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1.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3044-3053, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption has been reported to impair the physical and mental health of the elderly. This study aimed to explore the association between alcohol consumption patterns in midlife and cognition in the elderly among the Chinese population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Study subjects were individuals aged ≥45 years in the shared database of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997, who were followed up in 2006. A questionnaire was used to collect information about alcohol consumption (frequency, amount and type). Alcohol consumption (grams/week) was classified into none, light (≤84), light-to-moderate (84.01-168), moderate-to-heavy (168.01-336) and heavy (≥336.01) categories in men, and none, light (<42) and moderate (≥42) categories in women. Cognitive function was measured in 2006 using a subset of items from the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. The lowest quintile was used as the cut-off point for cognitive impairment. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied. The study involved 1926 participants with a mean age of 56.91 years, and men accounted for 51.66% of the total participants. Drinking behaviours and cognitive scores had significant sexual difference (P < 0.001). Cognitive impairment was identified in 135 men and 237 women. Compared with light drinking, heavy drinking and non-drinking were associated with cognitive impairment in men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% CI were 2.19 (1.59-3.00), 1.54 (1.21-1.96), respectively; P < 0.001]. Compared with light drinkers, female non-drinkers and moderate drinkers were associated with cognitive impairment [aOR and 95% CI were 1.54 (1.16-2.03) and 1.75 (1.08-2.85), respectively; P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific evidence on the adverse effects of heavy drinking on elderly cognition and the possibly protective effects of light drinking could influence policy decisions on alcohol consumption in China.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1177-1183, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association of job strain with cognitive ability and the influence of life-course job strain on later life cognitive decline. METHODS: Data were derived from six waves of the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe. The study sample consists of 13349 participants aged 50 to 98 years at wave 2 and has been followed up for 12-years. Job strain status across working life was assessed using a short demand-control job strain model containing two core dimensions: job demands and job control collected in wave 3. Cognitive abilities concerning episodic memory was assessed by immediate recall and delayed recall tests, executive function was evaluated by verbal fluency test collected in all waves (waves 2-7) except wave 3. Mixed-effects model was used to estimate working life job strain and its cumulative effect on cognitive decline. RESULTS: Both passive and high strain jobs were associated with lower levels of cognitive ability (episodic memory and verbal fluency) in comparison with active job. Long exposure to active- or low strain-job was associated with higher cognitive ability whereas long exposure to passive job or moderate duration of high strain job was associated with lower cognitive ability. The rate of memory decline was positively related to moderate duration of passive job and negatively related to long-term exposure to low strain job. LIMITATIONS: Information on working conditions was based on self-reported recollections. CONCLUSIONS: Working life variation in job strain status and their duration may explain individual differences in cognitive ability in later life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Emprego , Europa (Continente) , Seguimentos , Humanos
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18527, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535714

RESUMO

Dance is a complex sensorimotor activity with positive effects on physical fitness, cognition, and brain plasticity in the aging population. We explored whether individual levels of cognitive reserve (CR) proxied by education moderate dance intervention (DI)-induced plasticity assessed by resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) changes of the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and anterior default mode network (aDMN). Our cohort consisted of 99 subjects, randomly assigned to either a DI group who underwent a 6-month intervention (n = 49, Mage = 69.02 ± 5.40) or a control group (n = 50, Mage = 69.37 ± 6.10). Moderation analyses revealed that CR moderated DI-induced increase of the SMN rs-FC with significant changes observed in participants with ≥ 15 years of education (b = 0.05, t(62) = 3.17, p = 0.002). Only DI alone was a significant predictor of the DAN-aDMN crosstalk change (b = 0.06, t(64) = 2.16, p = 0.035). The rs-FC increase in the SMN was correlated with an improved physical fitness measure, and changes in the DAN-aDMN connectivity were linked to better performance on figural fluency. Consistent with the passive CR hypothesis, we observed that CR correlated only with baseline behavioral scores, not their change.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Reserva Cognitiva , Dança , Plasticidade Neuronal , Idoso , Terapia através da Dança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445020

RESUMO

(1) Background: An age-related cognitive decline is commonly affecting the life of elderly with symptoms involved in progressive impairments to memory and learning. It has been proposed that probiotics could modulate age-related neurological disorders via the gut-brain axis. (2) Methods: To investigate the anti-aging effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum GKM3, both survival tests and cognitive experiments were conducted in the SAMP8 mice model. The six-month-old SAMP8 (n = 20 in each gender) were fed with probiotic GKM3 at a dosage of 5.1 × 109 and 1.0 × 109 cfu/ kg B.W./day until their natural death. Then, the life span was investigated. Three-month-old SAMP8 (n = 10 in each gender) were administered GKM3 for 14 weeks. Then, the behavior tests and oxidation parameters were recorded. (3) Results: GKM3 groups showed significantly increased latency in the passive avoidance test and time of successful avoidance in the active avoidance test. The TBARS and 8-OHdG from mice brains also showed a significant reduction in the groups treated with GKM3. In addition, lower accumulation of the amyloid-ß protein was found in SAMP8 mice brains with the supplement of GKM3. (4) Conclusions: These results indicated that L. plantarum GKM3 delayed the process of aging, alleviated age-related cognitive impairment, and reduced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Probióticos , Retenção Psicológica , Fatores Etários , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444664

RESUMO

Our study aimed to evaluate whether the type of food products and the frequency of their consumption are associated with cognitive functioning in younger and older adults. The impact of diets that are high in added sugars and saturated fat on cognitive functioning, especially on memory, was at the center of our interest. Participants in the study were 204 healthy adults (aged 20-55) who performed a multitasking cognitive test and completed dietary and psychological questionnaires. Stepwise regression analysis with age and food consumption patterns as predictors, and the cognitive task performance as a dependent variable, revealed that cognitive task performance worsened with age. However, we found that the frequency of consuming different types of foods (healthy versus unhealthy dietary patterns) moderates the effects of age on cognitive functioning. Red meat and animal fat consumption were negatively correlated with cognitive performance, and this relation was dependent on the age of our participants. Conversely, white meat and fish consumption were positively related to memory. Different indices of dietary patterns (both positive and negative) were stronger predictors of cognitive performance in the older adult group. We interpret our results as evidence that diet may be a protective (or worsening) factor in age-related cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Memória , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brain Stimul ; 14(5): 1219-1225, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has shown initial promise in combating age-related cognitive decline and dementia. The nature and severity of cognitive aging, however, varies markedly between individuals. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the distinct constellation of brain changes responsible for individual differences in cognitive aging might influence the response to rTMS. METHODS: Cognitive effects of rTMS were evaluated using a rat model of cognitive aging in which aged rats are classified as Aged-Impaired (AI) or -Unimpaired (AU) relative to young (Y) according to their performance in the Morris water maze. Several weeks later, following presentation of a sample odor in an olfactory recognition task, rats received either sham (Y, n = 9; AU, n = 8; AI, n = 9) or intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (Y, n = 8; AU, n = 8; AI, n = 9). Memory was tested 24 h later. RESULTS: Recognition memory in the sham and stimulated conditions depended on pre-treatment cognitive status in the aged rats. Y and AU sham rats displayed robust odor recognition, whereas sham-treated AI rats exhibited no retention. In contrast, rTMS treated AI rats showed robust retention, comparable in magnitude to Y, whereas the AU stimulated scored at chance. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with a perspective that the unique neurobiology associated with variability in cognitive aging modulates the response to rTMS. Protocols with documented efficacy in young adults may have unexpected outcomes in aging or neurodegenerative conditions, requiring individualized approaches.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Envelhecimento , Animais , Encéfalo , Cognição , Ratos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209677

RESUMO

In recent years, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders research has focused on altered molecular mechanisms in search of potential pharmacological targets, e.g., imbalances in mechanisms of response to oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and neuronal plasticity, which occur in less common neurological and neurodegenerative pathologies (Huntington disease, multiple sclerosis, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and Down syndrome). Here, we assess the effects of different catechins (particularly of epigalocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) on these disorders, as well as their use in attenuating age-related cognitive decline in healthy individuals. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of EGCG -due to their phenolic hydroxyl groups-, as well as its immunomodulatory, neuritogenic, and autophagic characteristics, makes this catechin a promising tool against neuroinflammation and microglia activation, common in these pathologies. Although EGCG promotes the inhibition of protein aggregation in experimental Huntington disease studies and improves the clinical severity in multiple sclerosis in animal models, its efficacy in humans remains controversial. EGCG may normalize DYRK1A (involved in neural plasticity) overproduction in Down syndrome, improving behavioral and neural phenotypes. In neurological pathologies caused by environmental agents, such as FASD, EGCG enhances antioxidant defense and regulates placental angiogenesis and neurodevelopmental processes. As demonstrated in animal models, catechins attenuate age-related cognitive decline, which results in improvements in long-term outcomes and working memory, reduction of hippocampal neuroinflammation, and enhancement of neuronal plasticity; however, further studies are needed. Catechins are valuable compounds for treating and preventing certain neurodegenerative and neurological diseases of genetic and environmental origin. However, the use of different doses of green tea extracts and EGCG makes it difficult to reach consistent conclusions for different populations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Soins Gerontol ; 26(150): 10-17, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304804

RESUMO

Cognitive aging apart dementia results from different genetic programming, different according to individuals. The aging of the various cognitive and very heterogeneous cognitive functions largely depends on the life course of each person. Social factors, in particular the environment in which a person lives, may or may not accelerate the processes of cognitive aging. The slower processing speeds of information from the environment, practical or strategic new acquisitions, and the difficult management of multiple tasks, reflect an age-related hypofrontality. Physical and mental health, social and relational well-being participate in good cognitive aging. Exploration of the different facets of cognitive aging shows its complexity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Demência , Envelhecimento , Cognição , Humanos
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201969

RESUMO

Decreased concentration of phospholipids were observed in brain tissue from individuals with dementia compared with controls, indicating phospholipids might be a key variable in development of age-related cognitive impairment. The reflection of these phospholipid changes in blood might provide both reference for diagnosis/monitoring and potential targets for intervention through peripheral circulation. Using a full-scale targeted phospholipidomic approach, 229 molecular species of plasma phospholipid were identified and quantified among 626 senile residents; the association of plasma phospholipids with MoCA score was also comprehensively discussed. Significant association was confirmed between phospholipid matrix and MoCA score by a distance-based linear model. Additionally, the network analysis further observed that two modules containing PEs were positively associated with MoCA score, and one module containing LPLs had a trend of negative correlation with MoCA score. Furthermore, 23 phospholipid molecular species were found to be significantly associated with MoCA score independent of fasting glucose, lipidemia, lipoproteins, inflammatory variables and homocysteine. Thus, the decreased levels of pPEs containing LC-PUFA and the augmented levels of LPLs were the most prominent plasma phospholipid changes correlated with the cognitive decline, while alterations in plasma PC, PS and SM levels accompanying cognitive decline might be due to variation of lipidemia and inflammatory levels.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
Yi Chuan ; 43(6): 545-570, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284987

RESUMO

With the increase of life expectancy, the world's population is aging rapidly. Previous work in the field of aging greatly increases our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying longevity. Researchers have unraveled a number of longevity pathways conserved from yeast to mammals. However, recent evidence shows that mechanisms regulating the life span and those regulating age-related behavioral decline could be dissociated. The regulatory mechanisms underlying behavioral and cognitive aging is largely unknown. Previous work has described a significant age-related decline in cognitive behaviors including episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, as well as motor function deterioration and circadian dysfunction. With the advance of neuroscience and technology, more and more studies have focused on the age-related changes in structure and function of the brain. In this review, we briefly describe the deterioration of cognitive function and other behaviors in the aging process, and survey the role of age-related changes in brain structure and network, neuron morphology and function, transcriptome in brain and some conserved biological pathways on age-related cognitive and behavioral decline. Further studies on the mechanisms underpinning age-related cognitive and behavioral decline may provide clues not only for improving the quality of life for the ageing population, but also for developing intervention approaches for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Cognição , Longevidade , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1266-1273, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of disease-modifying pharmacological agents for dementia highlights the critical importance of prevention, but known modifiable factors (e.g., education, physical health and health behaviors, depression, and social isolation) do not fully represent potential intervention targets. Positive psychosocial factors predict cognitive aging outcomes above and beyond known risk factors and may also correspond to upstream determinants that open up new avenues for prevention and intervention, as well as for reducing racial/ethnic inequalities in dementia. In this brief report, I summarize contemporary evidence for three positive psychosocial factors that appear to be particularly relevant to cognitive aging: perceived control, religious involvement, and social relations. METHODS: Targeted review and synthesis of published studies. RESULTS: Each of the multidimensional constructs appears to contain "active ingredients" that could help to optimize cognitive aging through disparate mechanisms. Although historically marginalized racial/ethnic groups face disproportionate barriers to accessing certain psychosocial protective factors (e.g., perceived control), these same groups also exhibit naturally occurring sources of psychosocial resilience (e.g., religious involvement) that allow them to achieve better late-life cognitive health than would be otherwise expected. With regard to social relations, converging evidence from disparate studies shows that fostering late-life friendships in particular may have high potential for building cognitive reserve and promoting healthy cognitive aging. CONCLUSIONS: Positive psychosocial factors represent culturally relevant resources that, through careful research, could ultimately be harnessed to promote better cognitive aging for a growing and increasingly diverse population of older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Reserva Cognitiva , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Escolaridade , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Proteção
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social environments are a contributing determinant of health and disparities. This scoping review details how social environments have been operationalized in observational studies of cognitive aging and dementia. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science identified studies of social environment exposures and late-life cognition/dementia outcomes. Data were extracted on (1) study design; (2) population; (3) social environment(s); (4) cognitive outcome(s); (5) analytic approach; and (6) theorized causal pathways. Studies were organized using a 3-tiered social ecological model at interpersonal, community, or policy levels. RESULTS: Of 7802 non-duplicated articles, 123 studies met inclusion criteria. Eighty-four studies were longitudinal (range 1-28 years) and 16 examined time-varying social environments. When sorted into social ecological levels, 91 studies examined the interpersonal level; 37 examined the community/neighborhood level; 3 examined policy level social environments; and 7 studies examined more than one level. CONCLUSIONS: Most studies of social environments and cognitive aging and dementia examined interpersonal factors measured at a single point in time. Few assessed time-varying social environmental factors or considered multiple social ecological levels. Future studies can help clarify opportunities for intervention by delineating if, when, and how social environments shape late-life cognitive aging and dementia outcomes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Demência , Cognição , Humanos , Características de Residência , Meio Social
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(4): 1703-1713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several early-life factors have been associated with higher risk of developing dementia. It is unclear whether season of birth (SOB) can affect cognitive aging in older adults or not. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the association of SOB with the level of cognitive performance as well as with the rate of cognitive decline. METHODS: We studied 70,203 individuals who participated in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe. Cognition was measured with tests on verbal fluency and immediate and delayed recall. We assessed the association of SOB with the level of cognitive performance using multiple linear regression and with the rate of cognitive decline using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: When compared to individuals born in winter and adjusted for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, being born in summer was associated with a higher level of delayed recall (B 0.05; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.09) and verbal fluency (B 0.15; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.29) and being born in fall with a higher level of immediate recall (B 0.04; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.08) and verbal fluency (B 0.15; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.29). Individuals born in summer had a higher yearly decline in delayed recall (B -0.005; 95%CI -0.009 to 0.000), while the scores in delayed recall in participants born in spring showed an inverse trend (B 0.005; 95%CI 0.000 to 0.010). CONCLUSION: Individuals born in winter seem to carry a life-long disadvantage in a lower level of cognitive performance; however, being born in winter does not seem to affect the rate of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estações do Ano , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy is increasing in most high-income countries, but gains in life years are maximized if spent in good health and if cognitive abilities are maintained until old age. Age-related decline of cognitive abilities does nevertheless occur, but the pace of decline is decisive. This was the starting point for our study that aims to examine cohort effects of cognitive aging in women and men in Germany, Spain and Sweden by analyzing changes from 2004 to 2013 by estimating cohort effects within age groups starting from the age of 50 years. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted that was based on data of the surveys 2004 (N = 6,081) and 2013 (N = 8,650) from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The analyses were based on data of female and male respondents aged 50 years and older. Age-specific means of verbal fluency and delayed recall from the German, Spanish and Swedish samples were the cognitive domains considered in the study. RESULTS: In both domains of cognitive ability the achievements in the later surveys were higher than in the earlier ones. This was found in all countries, abut achievement levels increased markedly in the German and the Spanish samples, while the scores of the Swedish samples were not significantly different. While the highest scores were found for Sweden, Germany ranked in the middle and the lowest scores were found in the Spanish samples. Over time, the scores of the German samples approached those of Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: From the first to the second survey, improvements of older adults' cognitive abilities were found for all countries considered. This may indicate improvements of the underlying educational systems, but also increasingly stimulating general living conditions.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063827

RESUMO

A previous systematic review revealed that lutein intake leads to improved cognitive function among older adults. However, the association between lutein intake and brain health remains unclear. METHODS: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Library for research papers. The criteria were (1) an intervention study using oral lutein intake or a cross-sectional study that examined lutein levels and the brain, (2) participants were older adults, and (3) brain activities or structures were measured using a brain imaging technique (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)). RESULTS: Seven studies using MRI (brain activities during rest, cognitive tasks, and brain structure) and two studies using EEG were included. We mainly focused on MRI studies. Three intervention studies using MRI indicated that 10 mg lutein intake over 12 months had a positive impact on healthy older adults' brain activities during learning, resting-state connectivity, and gray matter volumes. Four cross-sectional studies using MRI suggested that lutein was positively associated with brain structure and neural efficiency during cognitive tasks. CONCLUSION: Although only nine studies that used similar datasets were reviewed, this systematic review indicates that lutein has beneficial effects on healthy older adults' brain health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Luteína/farmacologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Verduras/química
17.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 557-571, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166026

RESUMO

Late-life marital status is associated with cognitive aging; however, the influence of life course marital biography (i.e., changes in marital status) on late-life cognitive trajectories, as well as gender differences in the effects of marital biography, remain to be explored. Associations between (a) marital status at study baseline (currently married, previously married, never married) and (b) retrospectively reported life course marital biography (i.e., age at first marriage, time spent unmarried following initial marriage, history of divorce, history of widowhood) and up to 20 years of subsequent episodic memory trajectories were examined using latent growth curve models in 3,061 participants aged 51 + in the Health and Retirement Study 2017 Life History Mail Survey. Gender differences were examined with multiplicative interaction terms and stratified models. Participants who were married at study baseline demonstrated higher initial memory than previously and never married individuals. Older age at first marriage and shorter duration spent unmarried were each associated with better initial episodic memory among previously married individuals only; longer duration spent unmarried was associated with slower memory decline. Stratified models suggested that these associations may be driven by women. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple aspects of marital biography, not just current marital status, in cognitive aging research. Marital biography may have an enduring influence on cognitive aging, particularly among previously married older women. Future work is needed to identify mechanisms (e.g., socioeconomic resources, cognitive stimulation, self and spousal health, emotional support) through which marital histories influence cognitive aging. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(Suppl 1): S41-S50, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increased social engagement in older adults has been linked to positive cognitive outcomes; however, it is unclear if the social engagement of husbands and wives influences their own cognition as well as each other's cognition. Moreover, it is unknown if any such patterns persist in different country contexts. METHODS: Data from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) and the 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were combined, and comparable samples of married couples without cognitive impairment at baseline were drawn. Follow-up cognition data was obtained from the 2012 MHAS and the 2012 HRS. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to test the actor-partner interdependence model with moderating effect of country on the association of social engagement with cognition. RESULTS: Significant actor effects were observed for wives in both countries. Actor effects for husbands were observed in the United States only. In Mexico, a significant partner effect was observed where wives' social engagement benefited their own cognition as well as their husbands', but not vice versa. Partner effects were not observed in the United States. No moderation effects of country were observed. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest asymmetric patterns of actor-partner interdependence in Mexico, which may be reflective of the more traditional social role of women, and codependence within the couple. On the other hand, our results for the United States, where each spouse had significant actor effects but no partner effects, may suggest more independence within the couple.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estado Civil , Participação Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação Social/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1203-1218, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between obesity and cognitive decline in aging are mixed and understudied among Hispanics/Latinos. OBJECTIVE: To understand associations between central obesity, cognitive aging, and the role of concomitant cardiometabolic abnormalities among Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Participants included 6,377 diverse Hispanics/Latinos enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and SOL-Investigation for Neurocognitive Aging (SOL-INCA). Participants were 45 years and older at the first cognitive testing session (Visit 1). Cognitive outcomes (z-score units) included global composite and domain specific (learning, memory, executive functioning, processing speed) measures at a second visit (SOL-INCA, on average, 7 years later), and 7-year change. We used survey linear regression to examine associations between central obesity (waist circumference≥88 cm and≥102 cm for women and men, respectively) and cognition. We also tested whether the relationships between obesity and cognition differed by cardiometabolic status (indication of/treatment for 2 + of the following: high triglycerides, hypertension, hyperglycemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). RESULTS: Central obesity was largely unassociated with cognitive outcomes, adjusting for covariates. However, among individuals with central obesity, cardiometabolic abnormality was linked to poorer cognitive function at SOL-INCA (ΔGlobalCognition =-0.165, p < 0.001) and to more pronounced cognitive declines over the average 7 years (ΔGlobalCognition = -0.109, p < 0.05); this was consistent across cognitive domains. CONCLUSION: Central obesity alone was not associated with cognitive function. However, presence of both central obesity and cardiometabolic abnormalities was robustly predictive of cognition and 7-year cognitive declines, suggesting that in combination these factors may alter the cognitive trajectories of middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Hispano-Americanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Obesidade Abdominal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(2): R208-R219, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161746

RESUMO

Structural and functional changes in the cerebral vasculature occur with advancing age, which may lead to impaired neurovascular coupling (NVC) and cognitive decline. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition abolishes age-related differences in cerebrovascular reactivity, but it is unclear if COX inhibition impacts NVC. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of aging on NVC before and after COX inhibition. Twenty-three young (age = 25 ± 4 yr) and 21 older (age = 64 ± 5 yr) adults completed two levels of difficulty of the Stroop and n-back tests before and after COX inhibition. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) was measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was measured using a finger cuff. Hemodynamic variables were measured at rest and in response to cognitive challenges. During the Stroop test, older adults demonstrated a greater increase in MCAv (young: 2.2 ± 6.8% vs. older: 5.9 ± 5.8%; P = 0.030) and MAP (young: 2.0 ± 4.9% vs. older: 4.8 ± 4.9%; P = 0.036) compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences during the n-back test. COX inhibition reduced MCAv by 30% in young and 26% in older adults (P < 0.001 for both). During COX inhibition, there were no age-related differences in the percent change in MCAv or MAP in response to the cognitive tests. Our results show that older adults require greater increases in MCAv and MAP during a test of executive function compared with young adults and that any age-related differences in NVC were abolished during COX inhibition. Collectively, this suggests that aging is associated with greater NVC necessary to accomplish a cognitive task.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/efeitos dos fármacos , Acoplamento Neurovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Stroop , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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