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1.
Attach Hum Dev ; 26(3): 212-232, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38989770

RESUMO

This study examined the empirical convergence of Attachment Script Assessment (ASA) deactivation, hyperactivation, and anomalous scripts with conceptually corresponding attachment patterns assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), and the significance of ASA dimensions for autonomic physiological reactivity during adult attachment assessments. Young adults' (50% male; Mage = 19 years; 80% White/European American) ASA deactivation, hyperactivation, and anomalous content were significantly associated with AAI dismissing (r = .26-.38), preoccupied (r = .31-.35), and unresolved (r = .37) states of mind, respectively. ASA hyperactivation and anomalous content were associated with heightened RSA reactivity to the AAI and ASA, aligning with expectations that these attachment patterns capture the tendency to heighten expressions of negative, traumatic experiences. ASA deactivation was associated with smaller increases in electrodermal activity to the ASA-indicative of less sympathetic arousal-converging with the tendency of individuals higher in deactivation to avoid discussing attachment themes in the ASA.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Apego ao Objeto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Entrevista Psicológica
2.
Attach Hum Dev ; 26(3): 203-211, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38989773

RESUMO

Although research on adult attachment has yielded insight into the legacy of attachment for functioning in adulthood, methodological challenges persist in the assessment of adult attachment. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) offers a rich assessment of secure, insecure, and unresolved states of mind. However, it is resource intensive to administer and code. Attachment Script Assessment (ASA) offers a resource-effective alternative to the AAI. However, the ASA coding system only yields a single, security-like dimension: secure base script knowledge. Here, we introduce a complementary coding system for the ASA to assess attachment deactivation (i.e. script characterized by limited interpersonal connection and minimization of attachment problems/emotions), hyperactivation (i.e. script in which attachment-relevant problems and negative emotions are heightened), and anomalous content (i.e. script in which attachment problems contain elements of fear and/or disorientation); and we discuss the conceptual convergence of these scripts with corresponding patterns of attachment insecurity and disorganization.


Assuntos
Emoções , Apego ao Objeto , Humanos , Adulto , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevista Psicológica
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 333, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) was newly included in the ICD-11 and DSM-5-TR. It is not yet part of the standard assessments in many healthcare systems, including psychiatric wards. Because disordered grief is associated with suicidality, sleep problems and substance use disorders, an investigation into PGD in psychiatric inpatients is warranted. METHOD: We interviewed N = 101 psychiatric inpatients who were admitted to the open psychiatric wards and the day hospital of a German psychiatric hospital and who had lost a person close to them. Assessments comprised clinical interviews and self-report instruments covering PGD and other mental disorders. We specifically developed the International Interview for Prolonged Grief Disorder according to ICD-11 (I-PGD-11) for the study and examined its psychometric properties. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of PGD among bereaved patients according to ICD-11 was 16.83% and according to DSM-5-TR 10.89%. The I-PGD-11 showed good psychometric properties (Mc Donald's ω = 0.89, ICC = 0.985). Being female, having lost a child or spouse, and unnatural or surprising circumstances of the death were associated with higher PGD scores. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Approval was obtained by the ethics committee of the of the Goethe University Frankfurt (2021-62, 2023-17) and the Chamber of Hessian Physicians (2021-2730-evBO). The study was preregistered ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/K98MF ). LIMITATIONS: We only assessed inpatients of one psychiatric clinic in Germany, limiting the generalizability of our findings. CONCLUSION: The present study underlines the importance of exploring loss and grief in psychiatric inpatients and including PGD in the assessments. Given that a significant minority of psychiatric inpatients has prolonged grief symptoms, more research into inpatient treatment programs is needed.


Assuntos
Pesar , Pacientes Internados , Psicometria , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Alemanha , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Idoso
4.
Soins Psychiatr ; 45(352): 23-27, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719356

RESUMO

While we dream during sleep, our psyche gives free rein to its imagination during waking phases. During nursing interviews, should the patient be allowed to mobilize this imaginative capacity? One answer may come from the Palo Alto school of thought, which uses the imagination in a relational space, so that it becomes an active element in psychic change. In the practice of mental health nursing, it is possible to mobilize this imaginative part, supported by brief therapies, and turn it into a therapeutic path.


Assuntos
Imaginação , Psicoterapia Breve , Humanos , Sonhos/psicologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Entrevista Psicológica
5.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(S1): e2013, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lifetime DSM-5 diagnoses generated by the lay-administered Composite International Diagnostic Interview for DSM-5 (CIDI) in the World Mental Health Qatar (WMHQ) study were compared to diagnoses based on blinded clinician-administered reappraisal interviews. METHODS: Telephone follow-up interviews used the non-patient edition of the Structured Clinician Interview for DSM-5 (SCID) oversampling respondents who screened positive for five diagnoses in the CIDI: major depressive episode, mania/hypomania, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Concordance was also examined for a diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder based on a short-form versus full version of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). RESULTS: Initial CIDI prevalence estimates differed significantly from the SCID for most diagnoses ( χ 1 2 ${\chi }_{1}^{2}$  = 6.6-31.4, p = 0.010 < 0.001), but recalibration reduced most of these differences and led to consistent increases in individual-level concordance (AU-ROC) from 0.53-0.76 to 0.67-0.81. Recalibration of the short-form PCL-5 removed an initially significant difference in PTSD prevalence with the full PCL-5 (from χ 1 2 ${\chi }_{1}^{2}$  = 610.5, p < 0.001 to χ 1 2 ${\chi }_{1}^{2}$  = 2.5, p = 0.110) while also increasing AU-ROC from 0.76 to 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: Recalibration resulted in valid diagnoses of common mental disorders in the Qatar National Mental Health Survey, but with inflated prevalence estimates for some disorders that need to be considered when interpreting results.


Assuntos
Entrevista Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Entrevista Psicológica/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Seguimentos
6.
Compr Psychiatry ; 133: 152494, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several established structured diagnostic interviews that cover common mental disorders seen in general psychiatry clinics. The administration of more focused diagnostic interviews may be useful in specialty clinics, such as OCD clinics. A semi-structured clinician-administered interview for obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (SCID-OCSD) was developed and adapted for DSM-5/ICD-11 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders as well as other putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. OBJECTIVE: To introduce a semi-structured diagnostic interview for in-depth assessment of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and to report on its implementation in adults with primary OCD attending an OCD-specialized unit. METHODS: Patients with primary OCD were interviewed using the SCID-OCSD. The SCID-OCSD assesses disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share some core features of obsessive-compulsive phenomenology and that are often comorbid in OCD (e.g., obsessive-compulsive related disorders, impulse-control disorders, and a spectrum of compulsive-impulsive conditions such as tics, eating disorders, non-suicidal self-injury, and behavioral addictions. Participants had to be at least moderately symptomatic on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity scale (YBOCS, i.e., a total score ≥ 14) to be included in the current study. RESULTS: One hundred and one adult patients with current OCD (n = 101, 37 men and 64 women), took part in the study. Forty-two participants (n = 42) had OCD and one or more current or past comorbid OCSDs, with excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (n = 16) and body dysmorphic disorder (n = 14) being the most common. Nine (n = 9) participants reported a history of non-suicidal self-injury, and 6 participants reported a history of comorbid tics. CONCLUSIONS: In OCD clinics, the SCID-OCSD may help diagnose the full range of putative OCSDs, and so facilitate treatment planning and research on these conditions.


Assuntos
Entrevista Psicológica , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Comorbidade
7.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2344364, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687289

RESUMO

Background: With the introduction of the ICD-11 into clinical practice, the reliable distinction between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) becomes paramount. The semi-structured clinician-administered International Trauma Interview (ITI) aims to close this gap in clinical and research settings.Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the German version of the ITI among trauma-exposed clinical samples from Switzerland and Germany.Method: Participants were 143 civilian and 100 military participants, aged M = 40.3 years, of whom 53.5% were male. Indicators of reliability and validity (latent structure, internal reliability, inter-rater agreement, convergent and discriminant validity) were evaluated. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and partial correlation analysis were conducted separately for civilian and military participants.Results: Prevalence of PTSD was 30% (civilian) and 33% (military) and prevalence of CPTSD was 53% (civilians) and 21% (military). Satisfactory internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were found. In the military sample, a parsimonious first-order six-factor model was preferred over a second-order two-factor CFA model of ITI PTSD and Disturbances in Self-Organization (DSO). Model fit was excellent among military participants but no solution was supported among civilian participants. Overall, convergent validity was supported by positive correlations of ITI PTSD and DSO with DSM-5 PTSD. Discriminant validity for PTSD symptoms was confirmed among civilians but low in the military sample.Conclusions: The German ITI has shown potential as a clinician-administered diagnostic tool for assessing ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD in primary care. However, further exploration of its latent structure and discriminant validity are indicated.


This study validated the German International Trauma Interview (ITI), a semi-structured clinician-administered diagnostic interview for ICD-11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.Internal reliability, inter-rater agreement, latent structure, and convergent validity were explored in trauma-exposed clinical and military samples from five different in- and outpatient centres in Germany and German-speaking Switzerland.The findings supported the German ITI's reliability, inter-rater agreement, convergent validity and usefulness from a patient perspective. Future research should explore its factor structure and discriminant validity, for which differences between the samples were found.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Alemanha , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suíça , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Entrevista Psicológica , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Fatorial
8.
Infant Ment Health J ; 45(4): 464-480, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650168

RESUMO

A caregiver's capacity to mentalize is thought to be one of the most important features of secure parent-child relationships. Parental mentalizing can be measured using the Reflective Functioning (RF) coding system applied to the Parent Development Interview (PDI). In this narrative review, we summarize the research using this measure and synthesize what has been learnt about the predictors, correlates and sequelae of parental RF. Studies have consistently shown that PRF on the PDI is associated with both parent and child attachment and is an important factor in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. It is also related to the quality of parental representations, parent-child interactions, and child outcomes. While a number of social and clinical risk factors are associated with lower PRF, it is difficult to disentangle the unique contribution of each of these. We discuss these findings and present the direction of future work that is planned to expand and refine the PRF scale for the PDI.


Se piensa que la capacidad que tiene una persona que presta el cuidado para mentalizarse es una de las más importantes características de una segura relación entre progenitor y niño. La mentalización del progenitor se puede medir usando el sistema de codificación del Funcionamiento con Reflexión (RF) aplicado a la Entrevista de Desarrollo al Progenitor (PDI; Slade et al., 2004a; 2004b). En esta revisión narrativa, resumimos la investigación usando esta medida y sintetizamos lo que se ha aprendido acerca de los factores de predicción, las correlaciones y secuelas del RF del progenitor. Los estudios han mostrado consistentemente que el RF del progenitor (PRF) en la PDI se asocia tanto con la afectividad del progenitor como con la del niño y es un factor importante en la transmisión intergeneracional de la afectividad. También está relacionado con la calidad de las representaciones del progenitor, las interacciones progenitor­niño y los resultados en el niño. Mientras que un número de factores de riesgo sociales y clínicos se asocia con un PRF más bajo, es difícil desentrañar las contribuciones únicas de cada uno de estos aspectos. Discutimos estos resultados y presentamos la dirección del trabajo futuro que se planea para expandir y refinar la escala del PRF para la PDI.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Lactente
9.
Child Abuse Negl ; 152: 106752, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narrative practice increases children's productivity in forensic interviews, and one recommended topic is the child's last birthday, though interviewers have raised concerns about its productivity. STUDY 1 OBJECTIVE: Study 1 surveyed forensic interviewers' use of and attitudes about the birthday narrative. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants included 170 forensic interviewers who subscribed to a webinar promoting use of the birthday narrative (Mage = 43 years, SD = 10.2, 94 % female). RESULTS: Over half (55 %) of interviewers reported that they rarely/never asked about children's birthdays, and non-users were especially likely to view the birthday narrative as never/rarely productive. Although interviewers viewed memory difficulties as more likely to occur with the birthday narrative than other practice topics (the child's likes, the child's day), non-users did not view memory difficulties, reluctance, generic reports, or religious objections as especially problematic. Open-ended responses identified negative experiences with the birthday as an additional concern, and interviewers' recommended wording of the prompts suggested suboptimal questioning strategies. STUDY 2 OBJECTIVE: Study 2 assessed the use of the birthday narrative in forensic interviews. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The sample included 350 forensic interviews with 4- to 12-year-old children (Mage = 8.85, SD = 2.59). RESULTS: Only 4 % of children failed to recall substantive information if interviewers persisted, though another 11 % failed when interviewers stopped persisting. Invitations were more effective than other question types, especially among older children. 21 % of children mentioned a negative detail during their narrative. CONCLUSIONS: Interviewers' skepticism about the birthday narrative may be due to suboptimal questioning and sensitivity to occasional failures and negative information.


Assuntos
Narração , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos
11.
Nurs Womens Health ; 28(3): 177-186, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand if Mini International Psychiatric Interview (MINI) scores in pregnancy are associated with higher scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study of participants who completed the EPDS during pregnancy and were then invited to complete the MINI. SETTING/LOCAL PROBLEM: An urban outpatient clinic at an academic medical setting from November 2020 to June 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 20 pregnant people. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENTS: Analysis of variance was used to examine differences based on EPDS scores and MINI symptom burden. Nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis test) were used if assumptions were violated. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sample characteristics. RESULTS: Nine participants screened 9 or higher on the EPDS and completed the MINI. There were no significant differences in demographic variables by EPDS score. There were significant differences between demographic variables, including employment status (p = .003) and type of health insurance (p = .019), between participants who met criteria for at least one diagnosis on the MINI and those who did not. Participants with public health insurance met the criteria for four more diagnoses compared to people with private insurance. Participants not employed full-time had nearly five more diagnoses compared to those employed full-time. Higher EPDS scores were correlated with all measured MINI symptoms or diagnoses. Higher EPDS scores were significantly correlated with and showed a moderate to strong positive correlation to suicidality and antisocial personality disorder. CONCLUSION: Pregnant individuals who score 9 or higher on the EPDS may also have other severe mental health diagnoses. Recognizing perinatal mood and anxiety disorders in this population can inform the development of screening protocols and interventions during pregnancy to improve maternal access to mental health treatment and symptom reduction.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
12.
Psychiatr Prax ; 51(5): 263-269, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are always cases in which an already started inpatient equivalent home treatment is terminated. Aim of our study was to reach a better understanding of the circumstances leading to a termination of IEHT that has already begun. METHODS: 17 qualitative interviews were conducted with patients, relatives as well as practitioners and therapists. Data analysis was performed by means of qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Our data shows, that there are further factors, besides the formal exclusion criteria for IEHT, that can complicate or prevent an inpatient equivalent home treatment or lead to its termination. CONCLUSION: IEHT offers many patients the possibility of an intensive treatment in their own home. However, there our various constellations that can lead to a complication or termination of an inpatient equivalent home treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Alemanha , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Idoso , Entrevista Psicológica
13.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 16(1): 1-15, Jan. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230851

RESUMO

Background/Aim: has shown that sketching while narrating facilitates the elicitation of information and verbal veracity cues in single interviews. We examined if these effects are retained when suspects are shown their sketch after one week in a repeated interview. Method: Participants (N = 173) completed a mock mission and then told the truth or lied about it in an immediate interview (interview 1). Participants either verbally reported the mission (Free recall condition) or sketched it while describing what they were sketching (sketch condition). After one week, all participants were asked for a free recall without sketching (interview 2). Half of the participants in the Sketch condition had access to their sketch while they verbally reported the event whereas the remaining half did not access the sketch. Results: Truth tellers provided more information than lie tellers in both interviews, and sketching elicited more information than a free recall but only in Interview 1. Participants who had access to their sketch in interview 2 repeated more information than those who did not have access, but accessing the sketch did not have an effect on veracity cues. Conclusions: Thus, sketching enhanced the elicitation of information in Interview 1 and access to the sketch in interview 2 seemed helpful for recalling previously reported information. (AU)


Antecedentes/objetivo: La investigación ha revelado que el uso de esquemas mientras se lleva a cabo una narración facilita la obtención de información y de indicios verbales de veracidad en una entrevista. Analizamos si estos efectos se mantienen cuando se somete a los sospechosos a su esquema de los hechos en entrevistas repetidas (una semana después). Método: Los participantes (N = 173) completaron una misión simulada y luego contaban la verdad o mentían sobre la misma en una entrevista realizada de modo inmediato (entrevista 1). Los participantes o bien referían verbalmente la misión (condición de recuerdo libre) o la esquematizaban (condición de esquematización). Después de una semana se pidió a todos los participantes un recuerdo libre sin esquematizar (entrevista 2). La mitad de los participantes de la condición de esquematización podían acceder a su esquema mientras referían verbalmente el suceso y la otra mitad no tenía acceso al esquema. Resultados: Los que contaban la verdad daban más información que los que mentían en ambas entrevistas y el esquema facilitaba más información que el recuerdo libre aunque tan solo en la entrevista 1. Aquellos participantes que tenían acceso a su esquema en la entrevista 2 repetían más información que quienes no tenían acceso, aunque el acceso no tenía efecto alguno en indicios de veracidad. Conclusiones: En conclusión, los esquemas incrementaron la obtención de información en la entrevista 1 y el acceso al esquema en la entrevista 2 resultó útil para recordar la información relatada previamente. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos
14.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 212(1): 16-27, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874984

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) field trial in India, widely reported racist violence in the United States, and casteist and religious communal conflicts in India highlighted inattention to structural issues affecting mental health problems in the Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF) and the CFI in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). Consequently, we revised the OCF as a sociocultural formulation (SCF) to better consider structures of society and culture. We studied and compared clinicians' ratings of SCF case formulations from a constructed assessment instrument (SCF Interview [SCFI]) and the CFI. Socio-cultural formulations from SCFI interviews were rated higher for details of societal structural impact, and overall interrater agreement was better. CFI interviews were rated higher for clinical rapport. Revision of the CFI should enhance consideration of structural issues and incorporate them in SCFs that better integrate assessment process and case formulation content. The need to acknowledge structural sources of mental health problems is clear, and our study indicates how a sociocultural framework may be used for that.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Índia , Violência
15.
Child Abuse Negl ; 146: 106505, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Open-ended prompting is an essential tool for interviewers to elicit evidentiary information from children reporting abuse. To date, no research has examined whether different types of open-ended prompts elicit details with differing levels of forensic relevance. OBJECTIVE: To examine interviewers' use of three open-ended prompt subtypes (initial invitations, breadth prompts, and depth prompts) and compare the forensic relevance of the information elicited by each. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Transcripts of field interviews conducted by 53 police interviewers with children aged 6- to 16-years alleging abuse were examined. METHODS: In each transcript, initial invitations, breadth prompts, and depth prompts were identified, and the child's response was parsed into clauses. Clauses were classified according to their forensic relevance: essential to the charge (i.e., a key point of proof or element of the offence), relevant to the offending (i.e., what occurred before, during, or after an incident but not an essential detail), context (i.e., background information), irrelevant to the charge, no information provided, or repeated information already provided earlier. RESULTS: Interviewers posed fewer initial invitations than breadth and depth prompts, p < .001, ηp2 = 0.58. Initial invitations elicited higher proportions of essential and relevant clauses than breadth and depth prompts; depth prompts further elicited higher proportions of essential clauses than breadth prompts, ps ≤ 0.001. We found few effects of children's age. CONCLUSIONS: Initial invitations are a particularly useful subtype of open-ended prompt for interviewers to elicit details that are legislatively essential for prosecution of crimes from children of all ages.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Humanos , Psiquiatria Legal , Medicina Legal , Entrevista Psicológica
16.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 25(3): 14408, 10 jul. 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451197

RESUMO

Infertile couples seeking treatment experience a social stigma that can lead to the need for privacy and, in turn, compromise their access to social support. This multiple case study, that involved the collection of sociodemographic and health data and interviews with four heterosexual couples accessed by convenience, aimed to examine the perception of the couples about the social support received after the disclosure of the condition of infertility and/or of the assisted reproductive technology treatment. The cases were analysed individually and comparatively. From the couples' statements, it is highlighted that all of them revealed something about infertility and/or treatment at some point in the process, although some considered not revealing it. Both support and lack of support were perceived from the revelations. The non-disclosure was motivated by self-preservation and by avoidance of social pressure. The findings indicate the importance of psychological intervention to expand the couples' social support.


Parejas infértiles que buscan tratamiento experimentan un estigma social que puede acarrear la necesidad de privacidad y, a su vez, comprometer el acceso al apoyo social. Ese estudio de múltiples casos, que involucró la recogida de datos sociodemográficos, de salud y entrevistas con cuatro parejas heterosexuales accedidas por conveniencia, buscó examinar la percepción de las parejas sobre el apoyo social después de la revelación de la condición de infertilidad y/o del tratamiento con técnicas de reproducción asistida. Los casos fueron analizados individual y comparativamente. De las declaraciones de las parejas, se destaca que todas revelaron algo sobre la infertilidad y/o el tratamiento en algún momento del proceso, aunque algunos consideraron no revelarlo. Se percibió tanto el apoyo como la falta de apoyo a partir de las revelaciones. La no revelación fue motivada por la autopreservación y por la evitación de presión social. Los hallazgos indican la importancia de la intervención psicológica para ampliar el apoyo social de las parejas.


Casais inférteis que buscam tratamento experimentam um estigma social que pode acarretar a necessidade de privacidade e, por sua vez, comprometer o acesso ao apoio social. Este estudo de casos múltiplos, que envolveu a coleta de dados sociodemográficos, de saúde e entrevistas com quatro casais heterossexuais acessados por conveniência, objetivou examinar a sua percepção sobre o apoio social recebido após a revelação da condição de infertilidade e/ou de tratamento com técnicas de reprodução assistida. Os casos foram analisados individualmente e comparativamente. A partir das falas, destaca-se que todos revelaram algo sobre a infertilidade e/ou o tratamento em algum momento do processo, ainda que alguns tenham considerado não revelar. Percebeu-se tanto apoio como falta de apoio diante das revelações. A não revelação foi motivada pela autopreservação e pela evitação de pressão social. Os achados indicam a importância da intervenção psicológica para ampliar o apoio social dos casais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Infertilidade/psicologia , Família , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Entrevista Psicológica
17.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 27(3): 292-300, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37067395

RESUMO

Appropriate screening tools are required to accurately detect complex post traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). This systematic review aimed to assess and compare measurement tools. A literature search using key words 'complex post traumatic stress disorder', 'PTSD', and 'assessment' was undertaken on Embase and PsychINFO during February 2022 by two reviewers. Inclusion criteria included full text papers between 2002-2022 which evaluated CPTSD using assessment tools. Exclusion criteria included reviews, editorials, meta-analyses, or conference abstracts. Twenty-two papers met selection criteria. Thirteen studies used the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ). Two studies each evaluated CPTSD with the International Trauma Interview (ITI) or Symptoms of Trauma Scale (SOTS). The Developmental Trauma Inventory (DTI), Cameron Complex Trauma Interview (CCTI), Complex PTSD Item Set additional to the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (COPISAC), Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), and Scale 8 of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Scale (MMPI) were used by a single study each. The ITQ was the most thoroughly investigated, validated across different populations, and is a convenient questionnaire for screening within the clinical setting. Where self-report measures are inappropriate, the ITI, SOTS, and COPISAC are interview tools which detect CPTSD. However, they require further validation and should be used alongside clinical history and examination.


Validated and reliable screening tools are required to accurately detect and manage complex post traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD)The International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) is the most thoroughly investigated, validated across different populations, and is a freely available and convenient tool for screening within clinical settingsIn circumstances where self-report measures are inappropriate, the ITI, SOTS, and COPISAC are interview tools which detect CPTSD, but require further validation and should be used alongside clinical history and examinationFurther research is needed to ensure appropriate assessment tools for the detection and diagnosis of CPTSD are available.


Assuntos
Testes Psicológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , MMPI , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 16(4): e009524, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37013814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in younger individuals is frequently caused by heritable cardiac conditions. The unexpected nature of SCD leaves families with many unanswered questions and an insufficient understanding of the cause of death and their own risk for heritable disease. We explored the experiences of families of young SCD victims upon learning about their relative's cause of death and how they perceive their own risk for heritable cardiac conditions. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study, by interviewing families of young (ages 12-45) SCD victims, who died between 2014 and 2018 from a heritable cardiac condition and were investigated by the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, Canada. We used thematic analysis to analyze the transcripts. RESULTS: Between 2018 and 2020, we interviewed 19 family members, of which 10 were males and 9 were females, ages ranging from 21 to 65 (average 46.2±13.1). Four main themes were revealed, each representing a distinct time period that families experience along a trajectory: (1) interactions between bereaved family and others, in particular coroners, shaped their search for answers about their relative's cause of death, with the types, formats, and timing of communication varying by case; (2) searching for answers and processing the cause of death; (3) incidental implications of the SCD event, such as financial strain and lifestyle changes contributed to cumulative stress; (4) receiving answers (or not) and moving forward. CONCLUSIONS: Families rely on communication with others, yet the type, formats, and timing of information received varies, which can influence families' experiences of processing the death (and its cause), their perceived risk and their decision to pursue cascade screening. These results may provide key insights for the interprofessional health care team responsible for the delivery and communication of the cause of death to families of SCD victims.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Família , Pesar , Humanos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Família/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica
19.
Psicooncología (Pozuelo de Alarcón) ; 20(1): 45-62, 11 abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-219018

RESUMO

Introducción: Hay una carencia de instrumentos específicos para evaluar el sufrimiento de niños y adolescentes con necesidades paliativas. Objetivo: Describir el proceso de diseño y creación del instrumento para la Evaluación del Sufrimiento en Niños y Adolescentes (ESNA) con necesidades paliativas. Método: 1) Revisión sistemática de la literatura; 2) Establecer marco teórico; 3) Definir los criterios del instrumento; 4) Establecer temáticas relacionadas con el sufrimiento; 5) Validación de contenido por expertos; 6) Validez de facie por pacientes; y 7) Prueba piloto. Resultados: 1) De 750 artículos, se evalúan 161 y se incluyen 51; 2) el marco teórico incorpora el Modelo integrativo del Sufrimiento de Kriokorian, y el Modelo Ecológico de Afrontamiento del Estrés de Brofenbrenner; 3) los criterios priorizan brevedad, lenguaje claro y preguntas relevantes; 4) temáticas relevantes establecidas con 18 adolescentes: vivencia de la enfermedad, gestión de la información, impacto emocional, relación con los otros y el impacto en los otros; 5) 14 profesionales realizan juicio de expertos de la versión preliminar; 6) 8 pacientes realizaron valoración aparente de contenido; y 7) Prueba piloto y análisis cualitativo con 8 pacientes. El instrumento ESNA final es heteroadministrado, con 42 preguntas (26 son exploratorias y 16 ítems cuantitativos). Explora: Experiencia de Enfermedad Gestión de la Información; Esperanza y expectativas; Regulación Emocional; Impacto en los otros; y Aspectos relacionales. Conclusiones: El instrumento ESNA parece ser una herramienta apropiada para la identificación del sufrimiento en niños y adolescentes con necesidades paliativas estando pendiente la evaluación de sus propiedades psicométricas (AU)


Introduction: There is a lack of specific instruments to assess the suffering of children and adolescents with palliative needs. Objective: Describe the process of designing and creating the instrument for the Assessment of Suffering in Children and Adolescents (ESNA) with palliative needs. Method: 1) Literature review; 2) Establish theoretical framework; 3) Define the criteria of the instrument; 4) Establish themes related to suffering; 5) Validation of content by experts; 6) Validity of facie by patients; and 7) Pilot test. Results: 1) Of 750 articles, 161 are evaluated and 51 are included; 2) the theoretical framework incorporates the Kriokorian Integrative Model of Suffering, and the Brofenbrenner Ecological Model of Coping with Stress; 3) the criteria prioritize brevity, clear language and relevant questions; 4) relevant themes established with 18 adolescents: experience of the disease, information management, emotional impact, relationship with others and the impact on others; 5) 14 professionals carry out expert judgment of the preliminary version; 6) 8 patients made an apparent assessment of content; and 7) Pilot test and qualitative analysis with 8 patients. The final ESNA instrument is hetero-administered, with 42 questions (26 are exploratory and 16 quantitative items). Explore: Experience of Illness; Information management; Hope and expectations; Emotional Regulation; Impact on others; and relational aspects. Conclusions: The ESNA instrument seems to be an appropriate tool for the identification of suffering in children and adolescents with palliative needs, pending the evaluation of its psychometric properties (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Doença Catastrófica/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia
20.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 47(2): 555-575, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36961651

RESUMO

For thirty years, psychiatrists and anthropologists have collaborated to improve the validity of psychiatric diagnosis. This collaboration has produced the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF) and the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). Nonetheless, some anthropologists have critiqued the concept of culture in DSM-5 as too focused on patient meanings and not on clinician practices. This article traces the evolution of the culture concept from DSM-IV through DSM-5-TR by analyzing publications from the American Psychiatric Association on the OCF and CFI alongside scholarship in psychiatry and anthropology. DSM-IV relied on a culture concept of coherent ethnic communities sharing coherent cultures, primarily for minoritized ethnoracial individuals in the United States. Changing demographics and newer immigration patterns around the world deminoritized the culture concept for DSM-5. After George Floyd's death and demands for social justice, the culture concept in DSM-5-TR emphasized social structures. The article proposes an intersubjective model of culture through which patients and clinicians work through similarities and differences. It recommends a revised formulation that attends to clinician practices such as communicating, diagnosing, recommending treatments, and documenting, beyond collecting patient meanings. It also raises the question of whether an intersubjective model of culture prompts reconsiderations of culture-related text in other sections of the DSM. The social sciences can redirect attention to the clinician's culture of biomedicine to close patient health disparities.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Entrevista Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Cultura , Antropologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
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