 3 (87%) and 5 (76%) years post-transplant and similar to GP, but some metrics (e.g., glucose) were worse among HT patients. Among HT patients, CVH was poorer with older age and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Per 1-point higher CVH score, the demographic-adjusted OR for adverse outcomes was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.7-1.4). CONCLUSIONS: HT patients had generally favorable CVH, but some metrics were unfavorable and CVH varied by age and race/ethnicity. No significant association was detected between CVH and adverse outcomes in this small sample, but study in a larger sample is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transplante de Coração , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 369, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that poor oral health is positively associated with frailty. The objective of this study was to explore associations of key oral diseases (periodontal disease, tooth loss), and oral hygiene and management behaviors with the level of frailty in community-dwelling older Korean adults using national representative survey data. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional, 6th and 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI, VII) data. Adults aged 50+ years were included. Frailty was measured using frailty phenotype (FP) and frailty index (FI). FP was determined using five frailty criteria, i.e., weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, slowness, or low physical activity, and the level of frailty was classified with the number of criteria present (robust, none; pre-frail, 1-2; frail, 3+). FI was determined using a 44-item FI constructed according to a standard protocol, and the level of frailty was classified as robust (FI: ≤ 0.08), pre-frail (FI: 0.08-0.25), and frail (FI: ≥ 0.25). Multiple ordinal regression analyses were conducted with each type of frailty as the outcome variable. Independent variables of interest were the periodontal status, number of teeth, and practices on oral hygiene and management. Analyses were additionally adjusted for participants' socioeconomic, diet, and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty was 4.38% according to the FP classification (n = 4156), 10.74% according to the FI classification (n = 15,073). In the final adjusted model, having more teeth and brushing after all three meals were significantly associated with lower odds of being more frail (in both frailty models); no significant association was observed between periodontal disease and frailty. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study show having more teeth and practicing adequate brushing are significantly associated with frailty. Due to limitations of the study design, well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Doenças Periodontais , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 147, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of dental status, types, and quality of dental prostheses on body composition, masticatory performance and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Potential associations between body composition, masticatory performance and OHRQoL were also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 110 older adults who received prosthodontic treatment at the Dental Faculty Clinics at Chulalongkorn University. Participants were categorized according to their dental prostheses: complete denture (CD), removable partial denture (RPD) and fixed partial denture (FPD). Retention and stability of the RPD and CD were evaluated using the CU-modified Kapur and the modified NHANES III criteria to classify denture quality into acceptable and unacceptable. Dental status including posterior occluding pairs and number of remaining natural teeth were assessed intraorally. Dependent variables were body composition, masticatory performance and OHRQoL. Body composition, including muscle mass (kg), bone mass (kg), basal metabolic rate (kcal) and visceral fat (%) were determined through a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Masticatory performance was assessed using a multiple sieve method of peanut mastication. OHRQoL was assessed using the validated Thai version of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Thai-OIDP) index. After adjusting for covariates, including age and sex, the associations between oral and dental prosthesis status and body composition, masticatory performance as well as OIDP score were analyzed using multivariable linear and negative binomial regression analyses. Spearman's correlation was used to determine the potential associations between body composition, masticatory performance and OHRQoL. RESULTS: The presence of fewer natural teeth or wearing an unacceptable removable denture were factors associated with lower bone mass, muscle mass and basal metabolic rate, and with a higher visceral fat. Similar dental and removable denture status were also associated with larger peanut particle size and higher OIDP score. Masticatory performance and OHRQoL variables were moderately correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.44). However, body composition was not correlated with masticatory performance or OHRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals wearing dental prostheses, factors such as severity of tooth loss, types, and quality of dental prostheses, particularly retention and stability, negatively impacted not only masticatory function and OHRQoL, but also their overall body composition and health.


Assuntos
Boca Edêntula , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Prótese Total , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde Bucal
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