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2.
Science ; 384(6703): 1409-1411, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935731

RESUMO

Broader coverage can have economic, climate-related, animal welfare, and human health benefits.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Gado , Vacinação , Vacinas , Animais , Humanos , Vacinação/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0295742, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38917073

RESUMO

The use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) for disease prioritization at the sub-national level in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) is rare. In this research, we contextualized MCDA for parallel prioritization of endemic zoonoses and animal diseases in The Adamawa and North regions of Cameroon. MCDA was associated to categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA), and two-step cluster analysis. Six and seven domains made of 17 and 19 criteria (out of 70) respectively were selected by CATPCA for the prioritization of zoonoses and animal diseases, respectively. The most influencing domains were "public health" for zoonoses and "control and prevention" for animal diseases. Twenty-seven zoonoses and 40 animal diseases were ranked and grouped in three clusters. Sensitivity analysis resulted in high correlation between complete models and reduced models showing the robustness of the simplification processes. The tool used in this study can be applied to prioritize endemic zoonoses and transboundary animal diseases in SSA at the sub-national level and upscaled at the national and regional levels. The relevance of MCDA is high because of its contextualization process and participatory nature enabling better operationalization of disease prioritization outcomes in the context of African countries or other low and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Zoonoses , Camarões/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Humanos , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise por Conglomerados , Prioridades em Saúde , Saúde Pública
4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(5): e309-e317, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of expanding and intensifying animal-based food and farming systems creates discord, with the reliance of much of the world's population on animals for livelihoods and essential nutrition. Increasing the efficiency of food production through improved animal health has been identified as a step towards minimising these negative effects without compromising global food security. The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) programme aims to provide data and analytical methods to support positive change in animal health across all livestock and aquaculture animal populations. METHODS: In this study, we present a metric that begins the process of disease burden estimation by converting the physical consequences of disease on animal performance to farm-level costs of disease, and calculates a metric termed the Animal Health Loss Envelope (AHLE) via comparison between the status quo and a disease-free ideal. An example calculation of the AHLE metric for meat production from broiler chickens is provided. FINDINGS: The AHLE presents the direct financial costs of disease at farm-level for all causes by estimating losses and expenditure in a given farming system. The general specification of the model measures productivity change at farm-level and provides an upper bound on productivity change in the absence of disease. On its own, it gives an indication of the scale of total disease cost at farm-level. INTERPRETATION: The AHLE is an essential stepping stone within the GBADs programme because it connects the physical performance of animals in farming systems under different environmental and management conditions and different health states to farm economics. Moving forward, AHLE results will be an important step in calculating the wider monetary consequences of changes in animal health as part of the GBADs programme. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, EU Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gado , Animais , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Galinhas , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612650

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a vector-borne Neglected Zoonotic Disease (NZD) caused by a flagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, that affects various mammalian species across America, including humans and domestic animals. However, due to an increase in population movements and new routes of transmission, T. cruzi infection is presently considered a worldwide health concern, no longer restricted to endemic countries. Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle by acting very efficiently as reservoirs and allowing the perpetuation of parasite transmission in endemic areas. Despite the significant progress made in recent years, still there is no vaccine against human and animal disease, there are few drugs available for the treatment of human CD, and there is no standard protocol for the treatment of canine CD. In this review, we highlight human and canine Chagas Disease in its different dimensions and interconnections. Dogs, which are considered to be the most important peridomestic reservoir and sentinel for the transmission of T. cruzi infection in a community, develop CD that is clinically similar to human CD. Therefore, an integrative approach, based on the One Health concept, bringing together the advances in genomics, immunology, and epidemiology can lead to the effective development of vaccines, new treatments, and innovative control strategies to tackle CD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Doença de Chagas , Doenças do Cão , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299905, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635508

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infections in weaned pigs are common and responsible for a high consumption of antimicrobials, and their presence is assumed to be multi-factorial. A specific evidence-based veterinary guideline to support the control of S. suis in weaned pigs was developed for veterinary practitioners in the Netherlands in 2014. Adherence to the S. suis clinical practice guideline helps veterinary practitioners to prevent and control the disease in a systematical approach and thereby improve antimicrobial stewardship and contribute to the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in animals and humans. The impact of such a clinical practice guideline on (animal) disease management depends not only on its content, but also largely on the extent to which practitioners adhere to the clinical guideline in practice. When the S. suis guideline was published, no specific activities were undertaken to support veterinarians' uptake and implementation, thereby contributing to suboptimal adherence in clinical practice. As the S. suis guideline was comprehensively written by veterinary experts following an evidence-based approach, our aim was not to judge the (scientific) quality of the guideline but to study the possibility to improve the currently low adherence of this guideline in veterinary practice. This paper describes the systematic development, using Implementation Mapping, of a theory-based intervention program to support swine veterinarians' adherence to the S. suis guideline. The knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities, and beliefs about consequences domains are addressed in the program, which includes seven evidence-based methods (modelling, tailoring, feedback, discussion, persuasive communication, active learning, and self-monitoring) for use in program activities such as a peer-learning meeting and an e-learning module. The intervention program has been developed for practicing swine veterinarians, lasts eight months, and is evaluated through a stepped-wedge design. The Implementation Mapping approach ensured that all relevant adopters and implementers were involved, and that outcomes, determinants (influencing factors), and objectives were systematically discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus suis , Doenças dos Suínos , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
13.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 28(1): 39-43, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450667

RESUMO

The International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (ISWAVLD) is the unmissable biannual meeting of all diagnostic veterinary laboratories including biologists, veterinarians and other scientists involved in laboratory diagnostics. It took place at the Lyon Convention Centre (29 June-1 July 2023). It was a pleasant and enriching moment, which allowed participants to discover and/or discuss new diagnostic methods and the epidemiology of animal diseases, around all themes involving veterinarians (animal health, but also environmental and human health, and food safety).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Laboratórios , Animais , Humanos , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Emoções , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pessoal de Saúde
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 226: 106172, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479088

RESUMO

Animal health surveillance is crucial for early detection of emergency animal diseases and effective responses. However, surveillance systems are complex and rely on the contributions of many animal health stakeholders. Veterinarians are key stakeholders in this system, given their role and skills in investigating, diagnosing, and reporting notifiable diseases. This study investigated the contribution of the veterinary workforce to the Australian animal health surveillance system and opportunities for future involvement. To achieve the aims of the study, an online cross-sectional survey among the veterinary profession was conducted. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to provide an overview and investigate drivers of attitudes and practices of veterinarians in relation to animal health surveillance. A total of 311 usable responses were obtained, with 191 being from veterinarians who worked in private practice in the previous 12 months. Among private practitioners, 58.6% worked with companion animals, 34.0% were mixed practice veterinarians and 7.3% were equine veterinarians. Over half (56.6%) of all participants considered themselves active participants in the local animal disease management system. The level of confidence in understanding the reporting system and knowing and identifying signs of endemic and exotic diseases was moderate among those working in private practice, with companion animal veterinarians reporting the lowest levels of confidence (p < 0.05). Approximately 40% of veterinarians had taken samples for diagnosis for notifiable diseases in the last year, with just over 20% reporting a notifiable disease. Awareness of and participation in training and surveillance programs for animal diseases by veterinarians was low, with those working in private practice having lower levels of both awareness and participation for most programs. In relation to potential future contribution to the surveillance system, over half of participants reported being interested and available to undertake surveillance work on behalf of the government, with those in mixed practice reporting higher levels of interest (69.6%) compared to those in companion (49.5%) and equine practice (30.8%). However, key challenges identified were related to perceived conflict of interest, and tensions between client needs and government agenda, followed by profitability and suitability of the business. This study provides evidence of a significant existing contribution by the veterinary profession to the surveillance system, and the capacity and willingness to increase this contribution. However, there are gaps in awareness, confidence and participation, as well as financial and veterinary-client relationship challenges that should be considered in any future planning to strengthen the Australian surveillance system.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 226: 106189, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547559

RESUMO

What cannot be measured will not be managed. The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) will generate information on animal disease burdens by species, production system, type and gender of farmer and consumer, geographical region, and time period. To understand the demand for burden of animal disease (BAD) data and how end-users might benefit from this, we reviewed the literature on animal diseases prioritisation processes (ADPP) and conducted a survey of BAD information users. The survey covered their current use of data and prioritizations as well as their needs for different, more, and better information. We identified representative (geography, sector, species) BAD experts from the authors' networks and publicly available documents and e-mailed 1485 experts. Of 791 experts successfully contacted, 271 responded (34% response rate), and 185 complete and valid responses were obtained. Most respondents came from the public sector followed by academia/research, and most were affiliated to institutions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Of the six ADPPs commonly featured in literature, only three were recognised by more than 40% of experts. An additional 23 ADPPs were used. Awareness of ADDPs varied significantly by respondents. Respondents ranked animal disease priorities. We used exploded logit to combine first, second and third disease priorities to better understand prioritzation and their determinants. Expert priorities differed significantly from priorities identified by the ADDPs, and also from the priorities stated veterinary services as reported in a survey for a World Organisation of Animal Health (WOAH) technical item. Respondents identified 15 different uses of BAD data. The most common use was presenting evidence (publications, official reports, followed by disease management, policy development and proposal writing). Few used disease data for prioritzation or resource allocation, fewer routinely used economic data for decision making, and less than half were aware of the use of decision support tools (DSTs). Nearly all respondents considered current BAD metrics inadequate, most considered animal health information insufficiently available and not evidence-based, and most expressed concerns that decision-making processes related to animal health lacked transparency and fairness. Cluster analysis suggested three clusters of BAD users and will inform DSTs to help them better meet their specific objectives. We conclude that there is a lack of satisfaction with current BAD information, and with existing ADDPs, contributing to sub-optimal decision making. Improved BAD data would have multiple uses by different stakeholders leading to better evidenced decisions and policies; moreover, clients will need support (including DSTs) to optimally use BAD information.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Formulação de Políticas , Animais , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle
17.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 40(2): 233-249, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462420

RESUMO

Transboundary animal diseases are defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation's Emergency Prevention System as those diseases that are of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance, which can easily spread to other countries and reach epidemic proportions, and where control/management including exclusion requires cooperation among several countries. The Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases represents a platform of the FAO and World Organisation for Animal Health to engage regional sub-regional organizations and national veterinary authorities in developing and monitoring progress in animal disease management efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Animais , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde Global , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Cooperação Internacional , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia
18.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543728

RESUMO

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a non-contagious arthropod-transmitted viral disease and a World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH)-listed disease of domestic and wild ruminants since 2008. EHDV is transmitted among susceptible animals by a few species of midges of genus Culicoides. During the fall of 2021, a large outbreak caused by the epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), identified as serotype 8, was reported in Tunisian dairy and beef farms with Bluetongue virus (BTV)-like clinical signs. The disease was detected later in the south of Italy, in Spain, in Portugal and, more recently, in France, where it caused severe infections in cattle. This was the first evidence of EHDV-8 circulation outside Australia since 1982. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological situation of the 2021-2022 EHDV outbreaks reported in Tunisia, providing a detailed description of the spatiotemporal evolution of the disease. We attempted to identify the eco-climatic factors associated with infected areas using generalized linear models (GLMs). Our results demonstrated that environmental factors mostly associated with the presence of C. imicola, such as digital elevation model (DEM), slope, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and night-time land surface temperature (NLST)) were by far the most explanatory variables for EHD repartition cases in Tunisia that may have consequences in neighboring countries, both in Africa and Europe through the spread of infected vectors. The risk maps elaborated could be useful for disease control and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Vírus Bluetongue , Ceratopogonidae , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica , Infecções por Reoviridae , Bovinos , Animais , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Sorogrupo , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Ruminantes
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 225: 106143, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387228

RESUMO

In Ethiopia, the use of veterinary vaccines to control animal diseases is an effective strategy. A study conducted in Southwest Ethiopia from October 2020 to October 2021 aimed to determine the adoption level of veterinary vaccines and factors affecting their use. The study used multistage random sampling to select districts and interviewed 476 farmers who had either adopted or not adopted the vaccines. The study found that certain diseases should be prioritized for vaccination to safeguard the health of cattle, sheep, goats, and poultry. These include anthrax (19.12 %), blackleg (17.65 %), foot and mouth disease (10.50 %), and lumpy skin disease (8.82 %) in cattle, and pasteurellosis (18.07 %), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (15.97 %), peste des petits ruminants (14.15 %), and Orf (13.45 %) in sheep and goats. Newcastle disease (21.85 %), infectious bursal disease (19.33 %), and coccidiosis (17.02 %) were identified as high-priority diseases for flock health. Overall, 30.7 % of farmers were adopters of veterinary vaccines, while 69.3 % were non-adopters. The study identified several factors that influence the likelihood of adopting veterinary vaccines, including breed type (OR = 9.1, p < 0.0001), production size (OR = 9.7, p < 0.0001), production type (OR = 2.7, p < 0.0001), and farm location (OR = 9.8, p = 0.001). Common barriers to vaccination included a lack of disease knowledge, high vaccine costs, limited vaccine availability, and administration difficulties. Insights from the study can guide strategies for promoting veterinary vaccine adoption in Ethiopia. Stakeholders should pay attention to these findings since vaccine use is crucial for controlling animal diseases, enhancing animal health, and preventing economic losses. Further research is needed to investigate factors affecting enhanced veterinary vaccine adoption.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos , Vacinas Virais , Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Gado , Cabras , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 40(2): 219-232, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395704

RESUMO

The threat of foreign animal diseases is steadily increasing. Veterinary practitioners play a vital role in a community's preparedness for, response to, and recovery from a foreign animal disease outbreak. This article examines the steps a practitioner needs to take to become ready to have a role in disaster readiness and response. Resources exist to provide the practitioner with tools needed to transition their normal daily activities to a larger integrated response. The knowledge and skills used by practitioners in disaster management lead to a more effective and efficient response to a foreign animal disease.


Assuntos
Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Medicina Veterinária , Planejamento em Desastres , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Humanos
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