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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(1): 163-170, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality due to cancer. The purpose of this in-silico study was to examine the relationship of chronic infection mechanisms caused by Salmonella Anti virulence agent A (AvrA) to gene mutations in the carcinogenic process of CRC. METHODS: Gene expression data on the mouse colon was obtained from the GSE22215 dataset | Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Adjusted p-value was calculated using Benjamini & Hochberg False Discovery Rate (FDR<0.01). Gene expression in colon adenocarcicoma tumors was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas's (TCGA) Genomic Data Commons (GDC) dataset containing 458 colon tumor samples. RESULT: Expressions of MLH1, MSH2, EPCAM, APC, and PMS2 in cases of colon adenocarcinoma tumor showed a correlation with genes that underwent changes due to Salmonella AvrA infection. Among the gens of interest, EPCAM was the gene that had the highest correlation compared to other genes (MLH1, MSH2, APC, and PMS2) (n= 514, Gene r-p value < 0.01 =22355). There were 514 genes that had a correlation with cases of AvrA infection. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), which is a gene that is upregulated in AvrA infection and correlates negatively with EPCAM, had the highest BC value compared to other gens (p= 0.0000768). Survival probability showed that EPCAM was highly expressed and it can increase survival time. In addition to TNF, our study indicated that IL1B (p= 0.000419), S100A8 (p= 2.02E-05), S100A9 (p=0.000419) correlated with the gene of interest. CONCLUSION: Late Salmonella AvrA infection affects the expression of genes involved in inflammation in colorectal cancer samples.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias do Colo , Infecções por Salmonella , Animais , Camundongos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS , Salmonella/genética
2.
BMC Med Genomics ; 16(1): 6, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) results from a biallelic germline pathogenic variant in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene. The most common CMMRD-associated malignancies are brain tumors; an accurate diagnosis is challenging when a malignant brain tumor is the only tumor at presentation. We describe two cases of glioblastoma as the initial CMMRD malignancy and discuss current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. CASE PRESENTATION: Two children with brain tumors without remarkable family history had biallelic pathogenic germline variants in PMS2. Patient 1: A 6-year-old girl presented biallelic PMS2 germline pathogenic variants. Glioblastomas at the left frontal lobe and right temporal lobe were resistant to immune-checkpoint inhibitor, temozolomide, and bevacizumab. Patient 2: A 10-year-old boy presented biallelic PMS2 germline variants. His glioblastoma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor-like features responded to chemoradiotherapy, but he developed advanced colon cancer and acute lymphocytic leukemia. In both patients, only a monoallelic PMS2 germline variant was detected by conventional gene tests. PMS2 immunohistochemistry showed lack of staining at both the tumors and normal tissue as vascular endothelial cells. Further gene tests revealed large genomic deletion including the entire PMS2 gene, confirming biallelic PMS2 germline variants. CONCLUSION: Conventional multi-gene panel tests are insufficient for detecting large deletions of MMR genes, resulting in misdiagnoses of CMMRD as Lynch syndrome. PMS2 variants have low cancer penetrance; family histories may thus be absent. Long-range gene analyses or immunohistochemical staining of MMR proteins in normal tissue should be considered for pediatric brain tumors with a single allele MMR variant when CMMRD is suspected.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Colorretais , Glioblastoma , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética
3.
Br J Dermatol ; 188(1): 64-74, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiologies of large-to-giant congenital melanocytic naevi (LGCMN) remain ambiguous. A previous study discovered signatures associated with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) in patients with LGCMN. However, a screening diagnostic immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel of dMMR in patients with LGCMN has not been performed to date. OBJECTIVES: To identify the MMR status and aetiologies of LGCMN. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with CMN, including 30 giant CMN, 30 large CMN, 30 medium CMN and 20 small CMN, underwent diagnostic IHC (for MSH6, MSH2, PMS2 and MLH1) screening of dMMR. The control group comprised normal skin samples from 20 healthy people. MMR proteins with little effect (MSH3 and PMS1) on the MMR system were stained in all samples. The surgical procedures conducted on each patient were noted because they might alter the behaviour of CMN and confound the results. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed between the phenotypic data and MMR status to identify associations. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the main naevi, satellite naevi and normal skin tissues of four patients to detect variants. Mutational signature analyses were conducted to explore the aetiologies of LGCMN. RESULTS: dMMR was detected in 37% (11 of 30) of giant, 23% (7 of 30) of large and 7% (2 of 30) of medium CMNs, but were not identified in small CMNs or normal skin tissues. Moreover, multiple LGCMNs had a much higher dMMR rate than did single LGCMNs. The regression analyses showed that MMR status was significantly associated with CMN size and the presence of satellites, but was not correlated with age, sex, location, satellite diversity or tissue expansion. Notably, the pattern of protein loss in LGCMN mainly consisted of PMS2 loss. Mutational signature analyses detected dMMR-related signatures in patients with LGCMN. Additionally, rare deleterious germline mutations in DNA repair genes were detected in LGCMN, mainly in MSH6, ATM, RAD50, BRCA1 and ERCC8. These germline mutations were single-patient variants with unknown significance. CONCLUSIONS: dMMR is one of the aetiologies underlying LGCMN, particularly in patients with giant main lesions and multiple satellite lesions. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of the DNA repair system, particularly MMR, in LGCMN.


Assuntos
Nevo Pigmentado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674914

RESUMO

The PMS2 gene is involved in DNA repair by the mismatch repair pathway. Deficiencies in this mechanism have been associated with Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is characterized by a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, breast, and other cancers. Germinal pathogenic variants of PMS2 are associated with up to 5% of all cases of LS. The prevalence is overestimated for the existence of multiple homologous pseudogenes. We report the case of a 44-year-old woman diagnosed with breast cancer at 34 years without a relevant cancer family history. The presence of pathogenic variant NM_000535.7:c.1A > T, (p.Met1Leu) in PMS2 was determined by next-generation sequencing analysis with a panel of 322 cancer-associated genes and confirmed by capillary sequencing in the patient. The variant was determined in six family members (brothers, sisters, and a son) and seven non-cancerous unrelated individuals. Analysis of the amplified region showed high homology of PMS2 with five of its pseudogenes. We determined that the variant is associated with the PMS2P1 pseudogene following sequence alignment analysis. We propose considering the variant c.1A > T, (p.Met1Leu) in PMS2 for reclassification as not hereditary cancer-related, given the impact on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients and families carrying this variant.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Pseudogenes , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pseudogenes/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Família , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA
5.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(1): 345-351, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ESGO/ESTRO/ESP guidelines recommend that DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins or microsatellite instability tests should be performed in all cases of endometrial cancer. This study aims to clarify the relationship of MMR protein deficiency (dMMR) between early and advanced stages of endometrial cancer. Secondary objective is to identify dMMR affecting factors in endometrial cancer. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on endometrial cancer patients who underwent surgery at HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center, Srinakharinwirot University, between May 2013 and April 2021. Patients with endometrial cancer whose tumor tissue was available for analysis were identified. The expression of MMR proteins was assessed by immunohistochemistry, including MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Then, the pathological specimens were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 207 patients with endometrial cancer were assessed for data analysis. MMR deficiency was observed in 92 cases (44.4%). We found patients with dMMR in both the early and advanced stages of endometrial cancer-68/155 cases (43.9%) and 24/52 cases (46.2%), respectively (P = 0.774).  Statistically significant differences were found only in myometrial invasion (adjusted prevalence odds ratio 2.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.57, P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Our study showed no difference in tissue dMMR between early- and advanced-stage endometrial cancer. The dMMR was not associated with improved outcomes in patients with endometrial cancer. Even though ESGO/ESTRO/ESP guidelines recommend the performance of MMR IHC or MSI tests in all endometrial cancer cases, we can select the appropriate patients those categorized as "advanced stage" or "recurrent"-who may gain the most benefits from the immunotherapy modality of treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Deficiência de Proteína , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 51(2): 650-667, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620890

RESUMO

Repeat-mediated deletions (RMDs) are a type of chromosomal rearrangement between two homologous sequences that causes loss of the sequence between the repeats, along with one of the repeats. Sequence divergence between repeats suppresses RMDs; the mechanisms of such suppression and of resolution of the sequence divergence remains poorly understood. We identified RMD regulators using a set of reporter assays in mouse cells that test two key parameters: repeat sequence divergence and the distances between one repeat and the initiating chromosomal break. We found that the mismatch repair factor MLH1 suppresses RMDs with sequence divergence in the same pathway as MSH2 and MSH6, and which is dependent on residues in MLH1 and its binding partner PMS2 that are important for nuclease activity. Additionally, we found that the resolution of sequence divergence in the RMD product has a specific polarity, where divergent bases that are proximal to the chromosomal break end are preferentially removed. Moreover, we found that the domain of MLH1 that forms part of the MLH1-PMS2 endonuclease is important for polarity of resolution of sequence divergence. We also identified distinctions between MLH1 versus TOP3α in regulation of RMDs. We suggest that MLH1 suppresses RMDs with sequence divergence, while also promoting directional resolution of sequence divergence in the RMD product.


Assuntos
Quebra Cromossômica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Animais , Camundongos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo
7.
Anticancer Res ; 43(1): 53-58, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the study was to correlate the expression of mismatch repairs proteins (MMR), programmed-death-ligand1 (PDL-1), and estro-progestinic receptors (ER/PgR) in tissue samples from a series of cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with their clinicopathological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine ADC specimens were retrospectively retrieved from the Division of Pathology of the University Hospital of Pisa from 2015 to 2021. Histological subtype, grade (G), Silva pattern, presence of lymph vascular space invasion (LVI), and perineural invasion (PNI) were annotated. On representative samples, immunostaining for ER/PgR, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, and PDL-1(sp142) was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-five ADCs were HPV-associated usual type (24 invasive and 11 in situ), 2 were clear cell type, one was a minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA), and one was an invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma (iSMC). ADC associated with LVI were mostly G2-3, whereas those associated also with PNI were G3 with Silva pattern C. No difference in the expression of ER/PgR was observed with a dichotomic age stratification (51 years) of patients. Only 6 ADCs were MMR-deficient, all of them were of the usual type (4 invasive and 2 in situ). The heterodimer MLH-1/PMS2 was the one most frequently altered (5/6), whereas only one case had MSH6 loss. None of ADCs express PDL-1, except iSMC which showed PDL-1 expression >1% in neoplastic cells. CONCLUSION: Both invasive and in situ usual type ADCs indicate MMR deficiency, highlighting how this could be an early event in tumorigenesis. None of the cases, except for iSMC, express PDL-1.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(3): S727-S729, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414603

RESUMO

Constitutional Mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a cancer predisposition syndrome. Four main common malignancies seen are, haematological, brain tumours, colorectal cancers, and intestinal polyps. We are reporting a 10-year-old boy with CMMRD; diagnosed with hematological malignancies, followed by low grade glioma in thalamus. There was loss of PMS2, whereas immunostaining was retained for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Early diagnosis of CMMRD is crucial especially in countries like Pakistan, where consanguineous marriages are common. Increasing awareness among the physicians will help in early diagnosis, surveillance and in providing appropriate genetic counselling to the family.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Colorretais , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Paquistão , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360190

RESUMO

We describe a patient with constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) in whom the syndrome started at age 10 with the development of multiple adenomas in the large bowel. In the successive 25 years, four malignancies developed in different organs (rectum, ileum, duodenum, and lymphoid tissue). The patient had biallelic constitutional pathogenic variants in the PMS2 gene. We speculate that besides the PMS2 genotype, alterations of other genes might have contributed to the development of the complex phenotype. In the nuclear family, both parents carried different PMS2 germline mutations. They appeared in good clinical condition and did not develop polyps or cancer. The index case had a brother who died at age three of lymphoblastic leukemia, and a sister who was affected by sarcoidosis. Tumor tissue showed diffuse DNA microsatellite instability. A complete absence of immunoreactivity was observed for the PMS2 protein both in the tumors and normal tissues. Next-generation sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses revealed biallelic PMS2 germline pathogenic variants in the proband (genotype c.[137G>T];[(2174+1_2175-1)_(*160_?)del]), and one of the two variants was present in both parents-c.137G>T in the father and c.(2174+1-2175-1)_(*160_?)del in the mother-as well as c.137G>T in the sister. Moreover, Class 3 variants of MSH2 (c.1787A>G), APC (c.1589T>C), and CHEK2 (c.331G>T) genes were also detected in the proband. In conclusion, the recognition of CMMR-D may sometimes be difficult; however, the possible role of constitutional alterations of other genes in the development of the full-blown phenotype should be investigated in more detail.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Masculino , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232793

RESUMO

The probability of carrying two pathogenic variants (PVs) in dominant cancer-predisposing genes for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and lynch syndromes in the same patient is uncommon, except in populations where founder effects exist. Two breast cancer women that are double heterozygotes (DH) for both BRCA1/BRCA2, one ovarian cancer case DH for BRCA1/RAD51C, and another breast and colorectal cancer who is DH for BRCA2/PMS2 were identified in our cohort. Ages at diagnosis and severity of disease in BRCA1/BRCA2 DH resembled BRCA1 single-carrier features. Similarly, the co-existence of the BRCA2 and PMS2 mutations prompted the development of breast and colorectal cancer in the same patient. The first BRCA1/BRCA2 DH was identified by HA-based and Sanger sequencing (1 of 623 families with BRCA PVs). However, this ratio has increased up to 2.9% (1 DH carrier vs. 103 single PV carriers) since using a custom 35-cancer gene on-demand panel. The type of cancer developed in each DH patient was consistent with the independently inherited condition, and the clinical outcome was no worse than in patients with single BRCA1 mutations. Therefore, the clinical impact, especially in patients with two hereditary syndromes, lies in genetic counseling tailor-made for each family based on the clinical guidelines for each syndrome. The number of DH is expected to be increased in the future as a result of next generation sequencing routines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2212870119, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215471

RESUMO

Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) depends on recruitment of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease (human MLH1-PMS2) to mispaired DNA. Both Mlh1 and Pms1 contain a long unstructured linker that connects the N- and carboxyl-terminal domains. Here, we demonstrated the Mlh1 linker contains a conserved motif (Saccharomyces cerevisiae residues 391-415) required for MMR. The Mlh1-R401A,D403A-Pms1 linker motif mutant protein was defective for MMR and endonuclease activity in vitro, even though the conserved motif could be >750 Å from the carboxyl-terminal endonuclease active site or the N-terminal adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding site. Peptides encoding this motif inhibited wild-type Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activity. The motif functioned in vivo at different sites within the Mlh1 linker and within the Pms1 linker. Motif mutations in human cancers caused a loss-of-function phenotype when modeled in S. cerevisiae. These results suggest that the Mlh1 motif promotes the PCNA-activated endonuclease activity of Mlh1-Pms1 via interactions with DNA, PCNA, RFC, or other domains of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endonucleases/genética , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteínas MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
12.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 51(10): 993-999, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207912

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the molecular classification and clinicopathological features of endometrial carcinoma(EC). Methods: One hundred cases of EC diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Tianjin Central Hospital of Gynecology and Obstetrics from November 2020 to November 2021 were selected. Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemical staining were used for molecular classification according to the 5th WHO classification. The clinicopathological characteristics of each molecular subtype was analyzed. Results: The 100 EC patients had a mean age of 53 years (range 26 to 72 years). There were 10 cases of POLE mutation (POLE mut), including two cases (2/10) of "binary-classifier" EC, two cases (2/10) of FIGO Grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3-EEC), and three cases (3/10) of other high-grade subtypes. There were 38 cases of mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR), including one case (1/38, 2.6%) of "binary-classifier" EC and 36 cases (36/38, 94.7%) were EEC. Twenty-one cases (21/38, 55.3%) showed simultaneous loss of expression of MLH1 and PMS2, and 20 cases (20/21, 95.2%) were positive for MLH1 methylation, indicating that they were sporadic EC. Six patients (6/38, 15.8%) were tested for germline detection of Lynch syndrome (LS) related genes, and one patient was LS-related EC. There were 44 cases of non-specific molecular profile (NSMP), including 34 cases (34/44, 77.3%) of G1-2 EEC and seven cases (7/44, 15.9%) of G3-EEC. There were eight cases of p53 abnormality (p53 abn), including four cases (4/8) of G3-EEC, two cases (2/8) of other high-grade subtypes, and one patient had hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer syndrome. Conclusions: Correct interpretation of POLE mutation, MMR and p53 immunohistochemistry is the key of molecular classification. The interpretation must strictly follow standard diagnostic procedures and specifications to ensure the accuracy of molecular classification.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
13.
Biomolecules ; 12(10)2022 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291559

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) in adolescents and young adults (AYA) is very rare. Known predisposition syndromes include Lynch syndrome (LS) due to highly penetrant MLH1 and MSH2 alleles, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), constitutional mismatch-repair deficiency (CMMRD), and polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). Yet, 60% of AYA-CRC cases remain unexplained. In two teenage siblings with multiple adenomas and CRC, we identified a maternally inherited heterozygous PMS2 exon 12 deletion, NM_000535.7:c.2007-786_2174+493del1447, and a paternally inherited POLD1 variant, NP_002682.2:p.Asp316Asn. Comprehensive molecular tumor analysis revealed ultra-mutation (&gt;100 Mut/Mb) and a large contribution of COSMIC signature SBS20 in both siblings' CRCs, confirming their predisposition to AYA-CRC results from a high propensity for somatic MMR deficiency (MMRd) compounded by a constitutional Pol δ proofreading defect. COSMIC signature SBS20 as well as SBS26 in the index patient's CRC were associated with an early mutation burst, suggesting MMRd was an early event in tumorigenesis. The somatic second hits in PMS2 were through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in both tumors, suggesting PPd-independent acquisition of MMRd. Taken together, these patients represent the first cases of cancer predisposition due to heterozygous variants in PMS2 and POLD1. Analysis of their CRCs supports that POLD1-mutated tumors acquire hypermutation only with concurrent MMRd.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Humanos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Síndrome , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética
14.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 119: 103405, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122480

RESUMO

Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) initiates through mispair recognition by the MutS homologs Msh2-Msh6 and Msh2-Msh3 and subsequent recruitment of the MutL homologs Mlh1-Pms1 (human MLH1-PMS2). In bacteria, MutL is recruited by interactions with the connector domain of one MutS subunit and the ATPase and core domains of the other MutS subunit. Analysis of the S. cerevisiae and human homologs have only identified an interaction between the Msh2 connector domain and Mlh1. Here we investigated whether a conserved Msh6 ATPase/core domain-Mlh1 interaction and an Msh2-Msh6 interaction with Pms1 also act in MMR. Mutations in MLH1 affecting interactions with both the Msh2 and Msh6 interfaces caused MMR defects, whereas equivalent pms1 mutations did not cause MMR defects. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 complexes containing Mlh1 amino acid substitutions were defective for recruitment to mispaired DNA by Msh2-Msh6, did not support MMR in reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent MMR reactions in vitro, but were proficient in Msh2-Msh6-independent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activity. These results indicate that Mlh1, the common subunit of the Mlh1-Pms1, Mlh1-Mlh2, and Mlh1-Mlh3 complexes, but not Pms1, is recruited by Msh2-Msh6 through interactions with both of its subunits.


Assuntos
Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteínas MutL/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
15.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 52(12): 1441-1445, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093724

RESUMO

Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that has been associated with mismatch repair genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. In addition, patients with pathogenic variants of cancer-predisposing genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported. However, how cancer-predisposing genes affect the risk of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma in the Japanese population remains unclear. Thus, we performed a case-control sequencing study of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 208 upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma patients and 37 727 controls. Only MSH6 and MSH2 were observed with a value of P < 0.05. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of pathogenic variants of BRCA1/2, which does not support the use of a poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibitor in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Only mismatch repair genes were associated with patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, but the prevalence of pathogenic variants in mismatch repair genes was lower than that reported in previous studies from other populations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Ureterais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Sistema Urinário , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Prevalência , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias Ureterais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ureterais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142641

RESUMO

Detecting microsatellite instability (MSI) in advanced cancers is crucial for clinical decision-making, as it helps in identifying patients with differential treatment responses and prognoses. BAT26 is a highly sensitive MSI marker that defines the mismatch repair (MMR) status with high sensitivity and specificity. However, isolated BAT26-only instability is rare and has not been previously reported. Of the 6476 cases tested using pentaplex MSI polymerase chain reaction, we identified two BAT26-only instability cases (0.03%) in this study. The case #1 patient was diagnosed with endometrial adenocarcinoma without MMR germline mutations. The endometrial tumor showed BAT26-only instability, partial loss of MLH1/PMS2 protein expression, and a high programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) combined positive score (CPS = 8). The tumor exhibited a somatic phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) R303P missense mutation and loss of the PTEN protein. On a comprehensive cancer panel sequencing with ≥500 genes, the tumor showed an MSI score of 11.38% and high tumor mutation burden (TMB) (19.5 mt/mb). The case #2 patient was diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma with proficient MMR and PTEN protein loss without PTEN alteration, as well as a high PD-L1 CPS (CPS = 10). A pathogenic KRAS A146T mutation was detected with an MSI score of 3.36% and high TMB (13 mt/mb). In conclusion, BAT26-only instability is very rare and associated with PTEN protein loss, high TMB, and a high PD-L1 score. Our results suggest that patients with BAT26-only instability may show good responses to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ligantes , Repetições de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Tensinas/metabolismo
17.
Mod Pathol ; 35(12): 1775-1783, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104536

RESUMO

Reflex mismatch repair immunohistochemistry (MMR IHC) testing for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 is used to screen for Lynch syndrome. Recently MMR-deficiency (MMRd) has been approved as a pan-cancer predictive biomarker for checkpoint inhibitor therapy, leading to a vast increase in the use of MMR IHC in clinical practice. We explored whether immunohistochemical staining with PMS2 and MSH6 can be used as a reliable substitute. This two-antibody testing algorithm has the benefit of saving tissue, cutting costs and saving time. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library were systematically searched for articles reporting on MMR IHC. The weighed percentage of cases with isolated MLH1 or MSH2 loss or combined MLH1/MSH2 loss alone was analyzed using a random effects model meta-analysis in R. The search yielded 1704 unique citations, of which 131 studies were included, describing 9014 patients. A weighed percentage of 1.1% (95% CI 0.53-18.87, I = 87%) of cases with isolated MLH1 or MSH2 loss or combined MLH1/MSH2 loss alone was observed. In the six articles with the main aim of investigating the two-antibody testing algorithm all MMRd cases were detected with the two-antibody testing algorithm, there were no cases with isolated MLH1 or MSH2 loss or combined MLH1/MSH2 loss alone. This high detection rate of MMRd of the two-antibody testing algorithm supports its use in clinical practice by specialized pathologists. Staining of all four antibodies should remain the standard in cases with equivocal results of the two-antibody testing algorithm. Finally, educational sessions in which staining pattern pitfalls are discussed will continue to be important.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Algoritmos
18.
Ann Hum Genet ; 86(6): 328-352, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073783

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women and men in Algeria. Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in mismatch repair genes (MMR) and frequently predisposes to colorectal cancer. However, data about MMR germline pathogenic variants in Algerian patients are limited. This first nationwide study aims to describe clinicopathologic features and germline variants in MMR genes in Algerian families with suspected LS. Sixty-four (64) families with suspected LS were studied. Index cases with LS who fulfilled Amsterdam criteria were screened by PCR-direct sequencing for germline variants in MMR genes: MLH1 (exons 1, 9, 10, 13, 16), MSH2 (exons 5, 6, 7, 12), MSH6 (exons 4 and 8) and PMS2 (exons 6 and 10). We selected these specific risk exons genes since they have a higher probability of harboring pathogenic variants. In addition, two unrelated LS patients were screened by next-generation sequencing using a cancer panel of 30 hereditary cancer genes. Six germline pathogenic variants and one germline likely pathogenic variant were identified in 19 (29.68%) families (4 MLH1, 2 MSH2 and 1 MSH6). Of index cases and relatives who underwent genetic testing (n = 76), 30 (39.47%) had MMR pathogenic gene variants, one (0.13%) had MMR gene likely pathogenic variant and three had MMR variant of uncertain significance, respectively. Two novel germline pathogenic variants in MLH1 (2) and one germline likely pathogenic variant in MSH6 (1) never published in individuals with LS have been detected in the present study. The recurrent MLH1 germline pathogenic variant c.1546C>T has been found in nine LS families, six of them related with two large kindreds, from four North central provinces of Algeria. In addition, the common MSH2 germline pathogenic variant c.942+3A>T has been detected in five unrelated patients with a strong LS family history. The accumulative knowledge about clinicopathological and genetic characteristics of LS in Algerian patients will impact clinical management in the areas of both prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Argélia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética
19.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(5): 823-829, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although a large number of endometrial cancer patients are cured with surgery alone, there are significant numbers of patients with more aggressive variants of endometrial carcinoma for whom the prognosis remains poor. We investigated the effects of prevalence, histotypes, and immunohistochemical profiles on prognostic value in a hospital-based population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of surgically resected primary endometrial carcinoma was included. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarray sections for ß-Catenin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER-2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and p53. RESULTS: Loss of mismatch repair expression was detected in 25.4% of samples (29/114, mean age 57 years) of the tumors. The following loss of expression was observed in patients: MLH1/PMS2 in 16.6% of patients, MSH6 in 7.0% of patients, MLH1 in 0.9% of patients, and MSH6/PMS2/MLH1 in 0.9% of patients. Immunohistochemistry of p53 was analyzed for 111 patients. A total of 13 patients (11.7%, mean age 64 years) had p53-abnormal expression (absent, cytoplasmic or diffuse strong positive patterns), and more than half (9/13, 69.2%) had endometrioid histotype. Abnormalities in p53 were significantly associated with histotype (p = 0.001), advanced tumor stage (p = 0.038), death of disease (p = 0.002), PR percentage (p = 0.002), and HER-2 expression (p = 0.018). Immunohistochemical nuclear localization of ß-Catenin was detected in 7.1% of the cohort. The combination of p53 and nuclear ß-Catenin expressions was not significantly predictive of disease-free or overall survival. CONCLUSION: The results of this study are useful for management of endometrial cancer in patients with DNA mismatch repair, abnormal p53 expression, or nuclear localization of ß-Catenin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , beta Catenina
20.
Genet Med ; 24(10): 2155-2166, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Models used to predict the probability of an individual having a pathogenic homozygous or heterozygous variant in a mismatch repair gene, such as MMRpro, are widely used. Recently, MMRpro was updated with new colorectal cancer penetrance estimates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of MMRpro and other models for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We performed a validation study of 4 models, Leiden, MMRpredict, PREMM5, and MMRpro, using 784 members of clinic-based families from the United States. Predicted probabilities were compared with germline testing results and evaluated for discrimination, calibration, and predictive accuracy. We analyzed several strategies to combine models and improve predictive performance. RESULTS: MMRpro with additional tumor information (MMRpro+) and PREMM5 outperformed the other models in discrimination and predictive accuracy. MMRpro+ was the best calibrated with an observed to expected ratio of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.89-1.08). The combination models showed improvement over PREMM5 and performed similar to MMRpro+. CONCLUSION: MMRpro+ and PREMM5 performed well in predicting the probability of having a pathogenic homozygous or heterozygous variant in a mismatch repair gene. They serve as useful clinical decision tools for identifying individuals who would benefit greatly from screening and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética
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