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1.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 65, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625091

RESUMO

Neuroimaging has been a critical tool for understanding the neuropathological underpinnings observed in HIV. The pathophysiology of HAND is chiefly driven by neuroinflammation. Despite adhering to cART, low levels of viraemia probably persist in the brain in some patients leading to chronic immune activation with resultant neuroinflammation and consequent neuronal injury. MR spectroscopy has been widely used as a biomarker for the presence and severity of HAND in several studies. By studying the MRS signatures, it is possible to characterise the presence of neuroinflammation and neural injury. Furthermore, metabolite concentrations measured by MRS could be used as a quantitative indicator of HIV cerebral involvement, thereby affording the opportunity to assess the efficacy of cART in HAND. However, currently there are three significant limitations in the MRS HIV research literature: the relative paucity of prospective studies, the small number of regions of interrogation due to current methodology (single voxel MRS), and the evolving understanding of the impact of co-morbidities (e.g. ageing, mood disorders, alcoholism etc.) on MRS measurements. This review critically addresses the current literature of MRS studies in people living with HIV (PWH) with HAND to determine its value, especially in the context of the current cART era. In addition, we discuss technical considerations related to the disease and the future direction in HAND using MRS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Envelhecimento , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27315, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596131

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Participation in volunteer activity has positive effects on health among elderly. Few studies have investigated the association between volunteer activity and depression among Chinese elderly. This study aimed to examine the association between volunteer activity and depression among the elderly in China regarding rural-urban differences.Totally 8255 subjects from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were selected in this study. Depression was assessed by 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Types and frequency of volunteer activity were measured in the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between volunteer activity and depression of elderly.In our study, the urban elderly had lower depressive scores than rural elderly (6.7 ±â€Š5.8 vs. 9.1 ±â€Š6.7). After adjustment for all covariates, our results revealed that almost daily participation in formal volunteer activities was negatively associated with depression among urban elderly (B = -2.69, SE = 1.05, P = .010); almost daily caring for a sick or disabled adult was positively associated with depression among both urban and rural elderly (urban:B = 3.13, SE = 1.54, P = .043; rural:B = 2.56, SE = 1.18, P = .031).These findings suggested that there was a negative association between formal volunteer activity and depression among urban elderly, while there was a positive association between caring for a sick or disabled adult and depression among both urban and rural elderly. The government should take effective measures to encourage the elderly to participate in formal volunteer activities to prevent them from depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603576

RESUMO

Introduction: active ageing is the process of optimizing opportunities for health in order to enhance quality of life and wellbeing. It is influenced by physical activity, social participation and social network, cognitive and continuous learning and socio-economic factors. It involves disease prevention and promotion of healthy behaviours that can reduce the risk and occurrence of non-communicable diseases in middle age and also at old age. The study aimed to determine and compare the active ageing process and its determinants among middle-aged men in rural and urban areas in Nigeria. Methods: this was a comparative cross-sectional study among middle-aged men 40-60 years using mixed methods. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 720 respondents. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire and Key informant interviews were used to collect data. Results: respondents in the rural area were a little older compared to the respondents in the urban area with a mean age of 49.6 ± 6.3 years and 48.6 ± 6.2 years respectively. A higher proportion of the respondents in the rural area (83.2%) than the respondents in the urban area (73.8%) practice good active ageing processes in their lives. There was a significant association between education of respondent and the practice of active ageing among respondents in the urban and rural areas. Multivariate logistic regression showed that physical activity (aOR 7.62, 95% CI: 243-23.94, P = 0.001), life-long learning (aOR 51.73, 95% CI: 12.14-220.49, P = 0.000) and community participation (aOR 3.46, 95% CI: 2.51-4.77, P=0.000) are predictors of active ageing. Conclusion: the study showed that respondents in the rural area practice good active ageing compared to the respondents in the urban area and hence engaged more in sufficient active life in their daily activities, reducing the risk of non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 67(2): 70-75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624939

RESUMO

Based on simple microscopic cell morphology in blood and bone marrow smear preparations, it seems to be likely that the cell differentiation and terminal differentiation in human blood cells, and particularly in erythroid or granulocytic lineages, simultaneously reflect ageing of the lineage progenitors and terminal differentiation steps. The terminal differentiation stages of both these lineages actually appear as senescent cells. Abnormal ageing of progenitor cells may represent one of the "dysplastic" phenomena of the premature terminal differentiation state. Such state is characterized by heterochromatin condensation and nucleolar morphology similar to that in fully differentiated terminal cells of granulocytic or erythroid lineages. It should also be mentioned that in some known erythropoietic disorders, less differentiated erythroblasts may lose nuclei similarly as "normal" fully terminally differentiated cells of the erythroid cell lineage. It seems to be clear that cells in both abnormal less differentiated and terminally differentiated stages of erythroid or granulocytic lineages lose the ability to multiply similarly as senescent cells. On the other hand, the background of cell ageing and differentiation is very complicated and requires a different approach than the simple microscopic morphology at the single cell level. However, the morphology and clinical cytology at the single cell level might still contribute with complementary data to more sophisticated complex studies of that topic. In addition, the morphological approach facilitates the study of the main components of single cells in various states, including the differentiation steps or ageing.


Assuntos
Eritroblastos , Eritropoese , Envelhecimento , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Humanos
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(10): 1387-1392, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with deterioration of arterial function and mental health, which are known as cardiovascular risk factors. The present study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on mental health and arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy middle-aged and older adults were assigned to either the aerobic exercise training (N.=14) or the control groups (N.=15). The aerobic exercise training group completed 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise training for 3-4 session per week (30-60 minutes). The control group did not change their levels of physical activity. Before and after the 12-week period, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and carotid ß-stiffness index, peak oxygen uptake were measured. RESULTS: At the onset of the 12-week period, the GHQ score, Carotid Β-Stiffness Index, and other key variables did not differ significantly between the aerobic exercise and control groups. The 12-week of aerobic exercise training increased peak oxygen uptake. The GHQ score and Carotid Β-Stiffness Index were decreased after the 12-week period in the aerobic exercise training group; however, no significant improvements were observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise enhance mental health and decrease arterial stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Orv Hetil ; 162(42): 1687-1692, 2021 10 17.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657000

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. A gyermekek közel fele szenved el csonttörést. Ez lehet traumás esemény vagy a csontfejlodést megzavaró genetikus, hormonális vagy egyéb eltérés a csontváz bármely részén. A leggyakoribb azonban az enyhe trauma kapcsán jelentkezo csuklótáji törés, amely többnyire a pubertas alatt fordul elo. A jelenség alapja, hogy a serdülés során átmenetileg elválik egymástól a csontok méretének gyors növekedése és a csonttömeg gyarapodása, ami a longitudinális növekedést kb. egy év késéssel követi. Az így kialakuló átmeneti csontgyengeség a gyermekkori csonttörés fo oka, aminek a hatásához az említett genetikai, hormonális és életmódi rendellenességek is csatlakozhatnak. A gyermekkorban elofordult kistraumás csonttörés a felnott férfiaknál az osteoporosisos csonttörések fokozott rizikójával jár, ezért szurovizsgálati kérdésként is szolgál. Nok esetében ugyanez az összefüggés még bizonyításra vár. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(42): 1687-1692. Summary. Bone fracture occurs nearly in half of the children. Some fractures are severe traumatic events while others are the results of genetic or hormonal or other alterations disturbing the normal development of bone. However, the majority of fractures are associated with a mild trauma, dominantly in the pubertal period. The basic pathology of the pubertal fractures is the transient deviation of peak velocity of height growth from the gain velocity of bone mass; the latter goes to peak 1 year later than height growth. This difference has been resulted in a physiologic but transient weakening of bones that can coincide with genetic, hormonal or life-style problems and all of these factors together may cause the increased fragility of the pubertal bone. Low-trauma fractures in childhood may be followed in high fracture risk of adult and aging men, so the childhood fracture seems to be a useful screening question for testing the osteoporosis in males. However, the same relation is still not proved in aging women. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(42): 1687-1692.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osteoporose , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639561

RESUMO

Given the continent's growing aging population and expanding prevalence of multimorbidity, polypharmacy is an increasingly dire threat to the health of persons living in Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated these issues. Widespread misinformation, lack of vaccine access, and attempts to avoid being infected have resulted in increases in Africans' willingness to take multiple prescription and nonprescription medications and supplements. Issues with counterfeit pharmaceuticals and the relatively new recognition of emergency medicine as a specialty across the continent also create unique challenges for addressing this urgent public health need. Experts have called for more robust pharmaceutical regulation and healthcare/public health infrastructure investments across the continent. However, these changes take time, and more near-term strategies are needed to mitigate current health needs. In this commentary, we present a nonexhaustive set of immediately implementable recommendations that can serve as local strategies to address current polypharmacy-related health needs of Africans. Importantly, our recommendations take into consideration that not all healthcare providers are emergency medicine trained and that local trends related to polypharmacy will change over time and require ever-evolving public health initiatives. Still, by bolstering training to safeguard against provider availability biases, practicing evidence-based prescribing and shared decision making, and tracking and sharing local trends related to polypharmacy, African healthcare providers and public health practitioners can better position themselves to meet population needs. Furthermore, although these recommendations are tailored to Africans, they may also prove useful to providers and practitioners in other regions facing similar challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Polimedicação , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639790

RESUMO

Both COVID-19 and ageism can have a negative impact on the well-being of older people. Yet, our knowledge on the links between COVID-19, ageism and well-being is still emerging. The present study aimed to contribute to this knowledge by exploring the lived experiences of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we analyzed older persons' subjective experiences and perceptions of ageism arising from COVID-19-related policies and discourses in two country contexts-Austria and Ireland-and the implications of these experiences for personal well-being. Based on the thematic analysis of 27 interviews with older adults, we found that participants perceived and encountered a discriminatory homogeneous representation of older people as a group. Three specific forms of this homogenization, namely stigmatization, paternalism, and scapegoating, were identified as impact on well-being. Moreover, our analysis showed how these forms of ageism challenge both the individual and social identities of older people, revealing older participants' different attitudes in responding to this challenge. With reference to the international research literature, we discussed the impact of these experiences on the well-being of older people and the possible legal and socio-political implications of our findings.


Assuntos
Ageismo , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estereotipagem
10.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1291-1295, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed at understanding how cognitive reserve and related concepts contribute to promoting neurobehavioral and cognitive health, consistent with goal of the 2020 national academy of neuropsychology (NAN) Annual Meeting.Research indicates that lifestyle factors such as achieving educational and work milestones, participating in leisure and social activities and IQ are all associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline in normal aging and of developing dementia. Many of these lifestyle factors have also been associated with better cognition in other psychiatric and neurological conditions. The cognitive reserve hypothesis posits that these lifestyle factors result in individual differences in the flexibility and adaptability of brain networks that may allow some people to cope better than others with age- or dementia-related brain changes. Recent evidence also supports the idea that specific genetic and lifestyle factors may help preserve a healthy brain or enhance brain reserve, a process that has been called brain maintenance. The complementary concept of brain reserve posits that structural brain features can guard against dementia and related conditions. This review defines these theoretical concepts, their research basis, how they are studied and their clinical applications. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports the concept of reserve, which can be influenced by experiences in every stage of life. Focused research in this area can maximize the chance for successful intervention.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
11.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1257-1265, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651647

RESUMO

Alzheimer' dementia is a large and growing public health problem. Of utmost importance for limiting the impact of the disease on society is the prevention of dementia, that is, delay onset either by years whereby death ensues prior to dementia onset. The Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project are two harmonized cohort studies of aging and dementia that include organ donation at death. Ongoing since 1994 and 1997, respectively, we published on the association of numerous experiential, psychological, and medical risk factors for dementia, many of which are potentially modifiable. Here, selected findings are reviewed based on a presentation at the 2020 National Academy of Neuropsychology given virtually in Chicago in October of 2020.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Envelhecimento , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1274-1278, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We have witnessed two key findings that shift our understanding of human brain aging in new directions. First, we learned that the adult brain remains plastic beyond childhood development, generating new neurons in response to activity and new experiences, particularly in regions that integrate memories in social contexts. The second emerging finding is the importance of physical activity and social engagement to cognitive aging. I integrate these and other empirical findings with our understanding of brain development over the life span and the later-life developmental need to give back to younger generations to posit the importance of maintaining our "social" brain through retirement and into later life when activity remains beneficial to brain health. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities for improved cognitive and brain health that can be brought to scale need to capitalize on aging adults' need to remain socially relevant and on community infrastructures so that those with lower neighborhood access to activity can safely engage. Evidence is summarized here from one such community-based model of social engagement through school-based, volunteer service, entitled Experience Corps®. This program seeks to increase daily physical, cognitive, and social activity to promote cognitive and mental health.


Assuntos
Aposentadoria , Participação Social , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 221, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has a direct impact on the employment of older people. This adds to the challenge of ageism. The World Health Organization has started a worldwide campaign to combat ageism and has called for more research and evidence-based strategies that have the potential to be scaled up. This study specifically aims to identify solutions to combat the adverse effects of COVID-19 on the global ageing workforce. METHODS: We present 15 case studies from different countries and report on what those countries are doing or not doing to address the impact of COVID-19 on ageing workers. RESULTS: We provide examples of how COVID-19 influences older people's ability to work and stay healthy, and offer case studies of what governments, organizations or individuals can do to help ensure older people can obtain, maintain and, potentially, expand their current work. Case studies come from Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Germany, Israel, Japan, Nigeria, Romania, Singapore, Sweden, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Across the countries, the impact of COVID-19 on older workers is shown as widening inequalities. A particular challenge has arisen because of a large proportion of older people, often with limited education and working in the informal sector within rural areas, e.g. in Nigeria, Thailand and China. Remedies to the particular disadvantage experienced by older workers in the context of COVID are presented. These range from funding support to encouraging business continuity, innovative product and service developments, community action, new business models and localized, national and international actions. The case studies can be seen as frequently fitting within strategies that have been proven to work in reducing ageism within the workplace. They include policy and laws that have increased benefits to workers during lockdowns (most countries); educational activities such as coaching seniorpreneurship (e,g, Australia); intergenerational contact interventions such as younger Thai people who moved back to rural areas and sharing their digital knowledge with older people and where older people reciprocate by teaching the younger people farming knowledge. CONCLUSION: Global sharing of this knowledge among international, national and local governments and organizations, businesses, policy makers and health and human resources experts will further understanding of the issues that are faced by older workers. This will facilitate the replication or scalability of solutions as called for in the WHO call to combat ageism in 2021. We suggest that policy makers, business owners, researchers and international organisations build on the case studies by investing in evidence-based strategies to create inclusive workplaces. Such action will thus help to challenge ageism, reduce inequity, improve business continuity and add to the quality of life of older workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
14.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trend of fall-related mortality in elderly in Brazil from 2008 to 2016. METHOD: Study of time series of rates of fall-related mortality according to CID-10 from 2008 to 2016. Data from the Mortality Information System on death registers of people ≥ 60 living in Brazil were used. The specific rates of fall-related mortality among the elderly were calculated through the ratio between the number of deaths and the elderly population of that year and region. The populational information was obtained from the 2000 and 2010 censuses. The variation rate and temporal trend were obtained through linear regression (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The fall-related deaths among the elderly aged ≥ 60 amounted to 72,234 (31.2%). Falls from the same level were the most frequent (53.8%) and death rates in all ages ranged from 29.7 to 44.7 per 100,000 elders. Fall-related deaths increased with age. CONCLUSION: There was a growing trend of fall-related deaths among elderly in all age groups, an event which is avoidable through the adoption of preventive measures. The high rates and growing trend of fall-related deaths, as well as the aging of the Brazilian population, suggest that public policies for protecting the elderly must be prioritized.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Envelhecimento , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade , Política Pública
15.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(5): 13-17, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644027

RESUMO

Objective - to substantiate the identification of a new direction in forensic medicine - forensic gerontology. A statistical analysis of the structure of forensic medical research of corpses in terms of age for a twenty-year period has been carried out. The data on the features of the expert assessment of injuries in old age taking into account geriatric syndromes and aging syndromes have been analyzed. The features and difficulties of postmortem diagnosis among persons aged 75+ in cases of nonviolent death were assessed and a significant disproportion in the structure of morbidity with pathology detected during autopsy was noted. The data obtained made it possible to substantiate the selection of a new direction of forensic science and outline the prospects for research in this area.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Autopsia , Cadáver , Medicina Legal , Patologia Legal , Humanos
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 519, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628468

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) use, most prevalent in young adults, has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The relationship between METH use and accelerated biological aging, which can be measured using leukocyte telomere length (LTL), remains unclear. We examined whether young adult METH users have shorter LTL and explored the relationship between characteristics of METH use and LTL by using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. We compared the LTL for 187 METH users and 159 healthy individuals aged between 25 and 34 years and examined the relationship of LTL with METH use variables (onset age, duration, and maximum frequency of METH use) by using regression analyses. In addition, 2-stage-least-squares (2SLS) MR was also performed to possibly avoid uncontrolled confounding between characteristics of METH use and LTL. We found METH users had significantly shorter LTL compared to controls. Multivariate regression analysis showed METH use was negatively associated with LTL (ß = -0.36, P < .001). Among METH users, duration of METH use was negatively associated with LTL after adjustment (ß = -0.002, P = .01). We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6585206 genome-wide associated with duration of METH use. This SNP was used as an instrumental variable to avoid uncontrolled confounding for the relationship between the use duration and LTL shortening. In conclusion, we show that young adult METH users may have shorter LTL compared with controls and longer duration of METH use was significantly associated with telomere shortening. These observations suggest that METH use may accelerate biological senescence.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Telômero , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Leucócitos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Telômero/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20210199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess craniofacial changes from early adulthood to the seventh decade of life in individuals with normal occlusion. METHODOLOGY: The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 21 subjects with normal occlusion (11 male, 10 female), taken at 17 (T1) and 61 years of age (T2). Anteroposterior and vertical maxillomandibular relationships, and dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes were analyzed. Interphase comparisons were performed using paired t-tests. Differences between sexes, and subgroups with and without tooth loss were evaluated using t-tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: Maxillary and mandibular anterior displacement, and facial and ramus height increased from T1 to T2. Maxillary molars showed significant mesial angulation. Maxillary and mandibular molars, and mandibular incisors developed vertically during the evaluation period. Soft tissue changes included a decrease of the nasolabial angle, upper and lower lip retrusion, decrease of upper lip thickness and increase of the lower lip and soft chin thickness. Maxillary incisor exposure by the upper lip decreased 3.6 mm in 40 years. Males presented counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, whereas females showed mandibular clockwise rotation and backward displacement of the chin. The group with tooth loss showed a greater increase of the posterior facial height and ramus height. CONCLUSION: We observed aging changes in dentoskeletal structures and soft tissue, as well as sexual differences for craniofacial changes during the maturational process. Subjects with multiple tooth losses showed a greater increase in mandibular ramus height.


Assuntos
Face , Mandíbula , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo , Masculino , Maxila
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 675927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604151

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of chronic diseases has increased dramatically due to rapid aging and lifestyle changes of China in recent decades. The population aged more than 45 years is an important participant in the labor force market, and the health status directly affects their labor force participation decision. This study aims to explore the relationship between chronic diseases and the labor force participation among the elderly Chinese population aged more than 45 years. Method: We employ a multivariate probit (MVP) model to construct five structural equations for an analysis. The advantage of this model is that it can deal with the endogeneity of chronic diseases. Results: Firstly, compared with the elderly, younger people are more likely to participate in the labor force market; the influence of chronic diseases is the largest for presenile women in the decision-making of labor force participation; the impact of psychological problems on labor force participation cannot be ignored, especially for men aged more than 45 years. In addition, sociodemographic factors such as geographical location and marital status also have direct effects on the probability of labor force participation while the impact of both family wealth and family number is much smaller. Finally, unhealthy lifestyles through chronic diseases have negative and indirect marginal effects on labor force participation. Conclusions: This article proves that chronic diseases have a negative impact on the labor force participation for Chinese aged more than 45 years. The public should give more tolerance and opportunities to these groups. The population aged more than 45 years are more vulnerable and face more psychological problems, which will lead to a decline in labor force participation. Psychological health counseling and services are urgently needed. As the urban areas enjoy more social welfare, Chinese welfare policy needs to be tilted toward the rural elderly. For individuals, maintaining healthy lifestyles can help you stay away from chronic diseases and stay in the labor force market.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Emprego , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(10): 7-11, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605677

RESUMO

The goal of the Aging Matters column is to address important issues related to geropsychiatry and the well-being of older adults. This article offers reflections on columns from the past 15 years and how the aging process has changed in issues related to aging and technology, aging healthfully, end-of-life issues, caregivers for older adults, and growing old in American society. To promote successful aging, we need to hear stories of what it is like to grow old in America. We also need research to better understand the aging process and what is needed for successful aging. In addition, we need policies and resources that help ensure well-trained caregivers who can protect vulnerable older adults and help them age healthfully. Stories of individuals, research, and health care policies need to be connected to create meaningful changes within the health care system. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 59(10), 7-11.].


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atenção à Saúde , Idoso , Cuidadores , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 371-377, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to spirituality well-being, ambiguity intolerance, and happiness conceptualizations, this study was purposed to investigate the influences of spiritual well-being and uncertainty tolerance on happiness with regards to the moderating roles of sex in the elderly. Meth-od: Participants included 120 elders from Shiraz City, Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Spiritual Well-Being Inventory (SWBI), the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II), and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHI) were used for data collection. RESULTS: Findings showed that spirituality well-being and uncertainty intolerance explain 60% of happiness variation in the elderly. But results rejected the role of sex on the prediction of happiness in the present study. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the predictive roles of spiritual well-being and ambiguity tolerance on happiness in the field of gerontology


ANTECEDENTES: De acuerdo con las conceptualizaciones del bienestar espiritual, la intolerancia a la ambigüedad y la felicidad, este estudio se propuso investigar las influencias del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre sobre la felicidad con respecto a los roles moderadores del sexo en los ancianos. MÉTODO: Participaron 120 ancianos de la ciudad de Shiraz, provincia de Fars, Irán. Para la recopilación de datos se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, el Inventario de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBI), la Escala II de Tolerancia a la Ambigüedad de Tipos de Estímulos Múltiples (MSTAT-II) y el Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford (OHI). RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que la espiritualidad, el bienestar y la intolerancia a la incertidumbre explican el 60% de la variación de la felicidad en los ancianos. Pero los resultados rechazaron el papel del sexo en la predicción de la felicidad en el presente estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra los roles predictivos del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad sobre la felicidad en el campo de la gerontología


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espiritualidade , Permissividade , Felicidade , Incerteza , Saúde do Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Envelhecimento/psicologia
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