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1.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117825, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330012

RESUMO

The feasibility and effectiveness of iron turning waste as low cost and sustainable permeable reactive barrier (PRB) media for remediating dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and lindane individually (batch system) and combined (continuous flow column) in water were investigated. After 10 min of reaction in a batch system, removal of endrin, dieldrin, and DDT was higher (86-91 %) than lindane (41 %) using 1 g of iron turning waste in 200 mL of pesticide solution (20 µg/L for each pesticide). Among the studied pesticides, only lindane removal decreased substantially in the presence of nitrate (37 %) and magnesium (18 %). Acidic water environment (pH = 4) favored the pesticide removal than neutral and basic environments. For the column experiments, sand alone as PRB media was ineffective for remediating the pesticides in water. When only iron turning was used, the removal efficiencies of lindane, endrin, and dieldrin were 83-88 % and remained stable during 60 min of the experiments. DDT removal was less than other pesticides (58 %). Sandwiching the iron turning waste media between two sand layers improved DDT removal (79 %) as well as limited the iron content below a permissible level in product water. In a long-term PRB column performance evaluation, iron turning waste (150 g) removed all pesticides in water (initial concentration of each pesticide = 2 µg/L) effectively (≥94 %) at a hydraulic retention time of 1.6 h. Iron turning waste, which was mainly in the form of zerovalent iron (Fe0), was oxidized to ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) iron during its reaction with pesticides, and electrons donated by Fe0 and Fe2+ were responsible for complete dechlorination of all the pesticides. Therefore, it can be used as inexpensive and sustainable PRB media for groundwater remediation especially in developing countries where groundwater contamination with pesticides is more prevalent.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , DDT , Dieldrin , Endrin , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102410

RESUMO

The excessive use of pesticides is a serious health problem due to their toxicity and bioaccumulation through the food chain. Due to the complexity of foods, the analysis of pesticides is challenging often giving large matrix effects and co-extracted compounds. To overcome this problem, a selective and "green" supercritical fluid extraction method was developed, using neat carbon dioxide as a solvent at pressures of up to 800 bars. A Box-Behnken response surface experimental design was used, with the independent variables of density (0.70-1.0 g mL-1), temperature (40-70 C), and volume (10-40 mL) of solvent, and the dependent variable of extracted amount of pesticides. The optimum extraction condition was found at the use of 29 mL of supercritical CO2 at 0.90 g mL-1 and 53C (corresponding to 372 bars of pressure). It was observed that increasing the density of CO2 significantly increased the extraction recovery of endrin and 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed satisfactory linearity (R2 ≥ 0.994), and LODs ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 ng g-1. Precision was lower than 11% and recoveries between 80%-103%. Thus, the developed method could efficiently be used for trace analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices without the use of organic solvents.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cebolas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Diclorodifenildicloroetano/isolamento & purificação , Endrin/isolamento & purificação , Análise Fatorial , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Temperatura
4.
Food Chem ; 263: 59-66, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784328

RESUMO

A simple quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based method was developed for the analysis of endrin and its metabolite, δ-keto endrin, in five animal-derived food products (chicken, pork, beef, egg, and milk) using a gas chromatography-micro electron capture detector (GC-µECD). Samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, salted out with magnesium sulfate and sodium acetate, and finally purified with a dual layer solid-phase extraction cartridge (SPE) that contains both Supelclean ENVI-Carb (upper layer) and primary secondary amine (lower layer) SPE sorbents. A seven-point external calibration curve was constructed both for the solvent and matrix for both compounds. Good linearity was achieved for both analytes, with coefficients of determination (R2) ≥ 0.9960. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.003 mg/kg, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.01 mg/kg, which were 10 times lower than the extraneous maximum residue limit (EMRL) designated by CODEX Alimentarius for the specified matrices. The method was validated via recovery performances in triplicates, with three fortification levels equivalent to LOQ, 2 × LOQ, and 10 × LOQ. The method provided excellent recoveries, ranging between 75.63 and 117.92%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) ≤ 8.52% for both analytes in various matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to monitor market samples collected from 20 different places throughout the Republic of Korea, and none of the tested analytes were found in the analyzed samples. Conclusively, we could propose that the current method can be used for routine analysis of endrin and δ-keto endrin in any type of fatty food matrix.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Endrin/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Ovos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
Chemosphere ; 198: 432-441, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425943

RESUMO

We examined the direct effects of toxaphene and endrin, chlorinated insecticides that are widespread in the environment, on myometrial contractions and on the secretion of hormones involved in regulating these contractions. Granulosa, luteal, endometrial and myometrial cells, and myometrial strips from non-pregnant cows were incubated with both insecticides at environmentally relevant doses. Toxaphene inhibited and endrin stimulated the secretion of testosterone and oestradiol from granulosa cells. Toxaphene also inhibited and endrin stimulated the expression of the mRNA encoding the precursor of oxytocin (OT), as well OT secretion in luteal cell cultures. Moreover, endrin increased OT secretion from granulosa cells. Neither insecticide exerted an effect on progesterone secretion from luteal cells. Only toxaphene decreased the secretion of prostaglandins (PGF2 and PGE2) from endometrial cells. Meanwhile, only endrin decreased basal myometrial contractions, which was accompanied by inhibition of PGF2 secretion from the myometrium. Both endrin and toxaphene also decreased the force of the OT-stimulated myometrial contractions, whereas only toxaphene inhibited the stimulatory effect of OT on the force of myometrial contractions. In contrast to endrin, toxaphene decreased synthesis and secretion of one of the primary stimulators of myometrial contractions (OT) and indirectly inhibited OT signal reception in the myometrium by reducing E2 secretion. Both insecticides decreased OT-stimulated myometrial contractions; therefore, they may inhibit further transmission of the OT signal. Moreover, endrin inhibited basal myometrial contractions, potentially resulting from reduced PGF2 secretion from the myometrium. Our data indicate the potential of these insecticides to disturb the course of the oestrous cycle or fertilisation.


Assuntos
Endrin/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Toxafeno/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Gravidez , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(32): 24980-24988, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918582

RESUMO

A novel stereoselective removal behavior of isomeric endrin and dieldrin pesticides from sample solution is demonstrated using nanocomposite of graphene oxide (GO) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The removal efficiency of endrin and dieldrin was found higher when GO-MNPs was used as a separating probe than the individual use of GO and MNPs. The removal efficiency of both the pesticides was found to be more favorable when the dosage amount of GO-MNPs was 30 mg for 30-min contact time with pH 4.0 at room temperature. The good correlation of determination (R 2) with 0.975 and 0.973 values obtained for endrin and dieldrin, respectively demonstrated a well fitting of Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The higher removal percentage (86.0%) and higher slope value of Langmuir adsorption isotherm were estimated for endrin compared to dieldrin (74.0%). The reason for higher adsorption percentage of endrin is due to the endo-position of oxygen atom in molecule favors more interaction of molecules with GO-MNPs compared to the exo-position of oxygen present in dieldrin. In addition, the higher value of R 2 for endrin and dieldrin demonstrated better suitability of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, respectively. The advantages of the present method are use of simple UV-vis spectrophotometry for monitoring and low-cost use of GO-MNPs nanomaterial for the removal of pesticides from sample solution.


Assuntos
Dieldrin/química , Endrin/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Grafite/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Nanocompostos , Praguicidas
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 1624643, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800487

RESUMO

Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacocinética , Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Suor/química , Adulto , Idoso , Cromatografia Gasosa , DDT/farmacocinética , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/farmacocinética , Endossulfano/análogos & derivados , Endossulfano/farmacocinética , Endrin/farmacocinética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metoxicloro/farmacocinética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi ; 35(3): 294-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture along affected meridian on the mem- brane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) gene expression of migraine patients without aura (MO) of Gan-yang hyperactivity syndrome (GYHS). METHODS: Totally 20 MO patients of GYHS were randomly assigned to the acupoint group (acupuncture along affected meridian) and the non-acupoint group, 10 cases in each group. Needling was performed once per day for 10 consecutive days. Gene chip technology was used to obtain two sets of gene expression profiles and analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO). RESULTS: In the acupoint group, MME gene expression decreased after needling (P = 0.0023).That gene was rich in the beta-amyloid metabolic process (P = 3.16E-05) and the peptide metabolic process (P = 0.009612). Its expression was not seen in the non-acupoint group. CONCLUSION: The effect of point selection along affected meridian could be achieved possibly by regulating the MME gene expression.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Endrin/análogos & derivados , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Acupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Endrin/metabolismo , Humanos , Meridianos , Síndrome
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 86(1-2): 266-273, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25066456

RESUMO

Eleven persistent organic pollutant (POP) compounds including ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ∑CHLs, dieldrin, HCB, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of Sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the Pearl River Estuary in China during 2007-2013. For most parameters of POPs measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, heptachlor and endrin in the melon tissue exhibited significant correlations with body length, whereas PCBs and heptachlor also displayed significant regression with age. Our studies showed hepatic concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and mirex in S. chinensis were generally higher than those found in cetaceans from other geographic locations. The high levels of POP residues in the testis of one male dolphin suggested an increasing risk of infertility in the species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Estuários , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Fatores Etários , Aldrina/farmacocinética , Animais , China , Clorobenzenos/farmacocinética , Dieldrin/farmacocinética , Endrin/farmacocinética , Geografia , Heptacloro/farmacocinética , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mirex/farmacocinética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/farmacocinética , Testículo/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2012: 897697, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23251107

RESUMO

The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method in the order of heptachlor > γ-HCH > p,p'-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aldrina/análise , China , DDT/análise , Endrin/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Heptacloro/análise , Lagos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 19(6): 1944-52, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22767292

RESUMO

Organochlorinated pesticides were widely applied in Armenia until the 1980s, like in all former Soviet Union republics. Subsequently, the problem of areas contaminated by organochlorinated pesticides emerged. Environmental, waste and food samples at one pesticide burial site (Nubarashen) and three former pesticide storage sites (Jrarat, Echmiadzin and Masis) were taken and analysed on the content of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. Gradient sampling and diffusivity-based calculations provided information on the contamination release from the hot spots on a local scale. A risk analysis based on samples of locally produced food items characterised the impact of storage sites on the health of nearby residents. All four sites were found to be seriously contaminated. High pesticide levels and soil and air contamination gradients of several orders of magnitude were confirmed outside the fence of the Nubarashen burial site, confirming pesticide release. A storage in Jrarat, which was completely demolished in 1996 and contained numerous damaged bags with pure pesticides until 2011, was found to have polluted surrounding soils by wind dispersion of pesticide powders and air by significant evaporation of lindane and ß-endosulfan during this period. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-contaminated eggs, sampled from hens roaming freely in the immediate surroundings of the Echmiadzin storage site, revealed a significant health risk for egg consumers above 1E-5. Although small in size and previously almost unknown to the public, storage sites like Echmiadzin, Masis and Jrarat were found to stock considerable amounts of obsolete pesticides and have a significant negative influence on the environment and human health. Multi-stakeholder cooperation proved to be successful in identifying such sites suspected to be significant sources of persistent organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aldrina/análise , Animais , Armênia , Galinhas , Clordano/análise , DDT/análise , Ovos/análise , Endrin/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Leite/química , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(14): 2734-45, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21636111

RESUMO

Organochlorine compounds total DDT (ΣDDT), total HCH isomers (ΣHCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (ΣCBz), total chlordane compounds (ΣCHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ΣPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ΣPBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, ΣCHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ΣHCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣPCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ΣPBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ΣPBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ΣPBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Focas Verdadeiras/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Derivados de Benzeno/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/metabolismo , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Endrin/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Masculino , Metoxicloro/metabolismo , Mirex/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Federação Russa , Toxafeno/metabolismo , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Chemosphere ; 83(7): 891-6, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21440927

RESUMO

The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11,100 ng g(-1) lipid and 453-49,000 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Aldrina/metabolismo , Animais , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/metabolismo , Dieldrin/metabolismo , Endrin/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Heptacloro/metabolismo , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Hong Kong , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Mirex/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
15.
Ecotoxicology ; 20(5): 1090-8, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21424718

RESUMO

Characteristics and risk evaluation of organchlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediments of four lakes located in the Lake Lianhuan area were conducted to observe the risks on ecological system and identify the sources of pollutants. Measurement of eleven OCPs, four hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α-HCH, ß-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH), three dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) homologues (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE), and four cyclodienes (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin and Heptachlor), indicated that concentrations of OCPs, HCHs and DDTs ranged from 0.04 to 9.95, 0 to 7.40 and 0 to 2.44 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of γ-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicated that there was input of lindane in the past several years, or that significant α-HCH evaporation into the atmosphere occurred. The ratios of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT in four sediments are all <1, and the mean ratios of (DDE + DDD)/∑DDT are all <0.5, suggesting recent DDT compounds input. The risk assessment was based on ERL and ERM values obtained by the approach used for assessment of ocean risk. The results suggest that OCPs in sediments of the Lake Lianhuan system poses a potential hazard to human health and environment.


Assuntos
Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aldrina/análise , China , DDT/análise , Dieldrin/análise , Endrin/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Heptacloro/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 18(7): 1283-8, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19927138

RESUMO

The burgeoning obesity and diabetes epidemics threaten health worldwide, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are incompletely understood. Recently, attention has focused on the potential contributions of environmental pollutants that act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Because glucocorticoid signaling is central to adipocyte differentiation, the ability of EDCs to stimulate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and drive adipogenesis was assessed in the 3T3-L1 cell line. Various EDCs were screened for glucocorticoid-like activity using a luciferase reporter construct, and four (bisphenol A (BPA), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), endrin, and tolylfluanid (TF)) were shown to significantly stimulate GR without significant activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were then treated with EDCs and a weak differentiation cocktail containing dehydrocorticosterone (DHC) in place of the synthetic dexamethasone. The capacity of these compounds to promote adipogenesis was assessed by quantitative oil red O staining and immunoblotting for adipocyte-specific proteins. The four EDCs increased lipid accumulation in the differentiating adipocytes and also upregulated the expression of adipocytic proteins. Interestingly, proadipogenic effects were observed at picomolar concentrations for several of the EDCs. Because there was no detectable adipogenesis when the preadipocytes were treated with compounds alone, the EDCs are likely promoting adipocyte differentiation by synergizing with agents present in the differentiation cocktail. Thus, EDCs are able to promote adipogenesis through the activation of the GR, further implicating these compounds in the rising rates of obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Endrin/farmacologia , Meio Ambiente , Estrogênios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Genes Reporter , Testes Genéticos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Luciferases/genética , Camundongos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/farmacologia , Prednisona/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 84(2): 205-16, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19578846

RESUMO

Dieldrin and endrin are persistent organic pollutants that cause serious environmental problems. Although these compounds have been prohibited over the past decades in most countries around the world, they are still routinely found in the environment, especially in the soil in agricultural fields. Bioremediation, including phytoremediation and rhizoremediation, is expected to be a useful cleanup method for this soil contamination. This review provides an overview of the environmental contamination by dieldrin and endrin, along with a summary of our current understanding and recent advances in bioremediation and phytoremediation of these pollutants. In particular, this review focuses on the types and abilities of plants and microorganisms available for accumulating and degrading dieldrin and endrin.


Assuntos
Dieldrin/análise , Endrin/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dieldrin/química , Dieldrin/metabolismo , Endrin/química , Endrin/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Geografia , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/metabolismo
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 168(1): 210-4, 2009 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19268453

RESUMO

It has been discovered previously that clay minerals may have a greater potential for sorption of pesticides. In this paper, the sorption of endrin, a nonionic persistent organochlorine pesticide, to montmorillonite and kaolinite was investigated. The effect of pH, ionic strength on the sorption was studied. The effect of intercalation of hydroxyl aluminium species on sorption of endrin to montmorillonite was also investigated. The results show that, the sorption isotherm of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite was linear. The sorption increases with the increase in ionic strength. pH has effect on the sorption and the sorption on both montmorillonite and kaolinite has obvious troughs at pH about 7.2 and 5.4, respectively. The intercalation of hydroxyl aluminium species decreases the sorption. Sorption mechanism of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite was suggested to be a combination of hydrophobic interaction and charge-dipole interaction and troughs in the effect of pH on sorption was attributed to the proton shift reaction of the broken bonds at the clay edges.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Endrin/isolamento & purificação , Caulim/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Osmolar
19.
Talanta ; 78(3): 764-71, 2009 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19269426

RESUMO

In this work, a large-volume on-column injection method for the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers, DDT derivatives and cyclodiene derivatives, was optimized. The solvent selected to carry out the study was ethyl acetate and the injection volume was 100 microl. Some factors were introduced in a Plackett-Burman design to determine their influence in the vaporization efficiency. The significant factors were then studied by a univariate procedure and sorted according to their importance on the response. The effect of the injection conditions on the peak resolution was also noted. The conditions selected according to sensitivity and resolution were: initial oven temperature 75 degrees C, injection speed 20 microl s(-1), solvent vapor exit (SVE) valve closure time 60 s, initial pressure 100 kPa and isothermal oven time 1 min. Analytical characteristics expressed in terms of precision, linear range, and limit of detection have been determined and compared with those obtained by splitless injection. The degradation of endrin and p,p'-DDT thermolabile pesticides was evaluated for both injection techniques. Finally the developed method was successfully applied to the ultratrace analysis of pesticides in natural waters. With this purpose a micro liquid-liquid extraction method using 2 ml of ethyl acetate to extract 10 ml of water sample was proposed. Recoveries between 69 and 107% were obtained with a very good precision (0.2-1.3%) for the studied pesticides, except for p,p'-DDD. Detection limits between 0.3 and 25 ng l(-1), which fulfill the limits established by the new water directive 2008/105/EC, were achieved. The MLLE method was compared with the SPE method by the analysis of some water samples using both procedures, and good concordance was obtained.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/instrumentação , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , DDT/análogos & derivados , Endrin/análogos & derivados
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 80(6): 1095-103, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18769917

RESUMO

This report describes the selective isolation of dieldrin- and endrin-degrading bacteria from soil with high degradation activity toward dieldrin and endrin. Several enrichment cultures from the soil were arranged with several structural analogs of dieldrin and endrin as a growth substrate and examined for their degradation activities toward dieldrin and endrin. An enrichment culture with 1,2-epoxycyclohexane (ECH) was found to aerobically degrade dieldrin and endrin. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that three types of bacteria were predominant in the ECH enrichment culture. Of the three major bacteria, two isolates, Burkholderia sp. strain MED-7 and Cupriavidus sp. strain MED-5, showed high degradation activity toward dieldrin and endrin. The degradation efficiencies of strain MED-7 and MED-5 were 49% and 38% toward dieldrin, respectively, and 51% and 40% toward endrin, respectively, in the presence of ECH for 14 days. These results indicated that ECH was a useful substrate for selective and efficient isolation of dieldrin- and endrin-degrading bacteria from soil containing numerous bacteria. Interestingly, the two isolates could also degrade dieldrin and endrin even in the absence of ECH. These are the first microorganisms demonstrated to grow on dieldrin and endrin as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions.


Assuntos
Burkholderia/isolamento & purificação , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Cupriavidus/isolamento & purificação , Cupriavidus/metabolismo , Dieldrin/metabolismo , Endrin/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Aerobiose , Burkholderia/classificação , Burkholderia/genética , Cupriavidus/classificação , Cupriavidus/genética , Cicloexanos/metabolismo , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Genes de RNAr , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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