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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

RESUMO

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas , Fósforo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Larva , Nitrogênio
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15690, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127366

RESUMO

Rice brown spot (BS) exerts devastating agronomic effects on grain quality and overall productivity. In Peninsular Malaysia, BS disease incidence is fairly prevalent and little is known about the diversity of BS pathogens in the local granaries. Fifteen isolates from BS symptomatic rice plants were identified at five different rice granaries across Peninsular Malaysia. Based on the morphological and molecular analyses, two isolates were confirmed as Bipolaris oryzae while the rest were identified as Exserohilum rostratum. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BS incidence in rice granaries in Peninsular Malaysia is caused by a pair of closely related fungal pathogens, E. rostratum and B. oryzae, with the former being more predominant. Cultural characterization of E. rostratum isolate KT831962 showed the best growth and sporulation activity on corn meal agar plates incubated in complete darkness. The effects of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) and rice husk ash (RHA) soil amendment against MR219 and MR253 rice varieties were evaluated during rice-E. rostratum interaction. Results showed that soil amelioration using CaSiO3 and RHA singly and in combination with manganese (Mn) significantly reduced rice BS disease severity. The BS disease index was reduced significantly to less than 31.6% in the silicon-treated rice plants relative to the control plants at 41.2%. Likewise, the grain yield at the harvest stage showed significantly higher yield in the Si-treated rice plants in comparison to the control, non-Si treated rice plants. The findings highlight the potential of RHA agro-waste as Si fertilizer in a sustainable rice production system.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ágar/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Grão Comestível , Fertilizantes , Malásia , Manganês/farmacologia , Filogenia , Silício/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Solo
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15721, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127439

RESUMO

The maturity of compost is involved in the availability of nutrients to crops and improvement of soil properties after fertilization. In the past, the determination of composts maturity mostly required analysis in the laboratory previously and it must consume a lot of time and cost. This study was conducted to use Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and solid 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR) spectroscopy to understand the mature characteristics of five type of common composts. The FTIR analysis showed that all composts contained aromatic groups. In addition, the surface of five composts contained the functional groups including hydroxyl group, carboxyl group, amino group etc. However, these functional groups changed along with maturity degree. It is recognized that the aliphatic group located at 2930 cm-1 and 2850 cm-1 showed a decreasing peak, and amino acid at 1385 cm-1 was disappearing gradually due to the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria. There may be used to identify the maturity degree of composts. Increase of aromatic group at 1650 cm-1, carboxy (-COOH) and phenolic OH group at 1385 cm-1 may prove the full maturity of composts. 13C NMR analysis showed that five type of matured composts are mainly consisted with aliphatic groups and aromatic groups. The surfaces of the composts contained C-O bonds (ester, ethers, carbohydrate and other functional groups), COO- (carboxyl and ester carbons) and C=O bond (aldehydes and ketones). The strength of different absorptive characteristics of FTIR and 13C NMR may be a clue to identify the maturity of composts for the design of detective instruments in the future.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fertilizantes , Aldeídos , Aminoácidos , Carboidratos , Ésteres , Éteres , Cetonas , Solo/química
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 6726662, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131904

RESUMO

The food supply chain is one of the most sensitive supply chains as it is directly related to the health of humans and society. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the components of the sustainable supply chain in the food industry. For this purpose, in the first step, several studies and research backgrounds have been conducted by researchers to identify the effective index on sustainability in the food and agricultural supply chain. After reviewing the literature, general indicators of sustainability that affect the agricultural supply chain are specified. Next, by using the fuzzy DEMATEL method, the effectiveness and efficiency of these criteria in three economic, environmental, and social dimensions have been assessed. The results show that in the economic dimension, the use of high technology in the production and the presentation of various citrus forms by using intermediate and conversion industries is the most effective. Criteria for purchasing and using livestock manure instead of using chemical fertilizers have a very high level of effectiveness. In the environmental dimension, reducing or eliminating waste production using recyclable and environmentally friendly materials has the most significant impact. In the social dimension, the positive mental image of customers has a more positive approach to manufacturers who use a sustainable supply chain and has the most impact. The main achievement of this study is that the most important factor in sustainability is the citrus quality control of the agricultural supply chain.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Esterco , Agricultura , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies in animals have shown causal relationships between copper (Cu) deficiency and the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) [1, 2]. Cu deficiency is widespread in New Zealand (NZ) soils; the high soil pH from the use of lime fertilizers reduces the bioavailability of Cu for grazing animals and growing plants; this, in turn, reduces Cu availability in the NZ human food chain. Our study is a pilot study to explore associations between Cu and TAA. We measured Cu levels in aneurysmal aortic tissues in patients undergoing Bentall procedures and non-aneurysmal aortic tissue from coronary artery bypass graft patients. METHODS: Aortic samples were collected from 2 groups of patients during elective open-heart surgery over 4 months between November 2017 and February 2018. The groups were a TAA group, patients with non-syndromic aortic aneurysm and without the bicuspid aortic valve or known infectious or inflammatory condition (ANEURYSM; n = 13), and a control coronary artery bypass graft group (CONTROL; n = 44). Standardized digested dry tissue weighed samples were analysed from both groups. Tissue extraction of trace elements was carried out using HCl-H2O2 digestion and a highly sensitive analytical technique, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-used to measure elemental concentrations. RESULTS: Cu concentration (mean ± SD) was significantly lower in ANEURYSM (3.34 ± 0.16 µg/g) when compared to the CONTROL group tissues (4.33 ± 0.20 µg/g) (dry weight; mean ± SD; Student's t-test, P < 0.05). Over 46% of the Aneurysm patients were Maori and live in a geographically Cu-deficient NZ territory. CONCLUSIONS: Cu deficiency may play a role in the development or progression of non-syndromic ascending aortic aneurysms in NZ. Maori patients are more at risk as they commonly live in rural NZ, dependent on locally grown nutritional sources. Further studies are required to confirm this exciting finding and to establish cause and effect relationship.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Aneurisma Aórtico , Oligoelementos , Aneurisma Aórtico/complicações , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Cobre , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nova Zelândia , Projetos Piloto , Solo
6.
Water Res ; 223: 119028, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063704

RESUMO

Precipitation can affect the residence time of nitrogen compounds, and temperature can influence nitrogen transformation in soil. Therefore, we hypothesized that climate factors can affect the emissions of N2O, an important greenhouse gas produced via nitrogen transformation, by influencing the migration and transformation of nonpoint source nitrogen in soil. To test this hypothesis and quantify the effect of climate factors on N2O emissions, the SWAT model and the modified SWAT-N2O coupler were used to study the effect of climate factors on the migration and transformation of nonpoint source nitrogen and N2O emissions in an agricultural watershed from 2009 to 2018. Temperature affected N2O emissions more significant than precipitation, and N2O emissions increased with temperature and reached a plateau when the average monthly temperature was 23.0 °C. The N2O emissions first increased rapidly with precipitation due to the increase in moisture. However, when the average monthly precipitation reached 78.8 mm, the N2O emissions began to decrease because the residence time of nitrogen compounds in soil were reduced due to fast removal via runoff, which inhibits N2O emissions. Under the context of climate change with three scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5), temperature would increase gradually while precipitation would not change significantly from 2021 to 2080, as a result, the changes would increase N2O emissions by 6.7%, 32.3%, and 70.7%, respectively. This study quantifies the feedback of N2O emissions to climate change in croplands, providing a scientific basis for climate change mitigation and agricultural management.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
7.
Elife ; 112022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098683

RESUMO

Maize genes influence which species of bacteria are recruited from the soil, especially in the absence of nitrogen supplied by fertilizer.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Raízes de Plantas , Nitrogênio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Zea mays/microbiologia
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129704, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104920

RESUMO

The effects of different fertilization on microbial communities and resistome in agricultural soils with a history of fresh manure application remains largely unclear. Here, soil antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and microbial communities were deciphered using metagenomics approach from a long-term field experiment with different fertilizer inputs. A total of 541 ARG subtypes were identified, with Multidrug, Macrolides-Lincosamides-Streptogramins (MLS), and Bacitracin resistance genes as the most universal ARG types. The abundance of ARGs detected in manure (2.52 ARGs/16 S rRNA) treated soils was higher than chemical fertilizer (2.42 ARGs/16 S rRNA) or compost (2.37 ARGs/16 S rRNA) amended soils. The higher abundance of MGEs and the enrichment of Proteobacteria were observed in manure treated soils than in chemical fertilizer or compost amended soils. Proteobacter and Actinobacter were recognized as the main potential hosts of ARGs revealed by network analysis. Further soil pH was identified as the key driver in determining the composition of both microbial community and resistome. The present study investigated the mechanisms driving the microbial community, MGEs and ARG profiles of long-term fertilized soils with ARGs contamination, and our findings could support strategies to manage the dissemination of soil ARGs.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fertilizantes/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 300, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107263

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate castor bean cake as alternative input in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep raised on irrigated pasture under continuous stocking. The treatments consisted of sheep supplemented with standard diet and pasture fertilized with urea; sheep supplemented with alternative diet and pasture fertilized with urea; sheep supplemented with standard diet and pasture fertilized with in natura castor bean cake; and sheep supplemented with alternative diet and pasture fertilized with in natura castor bean cake. A randomized complete block design (CBD) was used, with 16 replications (sheep), with repeated measures over time, the plots being the treatments, and the subplots the collection times. Infective nematode larvae in the pasture (L3.g DM-1), number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG), globular volume (GV), and total plasma protein (TPP) were evaluated. For adult gastrointestinal parasite counts, CBD was also used with six replications. Except for FAMACHA© grade, all variables had effect (P < 0.01) of the time factor. The average number of L3.g DM-1 and EPG were 126 and 841, respectively, with no effect (P > 0.05) of the treatment factor. The values observed for GV and TPP were higher than 25.9% and 6.4 g·dL-1, respectively, which were considered normal. As organic fertilizer, the fractionated application of in natura castor bean cake does not reduce the contamination of pastures by nematode larvae. The evaluated feeds improve the resilience of the sheep to infection by gastrointestinal parasites. The treatments using castor bean cake reduced the adult parasites present in the abomasum of sheep.


Assuntos
Semente de Rícino , Parasitos , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Fertilizantes , Larva , Óvulo , Ovinos , Ureia
10.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(9): 781-795, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098080

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, improving the absorption and utilization of some other nutrients and controlling total plant development. Compost tea (CT) is an aqueous extract of compost that contains high organic matter levels necessary for plants and aerobic soil microorganisms. <i>Spirulina platensis</i> is a multi-cellular blue-green micro-alga that contains green pigments, high levels of nutrients and plant growth regulators. This work was designed to study the possibility of using CT and <i>S. platensis</i> algae culture filtrate (ACF) in improving plant growth, yield and quality of sugar beet grown under different nitrogen fertilizer levels. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Two field experiments were conducted at Ismailia Research Station, Ismailia Province, Egypt, during the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The study involved two N levels (90 and 120 kg/fed), three CT rates (without, 30 and 60 l/fed) and three ACF levels (without, 1 and 2 l/fed) three times. A split-plot design was used. <b>Results:</b> Adding 120 kg N/fed increased crop growth rate (CGR), root yield/fed (RY) and sugar yield/fed (SY), while, sucrose (%) and quality index (QI) decreased. Soil drench with 60 l CT/fed incremented leaf area index (LAI), CGR, sucrose (%), RY and SY. Increasing ACF level up to 2 l/fed increased LAI, sucrose (%), QI, RY and SY. Root yield was positively correlated with SY and negatively with QI. <b>Conclusion:</b> Applying 90 kg N/fed combined with a soil drench of 60 l CT/fed and foliar spraying with 2 l ACF/fed thrice can be recommended to attain economical root and sugar yields.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Compostagem , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Spirulina , Sacarose , Açúcares , Chá , Verduras
11.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(6): 549-559, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098190

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Nitrogen fertilizer causes adverse effects on the environment aspect, so biological nitrogen sources should be applied in agriculture. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of N<sub>2</sub>-fixing rhizospheric bacteria in improving soil fertility, nitrogen (N) uptake, growth and yield of green soybean (<i>Glycine max</i> (L.) Merr). <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The pot experiment was conducted with 9 treatments (i) 100% N of recommendation of fertilizer formula (RFF), (ii) 85% N, (iii) 70% N, (iv) 55% N, (v) 85% N and a mixture of <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i> ASD-07 and ASD-28, (vi) 70% N and a mixture of ASD-07 and ASD-28, (vii) 55% N and a mixture of ASD-07 and ASD-28, (viii) 0% N and ASD-07 and ASD-28, and (ix) 0% N, without bacteria<i>,</i> with four replications in in-dyke alluvial soil collected from Chau Phu District, An Giang Province. <b>Results:</b> The use of a mixture of the two N<sub>2</sub>-fixing rhizospheric strains<i> </i>as biofertilizers at 85% N level improved NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> content and N uptake with an increase of 3.1 mg kg<sup></sup><sup>1</sup> and 95.8 mg pot<sup></sup><sup>1</sup>, respectively. They also produced higher values in growth including plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter and yield components including pod number, pod diameter, seed length, seed diameter and seed thickness. <b>Conclusion:</b> The application of a mixture of the two N<sub>2</sub>-fixing rhizospheric strains resulted in replacing 15% N of RFF, but it still improved the yield.


Assuntos
Solo , Soja , Bactérias , Fertilizantes/microbiologia , Nitrogênio
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15455, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104483

RESUMO

The long-term application of chemical fertilizers has caused to the farmland soil compaction, water pollution, and reduced the quality of vegetable to some extent. So, its become a trend in agriculture to find new bio-fertilizers. Chlorella extract is rich in amino acids, peptides, nucleic acids, growth hormones, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc ions, vitamin E, B1, B2, C, B6, folic acid, free biotin and chlorophyll. Chlorella extract can promote biological growth, mainly by stimulating the speed of cell division, thereby accelerating the proliferation rate of cells and playing a role in promoting plant growth. Whether Chlorella extract can be used to improve the growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum), needs to be verified. In current study, a pepper variety 'Chao Tian Jiao' was used as experiment material, by determining the changes of the related characteristics after spraying the seedlings with Chlorella extract, and its effect on growth of Capsicum annuum plants was investigated. The results showed that the Chlorella extract significantly increased plant height of pepper seedlings (treatment: 32.2 ± 0.3 cm; control: 24.2 ± 0.2 cm), stem diameter (treatment: 0.57 ± 0.02 cm; control: 0.41 ± 0.03 cm) and leaf area (treatment: 189.6 ± 3.2 cm2; control: 145.8 ± 2.5 cm2). Particularly, the pepper seedlings treated with Chlorella extract, developed the root system in better way, significantly increased the chlorophyll a, and the activities of SOD, POD and CAT enzymes were also improved significantly. Based on our results, we can speculate that it is possible to improve the growth of Capsicum annuum seedlings and reduce the application of chemical fertilizers in pepper production by using Chlorella extract.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Chlorella , Capsicum/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plântula
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119934, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087985

RESUMO

An enhanced efficiency fertilizer (EEF) is essential for sustainable agriculture, and here, we evaluated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as a nutrient carrier dispersed in biodegradable polymeric matrices. CNF were functionalized with negative (CNF-) and positive (CNF+) charges to improve (i) the CNF-nutrient and (ii) the CNF-polymeric matrix interactions. The CNF encapsulated the KNO3 nutrient by spray drying (microcapsules) and then inserted into a poly (hydroxybutyrate)/starch-based matrix by melt-compounding (tablets). These materials were morphologically, structurally, and thermally characterized before and after biodegradation. Nutrient release profiles showed the microcapsules released the nutrients for up to 1 h, while the tablets did for 8 h in water and over 80 days in soil. Tablets with CNF- released NO3- faster than K+, and those with CNF+ behaved inversely. Besides, the biodegradation efficiencies were up to 75 % in 120 days. The CNF charges affected nutrient release and the matrix biodegradation, ensuring the matrices were harmless to the environment.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanofibras , Cápsulas , Excipientes , Fertilizantes , Nutrientes , Polímeros
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15202, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075952

RESUMO

The incorporation of animal manure (AM) in soil plays an essential role in soil carbon sequestration but might induce higher soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) is an effective strategy to abate N2O emission in agro-ecosystems. However, very few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of applying NI under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers for increasing soil carbon sequestration and reducing N2O emissions simultaneously in Northeast China. Here, a four-year field experiment was conducted with three treatments [inorganic fertilizer (NPK), inorganic fertilizer + manure (NPKM), and inorganic fertilizer with NI + manure (NPKI + M)], in a rainfed maize cropping system in Northeast China. Plots of different treatments were kept in the same locations for 4 years. Gas samples were collected using the static closed chamber technique, and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration in gas samples was quantified using a gas chromatograph. Soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR) was calculated based on the changes in SOC from April 2012 to October 2015. Averaged over the four years, AM incorporation significantly increased soil N2O emissions by 25.8% (p < 0.05), compared to NPK treatment. DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) significantly decreased N2O emissions by 32.5% (p < 0.05) relative to NPKM treatment. SOC content was significantly elevated by 24.1% in the NPKI + M treatment than the NPK treatment after four years of manure application (p < 0.05). The annual topsoil SOCSR for the NPKM and NPKI + M treatments was 0.57 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 1.02 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of NPK treatment (- 0.61 Mg ha-1 yr-1, p < 0.05). AM addition significantly increased the aboveground biomass and crop yields of maize in the fourth year. Overall, combined application of DMPP, inorganic fertilizer and AM is strongly recommended in this rainfed maize cropping system, which can increase maize yield and SOC sequestration rate, and mitigate N2O emission.


Assuntos
Esterco , Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Carbono/análise , China , Iodeto de Dimetilfenilpiperazina , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química , Triticum , Zea mays
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4839-4847, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096624

RESUMO

In order to explore the effects of straw returning combined with fertilizer on soil nutrients and winter wheat yield in the Guanzhong area, an experimental split plot design was utilized. The main plot consisted of no straw returning (S0) and straw returning (S). The sub-regions consisted of no fertilizer (WF), nitrogen fertilizer (NF), and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer (NPF). Ecological stoichiometry was used to study the relationship between soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus content, and yield under straw returning combined with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer conditions. The results showed that straw and fertilization interactions had significant effects on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the surface layer (0-20 cm) (P<0.05). Compared with that in the S0WF treatment, the SNPF treatment significantly increased soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the surface layer (0-20 cm) (P<0.05). The interaction between straw and year had significant effects on soil total nitrogen content in the surface layer (0-20 cm) (P<0.05). With the increase in straw returning time, the total nitrogen content of soil 0-20 cm under the SWF treatment was significantly higher than that under the S0WF treatment (P<0.05). Straw and fertilization and their interaction had no significant effects on organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the 20-40 cm soil layer (P>0.05). Straw and straw interaction with fertilization significantly affected total P content in 20-40 cm soil (P<0.05). Compared with that in the SWF treatment, the SNPF treatment significantly increased the total phosphorus content in the 20-40 cm soil layer (P<0.05). Straw returning combined with chemical fertilizer also had a significant effect on soil stoichiometry. Compared with that in the S0WF treatment, the S0NPF treatment decreased soil C:N in the surface layer (0-20 cm) and increased soil C:P and N:P in the surface layer (0-20 cm). Compared with that in the SWF treatment, the SNF treatment reduced soil C:N in the surface layer (0-20 cm). Straw returning combined with chemical fertilizer also had a significant effect on winter wheat yield. In 2020 and 2021, the SNPF treatment increased production by 24.23% and 28.9%, respectively, compared with that of the S0WF treatment. Correlation analysis showed that yield was significantly positively correlated with C:N (P<0.05) and C:P (P<0.01). At the same time, total nitrogen and N:P were positively correlated with treatment years (P<0.001). In conclusion, straw returning and that combined with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer (SNPF) can improve soil nutrient characteristics, change soil stoichiometric characteristics, and increase yield in the Guanzhong area. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that straw returning combined with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer (SNPF) is an effective way to optimize regional farmland nutrient management and improve grain production capacity.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo , Solo/química , Triticum
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(9): 2450-2456, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131661

RESUMO

There is close relationship between fertilizer managements and net carbon (C) sink effect, economic benefits in rice paddy ecosystem. Based on a long-term (35-year) field experiment, we analyzed the effects of different fertilization patterns on soil C sequestration rate, C density of topsoil, annual C balance, and economic benefits in the double cropping rice paddy in southern China. There were four fertilization treatments, chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice straw and chemical fertilizer (RF), 30% organic manure and 70% chemical fertilizer (OM), and without any fertilizer input as a control (CK). The results showed that soil C pool in the double cropping rice paddy field under different fertilization treatments changed from 216.02 to 866.74 kg·hm-2·a-1, and soil C pool under OM treatment were significantly higher than that of MF, RF and CK. The soil C sequestration rates in the double cropping rice paddy field under different fertilization treatments ranged from 51.5 to 650.7 kg·hm-2·a-1, and that of C density of topsoil was from 55.64 to 78.42 t·hm-2. The order of soil C sequestration rates and C density of topsoil was OM>RF>MF>CK. The change range of C adsorption in the double cropping rice paddy field ecosystem was from 4.42 to 9.32 t C·hm-2·a-1, with an order of OM>RF>MF>CK. Compared with the MF treatment, soil net C sink under OM and RF treatments increased by 27.6% and 13.6%, respectively. The change range of C cost material input ranged from 1.49 to 2.17 t C·hm-2·a-1, and that of annual economic benefits was from 1.30×103 to 7.83×103 yuan·hm-2·a-1 with an order of RF>OM>MF>CK. The net income of economic benefits of OM, RF and MF treatments were significantly higher than that of CK. Generally, soil C sequestration rate, C sink effect and annual economic benefits were increased by the long-term application of organic manure and rice straw returning together with chemical fertilizer, which could increase soil organic carbon storage in the double cropping rice paddy field of southern China.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Oryza , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , China , Ecossistema , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Solo
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(9): 2539-2546, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131671

RESUMO

To clarify the mechanisms underlying the improvement of Trichoderma on Chinese wolfberry (Lycium chinense) growth under saline stress, we analyzed the effects of application of organic fertilizer, Trichoderma agent and fertilizer on nitrogen uptake, assimilation, accumulation and use efficiency in Chinese wolfberry, based on a pot experiment with coastal saline soil. The organic fertilizer was the sterilization substance of Trichoderma fertilizer without viable Trichoderma, without any difference in the content of nutrients (such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) between them. The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer, Trichoderma agent and ferti-lizer significantly increased NO3- and NH4+ influx rate in meristematic zone and NO3- influx rate in maturation zone of roots. The magnitude of such enhancement was greater in the application with Trichoderma fertilizer than organic fertilizer. Compared with the control, the application of Trichoderma agent and fertilizer significantly increased root, stem and leaf biomass and nitrogen content as well as plant nitrogen accumulation, strengthened root and leaf nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase activities, and elevated nitrogen uptake efficiency, photosynthetic rate, stable carbon isotope abundance and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. For all those variables, the beneficial effect was obviously stronger in the application with Trichoderma fertilizer than organic fertilizer. Therefore, Trichoderma facilitated nitrogen uptake, assimilation and accumulation in Chinese wolfberry under saline stress, improved photosynthetic carbon fixation ability and nitrogen use efficiency, and ultimately promoted plant growth.


Assuntos
Lycium , Trichoderma , Isótopos de Carbono , Fertilizantes/análise , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Nitrito Redutases , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Potássio , Solo
18.
Microbes Environ ; 37(3)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123022

RESUMO

Excess nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) in surface waters adversely affect human and environmental health. Bacteria with the ability to remove nitrogen (N) have been isolated to reduce water pollution caused by the excessive use of N fertilizer. To obtain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with salt tolerance and NO3--N removal abilities, bacterial strains were isolated from plant rhizosphere soils, their plant growth-promoting effects were evaluated using tomato in plate assays, and their NO3--N removal abilities were tested under different salinity, initial pH, carbon source, and agriculture wastewater conditions. The results obtained showed that among the seven strains examined, five significantly increased the dry weight of tomato plants. Two strains, Pseudomonas stutzeri NRCB010 and Bacillus velezensis NRCB026, showed good plant growth-promoting effects, salinity resistance, and NO3--N removal abilities. The maximum NO3--N removal rates from denitrifying medium were recorded by NRCB010 (90.6%) and NRCB026 (92.0%) at pH 7.0. Higher NO3--N removal rates were achieved using glucose or glycerin as the sole carbon source. The total N (TN) removal rates of NRCB010 and NRCB026 were 90.6 and 66.7% in farmland effluents, respectively, and 79.9 and 81.6% in aquaculture water, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of NRCB010 and NRCB026 in the development of novel biofertilizers and their use in reducing N pollution in water.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias , Agricultura , Bactérias , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Fertilizantes , Glucose , Glicerol , Humanos , Nitratos , Nitritos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Solo , Água
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(15): 4042-4047, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046893

RESUMO

Attapulgite(ATP), as a fertilizer slow-release agent and soil conditioner, has shown remarkable effect in improving the utilization rate of fertilizer and the yield and quality of agricultural products and Chinese medicinal materials. This study aims to explore the effect of ATP on the growth and root quality of Angelica sinensis. To be specific, Mingui 1 was used, and through the pot(soil culture) experiment in the Dao-di producing area, the effects of conventional chemical fertilizer added with ATP on the morphology, photosynthesis, soil respiration, and content of ferulic acid and volatile oil in roots of Mingui 1 were detected. The underlying mechanism was discussed from the perspective of source-sink relationship. The results showed that ATP, via the fertilizer slow-release effect, could meet the needs of A. sinensis for nutrients at the root expansion stage, improve the net photosynthetic rate of leaves and aboveground biomass of plants, and promote the transfer and accumulation of nutrients from the aboveground part(source) to the underground root(sink) in advance during the dry matter accumulation period of roots, so as to improve the root weight per plant. ATP can increase the content of total ferulic acid(the sum of free ferulic acid and coniferyl ferulate), the main effective component of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, by promoting the synthesis of ferulic acid in the roots and the transformation to coniferyl ferulate. However, it had little effect on the content of volatile oil. ATP had certain influence on soil respiration, which needs to be further explored from root activity, rhizosphere microorganisms, and soil microorganisms. This study can lay a basis for soil remediation and improvement and ecological cultivation of A. sinensis.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis , Óleos Voláteis , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Angelica sinensis/química , Ácidos Cumáricos , Fertilizantes/análise , Compostos de Magnésio , Óleos Voláteis/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Compostos de Silício , Solo
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1919-1926, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052796

RESUMO

The application of straw biochar in farmland in Dongting Lake area can realize the resource utilization of straw and reduce environmental risk. In 2020, a rice pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different biochar application levels on ammonia volatilization rate, cumulative ammonia volatilization, pH value, and NH4+-N concentration in surface water. Six levels of reed (Miscanthus lutarioriparius) biochar amount, i.e., 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of soil weight of the 0-20 cm column, were applied in two typical paddy soils in sou-thern China, i.e., reddish clayey soil derived from quaternary red soil and granitic sandy soil derived from granite. Compound fertilizer was applied at a rate of 200 kg N·hm-2. The results showed that biochar application resulted in significant differences in the rate and cumulative amount of ammonia volatilization between the two soils and among different biochar treatments. For the granitic sandy soil, peak ammonia volatilization under different biochar treatments appeared at the second day after fertilization, which was decreased by 23.6%-53.4%. For the reddish clayey soil, peak ammonia volatilization appeared between the 7th to 13th day after fertilization, which increased with biochar addition level. The rate of ammonia volatilization from the granitic sandy soil was generally higher than that from the reddish clayey soil. For the granitic sandy soil, addition of <4% biochar could inhibit the ammonia volatilization and cumulative volatilization amount, with the greatest reduction (46.9%) at the treatment with 2% biochar addition. The addition of biochar did not affect the pH value of surface water at the early stage of rice growth. For the reddish clayey soil, the pH value and NH4+-N concentration in the surface water increased with biochar addition level, resulting in the increases of ammonia volatilization rate and cumulative volatilization amount by 1.3-10.5 times. Biochar addition level was the key factor affecting ammonia volatilization from the two soils. Elovich equation could well fit the variation trend of cumulative ammonia volatilization with time for the two soils, with the correlation reaching extremely significant level for each treatment. Overall, the application of reed biochar could suppress ammonia volatilization from the granitic sandy soil which was nearly neutral in acidity, while would promote ammonia volatilization via increasing pH value and NH4+-N concentration of surface water for the acidic reddish clayey soil. Therefore, appropriate dosages of reed biochar should be selected for different types of soil in order to reduce nitrogen loss.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Amônia/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , Volatilização , Água
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