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1.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 620268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744582

RESUMO

Objectives: Energy drink consumption among adolescents has become a notable global phenomenon, and has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes. In order to understand the popularity of energy drinks among adolescents, and to target interventions, it is important to identify the determinants underpinning consumption. Methods: The nationally representative data (cross-sectional) were drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys, conducted in 2014 and 2018, each comprising 13- and 15-year-old Finnish adolescents (n = 7405). Results: Weekly energy drink consumption increased among Finnish adolescents between 2014 (18.2%) and 2018 (24.4%), especially among girls. In 2018, boys typically consumed more than girls, and 15-year-olds more than 13-year-olds. Moreover, in 2018, weekly energy drink consumption was more prevalent among 15-year-old adolescents with a non-academic educational aspiration (46.0%) than among adolescents with an academic aspiration (18.3%). Gender (boys more than girls), older age (only in 2018), less parental monitoring, lower school achievement, and a lower level of health literacy explained around 28% of the variance in weekly energy drink consumption in both years. Conclusion: According to the findings, interventions to decrease the energy drink consumption, should be targeted at all adolescents, but especially at those with fewer individual resources. The interventions should also pay attention to family-level factors.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769545

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of a non-caffeinated energy drink (ED) that contained calamansi juice, glucose, and taurine on 3-km running performance and recovery. Eleven NCAA Division I middle-distance runners (20.8 ± 1.5 years old) were randomly assigned to consume either the ED or a placebo drink 60 min before 3-km running on a 400-m official track. Performance time and speed were recorded every 500-m interval. Recovery blood lactate concentration (BLC), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline, 60-min after ingesting the drinks, and post-running measurements were performed at 1-min, 5-min, and 10-min. Repeated analysis of variance and paired t-test were applied to examine the effects of time, trials, and their interaction on performance and recovery. Statistical significance was set a priori at p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in performance time and speed between trials (p < 0.05). No interaction effect was found on performance time, speed, recovery BLC, DBP, and HR (p < 0.05). However, an interaction effect for trial by time was observed on SBP (p = 0.01). Recovery SBP continues to decrease from 5-min to 10-min in the ED trial (∆ = -13.9 mmHg) and slightly increased in the placebo trial (∆ = 1.1 mmHg). This study suggests that acute consumption of a calamansi-containing ED can positively impact the SBP recovery but not running performance. Further studies are needed to examine the acute and chronic effects of this ED on exercise performance and recovery among different populations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Bebidas Energéticas , Corrida , Cafeína , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Frequência Cardíaca
3.
Urologiia ; (5): 62-64, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743434

RESUMO

AIM: to evaluate the relationship between the use of energy drinks and the decline in male reproductive function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis of scientific publications dedicated to the issue was carried out. The results of the study, which involved 60 patients aged 22 to 40 years, are presented. The directions for further scientific search are suggested. RESULTS: According to our study, there is a correlation between energy drinks consumption and decreased ejaculate quality. CONCLUSION: systematic use of energy drinks has a negative impact on male reproductive function.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Reprodutiva
5.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 25(10): 678-683, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Energy drink consumption is increasing among the population, especially adolescents and young adults. The health effects of energy drinks are unknown. In this study, we investigate the effects of low caffeine energy drinks on endothelial functions assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men, 15 women) aged 19 to 46 years participated in the study. Flow-mediated dilation measurements of the brachial artery were performed and recorded per protocol. The volunteers were asked to drink 355 mL of energy drink containing 53.25 mg of caffeine after baseline measurements, and all measurements were repeated 60 minutes later. Baseline and post-energy drink values were compared. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (p=0.592), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.714), and heart rate values (p=0.056) were similar before and after the consumption of energy drinks. Preocclusion arterial diameters (p=0.236) and blood velocities (p=0.447) did not change after energy drink consumption. FMD levels were 9.2%±4.6% and 8.1%±4.7%, respectively, before and after energy drink consumption (p=0.176). Women had a 3% increase in preocclusion arterial diameters after energy drink consumption, whereas men had a 2.6% decrease (p=0.026) Conclusion: Low caffeine energy drinks containing 53.25 mg of caffeine/355 mL can did not have any influence on blood pressure, heart rate, or endothelial functions in healthy volunteers.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 573-578, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of energy drinks supplementation with green tea extract on the erosive dentine wear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six groups of bovine dentine samples (n = 15) were subjected to four cycles erosive attacks (10 min, 25 °C) and remineralisation (artificial saliva, 60 min, 37°C) using the following formulas: tap water; green tea extract; Red Bull; Red Bull supplemented with green tea extract; Red Bull Light; Red Bull Light supplemented with green tea extract. The erosive dentine wear - ie, the irreversible dentine loss - was measured using a stylus profilometer (µm, accuracy = 40 nm). RESULTS: Median and interquartile range (IQR) of erosive dentine wear for the tested energy drinks before and after the supplementation with green tea extract were calculated as follows: Red Bull (before: 3.3 µm (1.0)); after: 1.2 µm (0.6)); Red Bull Light (before: 3.3 µm (0.9)); after: 2.0 µm (0.4)). The difference between the groups before and after the supplementation was statistically significant (P ˂0.05). The erosive dentine wear for the tap water group was calculated at 0.4 µm (0.6) and for the green tea extract group at -1.0 µm (1.3). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of energy drinks with green tea extract could reduce the erosive dentine wear caused by energy drink in vitro.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Extratos Vegetais , Erosão Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Dentina , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 28(3): 204-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708708

RESUMO

Background: Overconsumption of energy drinks (EDs) is a global public health concern because of its potential health consequence. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with ED consumption amongst undergraduate students in Kano, Northwest Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to study 381 undergraduate students, selected using a two-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 22.0 with P ≤ 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results: : A total of 381 students were studied. The mean ± standard deviation age of the students was 23.1 ± 3.6 years with male-to-female distribution of about 1:1. Period prevalence of 67.0% within the last 30 days and point prevalence of 23.9% were found. The commonly used ED was Power Horse 44.6%. Up to 59.6% consumed EDs to boost their physical and mental capacity. Odds of ever-consuming EDs were lower in female undergraduates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3-0.7) and higher in Hausa/Fulani ethnic group (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.04-2.7). Amongst those who were currently consuming EDs, being 24 years or less (aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.4) and coming from the Hausa/Fulani tribe (aOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.4) were associated with increased consumption. Male undergraduates (aOR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4) and students who were residing on campus were less likely to be current consumers of EDs (aOR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). Conclusion: Consumption of EDs is increasing amongst students and therefore relevant government agencies should ensure regulated advertisement and consumption to avert the health consequences.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 516-517, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620367

RESUMO

The present letter to editor comments the manuscript "Caliskan SG, Kilic MA, Bilgin MD. Acute effects of energy drink on hemodynamic and electrophysiologic parameters in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Apr; 42:333-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.011. Epub 2021 Feb 4. PMID: 33745602." presenting some data on consumption of energy drinks among medical students during COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bebidas Energéticas , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pandemias , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(3): 273-280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553881

RESUMO

Background: Caffeine is the most widespread psychoactive substance in the world. With long-term consumption of caffeinated beverages, there is a high probability of overtaking on caffeine. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of caffeine in the daily caffeine intake of Polish consumers, determine the caffeinated products in the intake of this substance. Materials and methods: The survey was completed by 433 respondents living in Poland. The research tool was the electronic questionnaire, which consisted of: a) questions about personal data and measurement anthropometric and the level of physical activity and smoking; b) questions regarding the portion size and frequency of consumption of coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, energy drinks and colacarbonated beverages. Results: The main sources of caffeine in the respondents' diet include: coffee (Me 43.64 mg/d) and tea (Me 37.60 mg/d). Approximately 20% of respondents exceeded the threshold of daily caffeine intake (safety level for children and adolescents up to 3 mg/kg b.w, for adults up to 5.7 mg/kg b.w), considered safe. Conclusions: Respondents who have crossed the safe dose of caffeine intake, should limit the consumption of products being its main source (coffee).


Assuntos
Cafeína , Bebidas Energéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Cafeína/análise , Criança , Café , Ingestão de Alimentos , Bebidas Energéticas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Chá
11.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578795

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide, and caffeine is its best-known component, present also in many other beverages (tea, soft drinks, energy drinks), foodstuffs (cocoa, chocolate, guarana), sport supplements and even medicines [...].


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Café , Nível de Saúde , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Chocolate , Bebidas Energéticas , Humanos , Chá
12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578821

RESUMO

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is one of the most common substances used by athletes to enhance their performance during competition. Evidence suggests that the performance-enhancing properties of caffeine can be obtained by employing several forms of administration, namely, capsules/tablets, caffeinated drinks (energy drinks and sports drinks), beverages (coffee), and chewing gum. However, caffeinated drinks have become the main form of caffeine administration in sport due to the wide presence of these products in the market. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the different effects of caffeinated drinks on physical performance in various sports categories such as endurance, power-based sports, team sports, and skill-based sports. A systematic review of published studies was performed on scientific databases for studies published from 2000 to 2020. All studies included had blinded and cross-over experimental designs, in which the ingestion of a caffeinated drink was compared to a placebo/control trial. The total number of studies included in this review was 37. The analysis of the included studies revealed that both sports drinks with caffeine and energy drinks were effective in increasing several aspects of sports performance when the amount of drink provides at least 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass. Due to their composition, caffeinated sports drinks seem to be more beneficial to consume during long-duration exercise, when the drinks are used for both rehydration and caffeine supplementation. Energy drinks may be more appropriate for providing caffeine before exercise. Lastly, the magnitude of the ergogenic benefits obtained with caffeinated drinks seems similar in women and men athletes. Overall, the current systematic review provides evidence of the efficacy of caffeinated drinks as a valid form for caffeine supplementation in sport.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17830, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497284

RESUMO

The aim of the present survey was to analyze plasma vitamin B6 levels in post-bariatric patients and to elucidate the causal factors associated with elevated plasma vitamin B6 levels. This is a retrospective analysis of electronic patient data of all post-bariatric patients evaluated at the endocrine outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Basel in 2017, for which plasma vitamin B6 values were assessed during regular follow-up visits. In total, 205 patients were included in the study, whereof a minority of 43% had vitamin B6 levels in the normal range. 50% of the patients had vitamin B6 levels up to fourfold higher than the upper normal limit and 7% had levels more than fourfold above the upper normal limit. Vitamin B6 deficiency was not observed in any patient. While multivitamin supplementation in general was associated with elevated plasma vitamin B6 levels, the highest vitamin B6 levels were found after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and in patients who reported daily energy drink intake. Elevated plasma vitamin B6 levels up to fourfold above the upper normal limit are common in postbariatric patients and are associated with regular multivitamin supplementation, while highly elevated plasma vitamin B6 levels were seen primarily upon regular energy drink intake. Thus, a regular follow-up of vitamin B6 plasma levels and critical evaluation of vitamin B6 supplementation, either as part of the multivitamin preparation or related to regular energy drink intake, is highly warranted and should be an integral part of the routine post-bariatric follow-up.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Bebidas Energéticas , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Vitaminas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577078

RESUMO

High levels of osmolalities have been found in manufactured carbohydrate-based functional drinks that occasionally include added protein; however, fruit components rich in bioactive ingredients have been absent. It has proved difficult to obtain recovery drinks based on natural fruit components that deliver calories and nutrients to the body whilst simultaneously ensuring that the body is adequately hydrated after physical exertion; the problem being that it is difficult to ensure the drinks' stability at low pH levels and maintain an appropriate sensory quality. This study aims to develop drinks based on natural fruit components that contain added electrolytes, carbohydrates, prebiotic fiber and protein; an improved water and electrolyte balance; the calories needed after intense physical exertion; a high content of nutrients; and a favorable sensory quality. Furthermore, the relationships between regressive osmolalities of beverage components are herein investigated. The study materials were raspberry powders (prepared via fluidized-bed jet milling, drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying) as well as citrated sodium, potassium, magnesium salts, isomaltulose, hydrolyzed collagen, whey protein isolate and prebiotic fiber. The drinks' polyphenols and antioxidant properties were measured spectrophotometrically, whilst vitamin C content was determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The sensory qualities of each drink were assessed according to a scaling method. Six test versions of recovery drinks were prepared in which osmolalities ranged from 388 to 607 mOsm/kg water, total polyphenol content was 27-49 mg GAE/100 mL and vitamin C level was 8.1-20.6 mg/100 mL, following compositions defined by the study results. It is thus possible to obtain fruit-based recovery drinks of the recommended osmolality that contain added protein, prebiotics and fiber, as well as defined amounts of electrolytes and carbohydrates. All drinks were found to have a satisfactorily sensory quality. The design of appropriate recovery drink compositions was also greatly helped by investigating the relationships among the regressive osmolalities of beverage components (i.e., electrolytes, carbohydrates, fruit powders and protein).


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas/normas , Frutas/química , Carboidratos/química , Eletrólitos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Peptídeos/química , Pós/química , Prebióticos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444666

RESUMO

The rise in energy drink (ED) intake in the general population and athletes has been achieved with smart and effective marketing strategies. There is a robust base of evidence showing that adolescents are the main consumers of EDs. The prevalence of ED usage in this group ranges from 52% to 68%, whilst in adults is estimated at 32%. The compositions of EDs vary widely. Caffeine content can range from 75 to 240 mg, whereas the average taurine quantity is 342.28 mg/100 mL. Unfortunately, exact amounts of the other ED elements are often not disclosed by manufacturers. Caffeine and taurine in doses 3-6 mg/kg and 1-6 g, respectively, appear to be the main ergogenic elements. However, additive or synergic properties between them seem to be implausible. Because of non-unified protocol design, presented studies show inconsistency between ED ingestion and improved physical performance. Potential side effects caused by abusive consumption or missed contraindications are the aspects that are the most often overlooked by consumers and not fully elucidated by ED producers. In this review, the authors aimed to present the latest scientific information on ED components and their possible impact on improving physical performance as well as to bring emphasis to the danger of inordinate consumption.


Assuntos
Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Interações Medicamentosas , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049284, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the social determinants and development in energy drink consumption among Norwegian adolescents in 2017, 2018 and 2019. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, online, annual, nationwide surveys (Ungdata). SETTING: Responses collected online from January 2017 to December 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Lower and upper secondary school students (n=297 102) aged 12-19 years who responded in 2017, 2018 and 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of energy drink consumption. RESULTS: Over the 3-year period, 66.4% of the men and 41.8% of the women had consumed energy drink once a week or more. The proportion of female high consumers (consuming energy drink more than four times a week) increased from 3.3% to 4.9% between 2017 and 2019; for male, the increase was from 9.8% to 11.5%. In females, the proportion of high consumers increased with 24% (relative risk; CI) (1.24; 1.09 to 1.41) from 2017 to 2018 and 46% (1.46; 1.31 to 1.62) from 2017 to 2019. The corresponding increases in males were 10% (1.10; 1.01 to 1.20) from 2017 to 2018 and 12% (1.12; 1.05 to 1.19) from 2017 to 2019. Any energy drink consumption as well as high energy drink consumption were independently associated with school level, less central residency, low socioeconomic status, physical inactivity and high leisure screen time. CONCLUSION: We found an increase in high consumers among both boys and girls between 2017 and 2019. The observed increase in energy drink consumption among adolescents can explain some of the increased sales of energy drink in Norway.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bebidas Energéticas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300031

RESUMO

There is a growing body of scientific literature examining the effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) on alcohol consumption and related negative consequences, such as risky behavior or negative health effects. It is unknown whether differences in cultural context may influence these AMED effects. The current cross-cultural study compared the data of N = 6881 students from The Netherlands (N = 4424), UK (N = 1594), and Australia (N = 863). Demographics, alcohol consumption, its consequences, and motives for AMED consumption were assessed. Analyses included (a) between-groups comparison of AMED and alcohol only (AO) consumers, (b) within-subjects comparison of AMED and AO occasions among AMED consumers only, and (c) comparisons between the three countries. The between-groups analysis revealed that AMED consumers drink more alcohol than AO consumers (p < 0.001). AMED consumers differed from AO consumers in many other aspects. For example, AMED consumers were significantly more often a smoker and had higher risk-taking scores. Within subject analysis among AMED consumers showed that significantly less alcohol was consumed on AMED, compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings were observed for both typical drinking occasions and the past month's heaviest drinking occasion, and were consistent across the three countries. Comparisons between countries revealed that on both AMED and AO occasions, the UK sample consumed significantly more alcohol than the Australian and Dutch samples. Across countries, neutral motives such as 'I like the taste' and 'I wanted to drink something else' were the most frequently reported motives for consuming AMED. The most notable difference between the countries was the finding that consuming AMED 'To get drunk' was endorsed significantly more often among the UK sample (45.6%) than the Australian (31.2%) and Dutch (8.0%) samples. Negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less frequently reported for AMED occasions compared to AO occasions. Some country-specific consequences of AMED consumption were observed, but these were more likely related to characteristics of the country and their drinking culture (e.g., the Australian sample reported more often driving a car after AMED consumption compared to the other countries, and this pattern of results was also found for AO occasions). In conclusion, there were limited differences between countries with regard to demographics of consumers and motives for AMED consumption, but the UK sample consumed significantly more alcohol and reported the highest frequency of negative alcohol related consequences. Consistent across countries was the observation that AMED consumers consume significantly less alcohol on their past month heaviest AMED drinking occasion, compared to their past month heaviest AO drinking occasion.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Bebidas Energéticas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of energy drinks (EDs) is increasing in the general population, but little is known about the consumption of EDs among pupils in Africa. This study was designed to assess the consumption of EDs among pupils between 10 and 17 years of age and to assess average caffeine concentrations contained in EDs sold in Lubumbashi. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in five schools using a standardised questionnaire taken face-to-face. Samples of locally purchased EDs were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultra-Violet spectrometry (HPLC-UV). RESULTS: Of 338 pupils (54% girls), 63% reported having consumed at least one ED in the last week and 34% drank at least one ED a day. The cheapest ED was the most widely consumed. Among pupils having consumed at least one ED in the last week, 79% reported consuming it for refreshment and 15% to get energy. For those who reported not consuming EDs, 40% reported that their parents or teachers forbade them to drink EDs. Some (14%) teenagers, mainly boys, mixed ED with alcohol. The concentrations of caffeine measured in twelve brands of EDs ranged from 7.6 to 29.4 mg/100 mL (median 23.3), giving caffeine contents of 37.5 to 160 mg (median 90 mg) per can or bottle. The estimated daily intake of caffeine through EDs was between 51.3 mg and 441.3 mg among those consuming EDs regularly. CONCLUSION: Our study convincingly demonstrates that caffeine-containing EDs are not only consumed by youngsters living in affluent societies. We documented widespread regular consumption of EDs among (pre-)adolescent schoolchildren living in Lubumbashi, a large city of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In view of the global market expansion of caffeinated EDs, it is reasonable to suspect that similar surveys in other urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa would yield similar findings. Pricing and advertising regulations and education on EDs are necessary to limit the regular consumption of EDs among adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 64, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic energy drinks ('energy drinks') are high in sugar, as well as caffeine, leading to concerns regarding their suitability for children and adolescents. Despite this, marketing of energy drinks is often directed at adolescents, and there are no age restrictions on the sale of these products in Australia. The current study aimed to examine patterns in consumption of energy drinks among Australian secondary school students and identify sociodemographic and behavioural correlates associated with regular consumption. METHODS: Participants were 8942 students in Years 8 to 11 (aged 12 to 17 years) who participated in the 2018 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) cross-sectional survey. A multistage stratified random sampling procedure was used. Within the school setting, students self-completed an online questionnaire assessing their dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to examine associations between energy drink consumption and sociodemographic and behavioural factors. RESULTS: Overall, 8% of students reported consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis ('regular consumers'). A further 16% indicated they consume less than one cup per week of these types of drinks, while around three-quarters (76%) reported they do not consume energy drinks. Regular consumption of energy drinks was independently associated with being male, having greater weekly spending money, high intakes of snack foods, fast food, other sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice, as well as short sleep duration. There was no independent association with other sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., year level, level of disadvantage, geographic location), consumption of vegetables and fruit, physical activity level, or sedentary recreational screen time. CONCLUSIONS: While most Australian adolescents do not consume energy drinks, regular consumption is more prevalent among males, and consumption appears to cluster with other unhealthy dietary behaviours and short sleep duration. Findings support the need for policies that will reach identified at-risk groups (e.g., increased regulation of the marketing and sale of energy drinks), as well as suggest opportunities for interventions targeting energy drink consumption alongside other unhealthy dietary behaviours.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Sono
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199877

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to explore whether energy drink consumption is associated with both emotional and behavioural problems and whether this association might be mediated by amount of sleep and breakfast consumption among adolescents. The nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, realised in 2018 in Slovakia in schools, was used to acquire needed data, with the research sample of 8405 adolescents from 11 to 15 years old (mean age = 13.43; 50.9% boys) who completed the questionnaires on their own in a presence of researchers and research assistants. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed by a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while energy drinks consumption, breakfast consumption and sleep duration was assessed by questions in line with the HBSC study protocol. Linear regression models assessed the associations between energy drinks consumption and emotional and behavioural problems. Mediation by sleep duration and breakfast consumption was assessed with parallel mediation models. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with emotional (p < 0.001) and behavioural problems (p < 0.001), with higher consumption of energy drinks leading to more emotional and behavioural problems. Results from a parallel mediation analysis indicated that energy drink consumption is indirectly related to both emotional and behavioural problems through its relationship with the amount of sleep and breakfast consumption. Parents and professionals working with adolescents should be aware that unhealthy dietary habits and lack of sleep might be related to emotional and behavioural problems.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Desjejum , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Eslováquia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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