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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 83, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015153

RESUMO

This research was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Ni) in the sediments as well as the gill and muscle tissue of Siganus javus and two species of algae (Padina australis and Sargassum vulgare) collected from the Persian Gulf coasts of Bushehr province, which were studied using standard laboratory methods. The general form and trend of metal uptake at different stations in the gill and muscle tissue was Cu > Ni > Pb. The results of the study of metal uptake in both algae showed that the uptake of all three metals was higher in Padina species (Pb ˂ Cu ˂ Ni). The estimated daily intake (EDI), estimated weekly intake (EWI), allowable fish consumption rate limit (CRlim), and the target hazard quotients (THQ) for the consumption of this fish were also calculated. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in the edible parts of the fish did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by the WHO, MAFF, JECFA, and NHMRC for human consumption, but the Ni concentration was higher than standard. The consumer risk indexes for non-cancerous diseases due to all metals were lower than standard. Also, the total risk index (HI) in this study was 0.065.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118674, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906591

RESUMO

Urban ecosystems and remnant habitat 'islands' therein, provide important strongholds for many wildlife species including those of conservation significance. However, the persistence of these habitats can be undermined if their structure and function are too severely disrupted. Urban wetlands, specifically, are usually degraded by a monoculture of invasive vegetation, disrupted hydrology, and chronic-contamination from a suite of anthropogenic pollutants. Top predators-as bioindicators-can be used to assess and monitor the health of these ecosystems. We measured eight health parameters (e.g., parasites, wounds and scars, tail loss and body condition) in a wetland top predator, the western tiger snake, Notechis scutatus occidentalis. For three years, snakes were sampled across four wetlands along an urban gradient. For each site, we used GIS software to measure the area of different landscapes and calculate an urbanisation-landscape score. Previously published research on snake contamination informed our calculations of a metal-pollution index for each site. We used generalised linear mixed models to assess the relationship between all health parameters and site variables. We found the metal-pollution index to have the most significant association with poor body condition. Although parasitism, tail loss and wounds differed among sites, none of these parameters influenced body condition. Additionally, the suite of health parameters suggested differing health status among sites; however, our measure of contemporary landscape urbanisation was never a significant predictor variable. Our results suggest that the health of wetland predators surrounding a rapidly growing city may be offset by higher levels of environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Serpentes , Urbanização
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150667, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599952

RESUMO

The microbial communities inhabiting the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) mangroves have been poorly studied, and mostly comprise chronically polluted mangroves. In this study, we characterized changes in the structure and diversity of microbial communities of mangroves along the urban-to-rural gradient of the Cayenne estuary (French Guiana, South America) that experience low human impact. The microbial communities were assigned into 50 phyla. Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes were the most abundant taxa. The environmental determinants found to significantly correlated to the microbial communities at these mangroves were granulometry, dieldrin concentration, pH, and total carbon (TC) content. Furthermore, a precise analysis of the sediment highlights the existence of three types of anthropogenic pressure among the stations: (i) organic matter (OM) enrichment due to the proximity to the city and its wastewater treatment plant, (ii) dieldrin contamination, and (iii) naphthalene contamination. These forms of weak anthropogenic pressure seemed to impact the bacterial population size and microbial assemblages. A decrease in Bathyarchaeota, "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus", and Nitrospira genera was observed in mangroves subjected to OM enrichment. Mangroves polluted with organic contaminants were enriched in Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfarculaceae, and Acanthopleuribacteraceae (with dieldrin or polychlorobiphenyl contamination), and Chitinophagaceae and Geobacteraceae (with naphthalene contamination). These findings provide insights into the main environmental factors shaping microbial communities of mangroves in the AEP that experience low human impact and allow for the identification of several potential microbial bioindicators of weak anthropogenic pressure.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Microbiota , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Estuários , Guiana Francesa , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150022, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517322

RESUMO

As complex mosaics of lotic, lentic, and terrestrial habitats, intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) support high biodiversity. Despite their ecological importance, IRES are poorly represented in routine monitoring programs, but recent recognition of their considerable-and increasing-spatiotemporal extent is motivating efforts to better represent IRES in ecological status assessments. We examine response patterns of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities and taxa to flow intermittence (FI) across three European climatic regions. We used self-organizing map (SOM) to ordinate and classify sampling sites based on community structure in regions with continental, Mediterranean and oceanic climates. The SOM passively introduced FI, quantified as the mean annual % flow, and visualized its variability across classified communities, revealing a clear association between community structure and FI in all regions. Indicator species analysis identified taxa indicative of low, intermediate and high FI. In the continental region, the amphipod Niphargus was indicative of high FI and was associated with groundwater-fed IRES, whereas indicators of Mediterranean IRES comprised Odonata, Coleoptera and Heteroptera taxa, which favor lentic conditions. In the oceanic region, taxa indicative of relatively high FI included leuctrid stoneflies and a limnephilid caddisfly, likely reflecting the colonization of IRES by aerial adults from nearby perennial reaches. The Diptera families Chironomidae and Simuliidae showed contrasting FI preferences among regions, reflecting environmental heterogeneity between regions and the coarse taxonomic resolution to which these organisms were identified. These region-specific community and taxon responses of aquatic biota to FI highlight the need to adapt standard biotic indices to enable effective ecological status assessments in IRES.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Rios , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Insetos , Invertebrados
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149800, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525752

RESUMO

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food producing industries globally, providing ~50% of fish for human consumption. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture presents a range of challenges including balancing environmental impact that can be influenced by variations in climatic conditions. Monitoring of physicochemical parameters is traditionally used to evaluate aquaculture output quality; however, this approach does not indicate the cumulative ecotoxicological effects on receiving waters. Specifically, this case study investigated the relationship between measuring traditional physicochemical parameters and the health of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in order to evaluate the potential ecotoxicological effects of freshwater aquaculture on the receiving aquatic ecosystem in the Irish midlands. This constituted the first 2-year longitudinal study conducted in 2018 and 2019 that reports on the efficacy of using algae as a natural bioindicator to monitor and assess freshwater aquaculture wastewater from a traditional flow-through fish farm producing Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis); monitoring was compared over a same six-month period in the same location each year. Findings demonstrated significant differences between the two monitoring periods when using P. subcapitata for assessing the quality of aquaculture intake (P = 0.030) and output (P = 0.039). No stimulatory effects were observed during 2019 unlike >50% rates experienced the previous year. These observations coincided with changes in climatic conditions whereby the 2018 period experienced extended levels of drought; whereas non-drought conditions were observed during 2019. Findings suggest that reliance upon traditional monitoring techniques may not provide sufficient robustness or versatility to address emerging issues, such as extremes in climate variance, which may influence the future intensive sustainability of freshwater aquaculture. This research supports the complementary use of P. subcapitata as a rapid and simple early-warning bioindicator for measuring aquaculture output quality on receiving aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Percas , Animais , Aquicultura , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150327, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543793

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Airflows sustain the infection spread, and in densely urbanized areas airborne particulate matters (PMs) are deemed to aggravate the viral transmission. Apis mellifera colonies are used as bioindicators as they allow environmental sampling of different nature, PMs included. This experiment demonstrates for the first time the possible use of honey bee colonies in the SARS-CoV-2 monitoring. The trial was conducted in Bologna on 18 March 2021, when the third wave of the Italian pandemic was at its peak and environmental conditions allowed high PM concentrations in the air. Sterile swabs were lined up at the hive entrance to sample the dusty material on the body of returning foragers. All of them resulted positive for the target genes of viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Likewise, internal samples were taken, but they resulted in no amplification of the target sequences. This experiment does not support speculations about the role of honey bees or their products in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, it indicates a novel use of A. mellifera colonies in the environmental detection of airborne human pathogens, at least in a densely urbanized area, deserving better understanding and possible integration with data from automatic air samplers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Animais , Abelhas , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127121, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534807

RESUMO

In past studies, the health and ecological risks of PCBs are well established. The impact of low-dose PCBs on aquatic ecosystems for an extended period is a matter of concern in the current era. The application of fatty acids (FAs) as bioindicators of pollution in the freshwater food web is almost unavailable. This study investigated concentrations of 209 PCB congeners, stable isotope levels, and FAs composition in ten freshwater species of Dongtinghu Lake, China. Total PCB congeners (∑PCBs) concentrations were ranged from 4.17 to 38.35 ng/g lipid weight. A total of 84 PCB congeners were detected out of 209 target PCB congeners, particularly PCB101, 118, 138, 153, and 155 found in all samples. The concentrations of 24 PCB congeners increased with trophic levels, but PCB 155 concentrations were consistent throughout trophic levels. The toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dl-PCBs (mostly PCB 126 and 169) also increased with trophic levels Out of total 35 FAs, 21 FAs were significantly positively correlated with 43 PCB congeners. Among FAs, C16:0 was the most abundant and positively correlated with most PCB compounds. Positive correlations between FAs and PCBs indicated that FAs can be used as efficient bioindicators of PCBs pollution in the aquatic food web.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150160, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798729

RESUMO

Along six transects in each of six lakes across the Western Balkans, we collected data for three groups of littoral biological water quality indicators: epilithic diatoms, macrophytes, and benthic invertebrates. We assessed the relationships between them and three environmental pressures: nutrient load (eutrophication), hydro-morphological alteration of the shoreline, and water level variation, separating the effect of individual lakes and continuous explanatory variables. Lake water total phosphorus concentration (TP) showed substantial variation but was not related to any of the tested biological indicators, nor to any of the tested pressures. We suggest that this may be due to feedback processes such as P removal in the lake littoral zone. Instead, we found that a gradient in surrounding land-use towards increasing urbanization, and a land-use-based estimate of P run-off, served as a better descriptor of eutrophication. Overall, eutrophication and water level fluctuation were most important for explaining variation in the assessed indicators, whereas shoreline hydro-morphological alteration was less important. Diatom indicators were most responsive to all three pressures, whereas macrophyte biomass and species number responded only to water level fluctuation. The Trophic Diatom Index for Lakes (TDIL) was negatively related to urbanization and wave exposure. This indicates that it is a suitable indicator for pressures related to urbanization, although a confounding effect of wave exposure is possible. Invertebrate abundance responded strongly to eutrophication, but the indicator based on taxonomic composition (Average Score Per Taxon) did not. Our results suggest that our metrics can be applied in Western Balkan lakes, despite the high number of endemic species present in some of these lakes. We argue that local water management should focus on abating the causes of eutrophication and water level fluctuation, whilst preserving sufficient lengths of undeveloped shoreline to ensure good water quality in the long run.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , Península Balcânica , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Fósforo/análise , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252088, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755814

RESUMO

Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Assuntos
Acacia , Insetos , Aranhas , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495997

RESUMO

The reconstruction of fire history is essential to understand the palaeoclimate and human history. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively used as a fire marker. In this work, the distribution of PAHs in Borneo peat archives was investigated to understand how PAHs reflect the palaeo-fire activity. In total, 52 peat samples were analysed from a Borneo peat core for the PAH analysis. Pyrogenic PAHs consist of 2-7 aromatic rings, some of which have methyl and ethyl groups. The results reveal that the concentration of pyrogenic PAHs fluctuated with the core depth. Compared to low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs had a more similar depth variation to the charcoal abundance. This finding also suggests that the HMW PAHs were mainly formed at a local fire near the study area, while the LMW PAHs could be transported from remote locations.


Assuntos
Incêndios/história , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo/química , Bornéu , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/classificação
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9970957, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512205

RESUMO

In developed countries, the ideas of ecological agricultural production, continuous cycle, and waste-free production technologies have gained popularity. The effect from the production and consumption of ecological agricultural products is determined by the least harm to the environment, increasing the competitiveness of products, and receiving additional profit from increasing prices for higher quality products. The production of organically safe products is based on the principle of biologization, i.e., the widespread use of biological preparations, a high proportion of legumes (sources of nitrogen), and avoiding chemical plant protection products, transgenic plants, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This study aims to increase the productivity of safflower and improve the physicochemical and biological indicators of dark chestnut soils through the use of biologized technologies in the organic farming system. Standard methods for assessment and statistical analysis of physical and chemical parameters of soils were carried out in zone 1 of West Kazakhstan. This made it possible to identify the most optimal technology for the cultivation of safflower. The study results showed that under the influence of the phytomeliorative action of safflower in the 0-20 cm layer of dark chestnut soils, one could note an increase in the content of nitrate nitrogen by 5.95%, an increase in the content of mobile phosphorus by 5.22%, and soil loosening by 0.010 g/cm3, with the structure of the soil being 64.43%. Strong biological activity of the soil was established by the crops of safflower. The highest yield of safflower oil about 0.23 t/ha with an oil content of 30.1% was obtained using the biologized technology option. The use of biological technology, along with biological yields, increases oil yield by 0.06 t/ha or 28.06%.


Assuntos
Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Solo , Carthamus tinctorius/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungicidas Industriais , Cazaquistão , Nitrogênio/análise , Óleos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Plantas Daninhas , Óleo de Cártamo , Estações do Ano , Silagem , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550295

RESUMO

Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1µl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Assuntos
Mel , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Endossulfano/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade
13.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118125, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536644

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of global concern in coastal environments. They have a wide range of biological toxicity and due to their inherent properties, can easily bioaccumulate in organisms and concentrate in the environment. This work evaluated, in an integrated way, the seasonal PAH distribution patterns in sediments and four bioindicators fish species in a highly impacted estuary of Argentina; besides, their bioaccumulation patterns were assessed for the first time as indicator of ecological risk. The highest PAH levels in fish were found for Ramnogaster arcuata with an average of 64 ng g-1 w.w., followed by Micropogonias furnieri (45 ng g-1 w.w.), Cynoscion guatucupa (28 ng g-1 w.w.), and Mustelus schmitti (16 ng g-1 w.w.). Fish presented the highest PAH levels in fall with a predominance of petrogenic PAHs in colder seasons and pyrolytic PAHs in warmer seasons. Sediments presented an average of 233 ng g-1 d.w. with the same seasonal composition pattern of the fish tissues. Additionally, the data suggested that the main source of PAHs are wastewater discharges. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PAHs in the tested fishes were found to range from 0.3 to 8. The highest values were observed during fall and winter, while bioaccumulation did not occur in moist spring and summer samples, which would suggest a high biotransformation process during these seasons. Results suggested that class III of juvenile C. guatucupa and M. furnieri, and adults R. arcuata are more sensitive bioindicators of chronic PAH contamination and that their bioaccumulation is independent of the compound hydrophobicity; this could have a positively influence on the criteria used for biological monitoring programs along the Atlantic coast. In addition, the presented BAF data on the target species will serve as a useful pollution indicator for South Atlantic coastal fish.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Argentina , Bioacumulação , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105468, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507027

RESUMO

Coastal regions are subjected to degradation due to anthropogenic pollution. Effluents loaded with variable concentrations of heavy metal, persistent organic pollutant, as well as nutrients are discharged in coastal areas leading to environmental degradation. In the past years, many scientists have studied, not only the effect of different contaminants on coastal ecosystems but also, they have searched for organisms tolerant to pollutants that can be used as bioindicators or for biomonitoring purposes. Furthermore, many researchers have demonstrated the capacity of different marine organisms to remove heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, as well as to reduce nutrient concentration, which may lead to eutrophication. In this sense, Ulva lactuca, a green macroalgae commonly found in coastal areas, has been extensively studied for its capacity to accumulate pollutants; as a bioindicator; as well as for its remediation capacity. This paper aims to review the information published regarding the use of Ulva lactuca in environmental applications. The review was focused on those studies that analyse the role of this macroalga as a biomonitor or in bioremediation experiments.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Ulva , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149224, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346378

RESUMO

Mosses can be used as biological monitors to study metal pollution and the depositional fluxes of radionuclides. In this study, we analysed the concentrations of radionuclides (210Pb (210Pbex), 7Be, 137Cs, 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th) and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, V and Mn) in moss and soil samples from two different regions. The metal concentrations were higher in mainland China than in the Arctic region, and this is likely associated with the comparatively lower rates of industrial production and human activity in the Arctic region. Principal component analysis and correlation results revealed two radionuclides sources types in mosses, i.e., soil (40K, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Ra) and atmospheric (210Pb (210Pbex), 7Be 137Cs). Clustering and correlation analyses showed that different sources such as traffic (suspended dust), fossil fuels, dry and wet deposition (atmosphere and rainfall), and soil contributed to metal accumulation in mosses. The correlation between radionuclides and metals supported these observations, confirmed the accuracy of our results, and suggests that radionuclides are useful for identifying the source of metals in moss samples. The concentration ratios (CR) values of the radionuclides and the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and enrichment factor (EF) values of metals in mosses helped identify the most environmentally sensitive moss, i.e., BS (Bryum paradoxum), which can be used for screening and monitoring radionuclides and metal pollution in urban atmospheres. These results support the use of analysing radionuclides in mosses to identify metal sources, and the potential use of mosses can to determine the atmospheric deposition fluxes of radionuclides.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Metais Pesados , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117622, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426380

RESUMO

We assessed the performance of taxonomic and several functional trait-based approaches in the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of dusky flounder (Syacium papillosum) parasite assemblages along the Yucatan shelf to determine their potential as bioindicators of marine chemical pollution. Fish specimens were collected throughout three research cruises that took place in 2015, 2016 and 2018. In addition to the traditional taxonomic approach, four trait-based approaches were performed including community-weighted means (CWM), functional trait niche (FTN), functional groups (FGs), and Rao's functional diversity (FD). Significant spatial and temporal variations in parasite communities were detected using the taxonomic approach. In general, these variations were also reflected in the four trait-based approaches performed, indicating that changes in taxa composition and abundance also resulted in functional composition shifts. Resemblance matrices of both taxonomic and functional trait approaches were significantly correlated. Variations in taxonomic and trait-based composition using the four approaches were significantly correlated with depth, and at least one chemical pollutant variable. Feeding mode, transmission, life stage and attachment structure displayed spatial variability and significant correlations with predictor variables, which indicates that this set of attributes functions as a good surrogate for assessing variations in the functional composition of flatfish parasite communities in relation to pollution. FTN and CWM were the approaches that best detected spatio-temporal variation. CWM and FD were best suited for detecting pollution gradients. These results reveal the feasibility of using trait-based approaches to assess marine parasite communities as bioindicators of chemical pollution. Functional traits of marine metazoan parasites are as good indicators of the effect of oil pollution as taxonomic diversity. This may be a time-saving and cost-effective approach to performing environmental assessments.


Assuntos
Linguado , Parasitos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Peixes
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 868-876, Jul.-Aug. 2021. graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1285271

RESUMO

The melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) in the liver of fish are indicators of environmental conditions, as they are involved in xenobiotic biotransformation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of MMC in the liver of juveniles and adults of Sciades herzbergii from areas with different levels of contamination. The fish were caught at three points (reference - A1, potentially impacted - A2 and contaminated - A3), in São José bay (Maranhão, Brazil), in four samples. The livers were subjected to the standard histological procedure and 5µm sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. In livers of A2 adult individuals (260.50±161.50 MMCs / mm²) they presented a greater number of MMCs when compared to A3 adults (60.00 ± 30.10 MMCs / mm²). Juveniles showed considerable values in A1 (100.00 ± 0.00 MMCs/mm²) and A2 (95.33 ± 33.00 MMCs / mm²) compared to juveniles in A3 (49.00±0.00 MMCs/mm²). These high values are unexpected for young people. The average number of MMC correlated with the rainy season in the region. The use of hepatic MMCs as a biomarker of exposure to pollutants, in particular substances from fisheries systems, such as ammonia and nitrite, proved to be adequate to differentiate areas with different levels of impacts.(AU)


Os centros melanomacrófagos (MMCs) no fígado de peixes são indicadores das condições ambientais, pois estão envolvidos na biotransformação xenobiótica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o número de MMC no fígado de juvenis e adultos de Sciades herzbergii de áreas com diferentes níveis de contaminação. Os peixes foram capturados em três pontos (referência - A1; potencialmente impactado - A2; e contaminado - A3), na baía de São José (Maranhão, Brasil), em quatro amostras. Os fígados foram submetidos ao procedimento histológico padrão e cortes de 5µm foram corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Em fígados de indivíduos adultos A2 (260,50±161,50 MMCs/mm²), eles apresentaram maior número de MMCs quando comparados aos adultos A3 (60,00±30,10 MMCs/mm²). Os juvenis apresentaram valores elevados em A1 (100,00 ± 0,00 MMCs/mm²) e A2 (95,33±33,00 MMCs/mm²) quando comparados aos juvenis em A3 (49,00±0,00 MMCs/mm²). Esses altos valores são inesperados para os jovens. O número médio de MMC correlacionou-se com a época chuvosa na região. A utilização de MMCs hepáticos como biomarcador de exposição a poluentes, em particular substâncias provenientes de sistemas pesqueiros, como amônia e nitrito, mostrou-se adequada para diferenciar áreas com diferentes níveis de impactos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Macrófagos do Fígado , Macrófagos do Fígado/citologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 539, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331143

RESUMO

Natural honey is a viscous liquid composed of a supersaturated solution of glucose and fructose. Honeybees collect nectar and convert them into honey through biochemical reactions. These small creatures are the major contributors to pollination and food production for humans. At the same time, they are the worst victims of urbanization and irrational use of pesticides, insecticides, and other hazardous materials. Any disturbance to the existence of honeybees is a serious threat to the biodiversity. The quality of a honey sample is largely affected by the contamination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) due to environmental pollution. The present study analyzes systemically 25 samples of honey harvested from the southern part of the Western Ghats for the probable existence of traces of toxic substances. The samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction process, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and characterize the hazardous substances/volatile organic compounds. The results show the presence of nearly 540 VOCs and semi-VOCs comprising alcohols, carboxylic acids, halogenated hydrocarbons, furan and pyran derivatives, and pyridine and pyrazine derivatives. Malonic acid (0.01-0.18%), n-hexa decanoic acid (0.02-8.69%), 9-octa decanoic acid (0.03-4.01%), propanoic acid (1.01%), oleic acid (6.15%), and benzoic acid (1.48%) were found to be present in some of the samples. This investigation would pave the way to identifying the geographical location of floral honey based on the specific VOCs present in the samples.


Assuntos
Mel , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mel/análise , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112688, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271510

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of local anthropogenic activity on the marine environment around the remote harbor of Qeqertarsuaq, West Greenland. Blue mussels (Mytilus sp.) were used as a bioindicator, and their physiological condition was found to decrease with increasing proximity to the harbor. Subsequently, the distribution of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 9 groups of alkylated PAHs were measured in mussel and sediment samples. The highest values were found in a rocky collection area 15 m from a wooden pier frequented by small boats. A PAH source investigation, indicated a mixed source from light fuel oils and creosote used as boat coating. Finally, correlations between the mussels morphological condition and the PAH pollution were found to be significant for 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAHs. In conclusion, the results indicate that pollution sources in harbors have significant effects on the local environment and should be considered in arctic conservation research.


Assuntos
Mytilus edulis , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148959, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265609

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated microplastics (MPs) in agricultural soils with different agronomic practices (organic farming, soil under greenhouses, soil under mulching and soil irrigated with treated wastewater (TWW)). Plastic particles from each site were collected and characterized by FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy. Plastic particles were then ground and added (size rage under 100 µm) at a concentration of 100 µg kg-1 to soils from organic farming containing Eisenia andrei for 7 and 14 days. MPs accumulation in earthworms was quantified and characterized. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating the activities of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase as well as malondialdehyde accumulation. Our results revealed higher quantity of MPs in soils ranging from 13.21 ± 0.89 to 852.24 ± 124.2 items kg-1 with the dominance of small sizes (0.22-1.22 µm). Polyethylene (PE) and polybutyrate adipate terephtalate (PBAT) were the dominant MPs. Moreover, our results revealed a significant ingestion of MPs in earthworms with values ranging from 1.13 to 35.6, characterized mostly by PE, PBAT and polypropylene (PP). Biochemical data revealed an important alteration in worms exposed to MPs from soils with mulching and irrigated with TWW. Our study provides new insights into the effects of microplastic in earthworms and thus the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystem to this emergent contaminant.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
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