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1.
Cell Rep ; 41(11): 111810, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516767

RESUMO

Multiciliated ependymal cells and adult neural stem cells are components of the adult neurogenic niche, essential for brain homeostasis. These cells share a common glial cell lineage regulated by the Geminin family members Geminin and GemC1/Mcidas. Ependymal precursors require GemC1/Mcidas expression to massively amplify centrioles and become multiciliated cells. Here, we show that GemC1-dependent differentiation is initiated in actively cycling radial glial cells, in which a DNA damage response, including DNA replication-associated damage and dysfunctional telomeres, is induced, without affecting cell survival. Genotoxic stress is not sufficient by itself to induce ependymal cell differentiation, although the absence of p53 or p21 in progenitors hinders differentiation by maintaining cell division. Activation of the p53-p21 pathway downstream of GemC1 leads to cell-cycle slowdown/arrest, which permits timely onset of ependymal cell differentiation in progenitor cells.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Geminina/genética , Geminina/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Epêndima/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular
2.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078068

RESUMO

This study was conducted on 16 adult specimens of molly fish (Poecilia sphenops) to investigate ependymal cells (ECs) and their role in neurogenesis using ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemistry. The ECs lined the ventral and lateral surfaces of the optic ventricle and their processes extended through the tectal laminae and ended at the surface of the tectum as a subpial end-foot. Two cell types of ECs were identified: cuboidal non-ciliated (5.68 ± 0.84/100 µm2) and columnar ciliated (EC3.22 ± 0.71/100 µm2). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed two types of GFAP immunoreactive cells: ECs and astrocytes. The ECs showed the expression of IL-1ß, APG5, and Nfr2. Moreover, ECs showed immunostaining for myostatin, S100, and SOX9 in their cytoplasmic processes. The proliferative activity of the neighboring stem cells was also distinct. The most interesting finding in this study was the glia-neuron interaction, where the processes of ECs met the progenitor neuronal cells in the ependymal area of the ventricular wall. These cells showed bundles of intermediate filaments in their processes and basal poles and were connected by desmosomes, followed by gap junctions. Many membrane-bounded vesicles could be demonstrated on the surface of the ciliated ECs that contained neurosecretion. The abluminal and lateral cell surfaces of ECs showed pinocytotic activities with many coated vesicles, while their apical cytoplasm contained centrioles. The occurrence of stem cells in close position to the ECs, and the presence of bundles of generating axons in direct contact with these stem cells indicate the role of ECs in neurogenesis. The TEM results revealed the presence of neural stem cells in a close position to the ECs, in addition to the presence of bundles of generating axons in direct contact with these stem cells. The present study indicates the role of ECs in neurogenesis.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Poecilia , Animais , Encéfalo , Epêndima , Neuroglia
3.
Dev Cell ; 57(16): 1957-1975.e9, 2022 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998585

RESUMO

Cells with latent stem ability can contribute to mammalian tissue regeneration after damage. Whether the central nervous system (CNS) harbors such cells remains controversial. Here, we report that DNGR-1 lineage tracing in mice identifies an ependymal cell subset, wherein resides latent regenerative potential. We demonstrate that DNGR-1-lineage-traced ependymal cells arise early in embryogenesis (E11.5) and subsequently spread across the lining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled compartments to form a contiguous sheet from the brain to the end of the spinal cord. In the steady state, these DNGR-1-traced cells are quiescent, committed to their ependymal cell fate, and do not contribute to neuronal or glial lineages. However, trans-differentiation can be induced in adult mice by CNS injury or in vitro by culture with suitable factors. Our findings highlight previously unappreciated ependymal cell heterogeneity and identify across the entire CNS an ependymal cell subset wherein resides damage-responsive neural stem cell potential.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Epêndima , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Neuroglia , Medula Espinal
4.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954220

RESUMO

Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is a transcription factor required for normal ependymal development. Constitutive loss of Nfix in mice (Nfix-/-) is associated with hydrocephalus and sloughing of the dorsal ependyma within the lateral ventricles. Previous studies have implicated NFIX in the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding for factors essential to ependymal development. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning hydrocephalus in Nfix-/- mice are unknown. To investigate the role of NFIX in hydrocephalus, we examined ependymal cells in brains from postnatal Nfix-/- and control (Nfix+/+) mice using a combination of confocal and electron microscopy. This revealed that the ependymal cells in Nfix-/- mice exhibited abnormal cilia structure and disrupted localisation of adhesion proteins. Furthermore, we modelled ependymal cell adhesion using epithelial cell culture and revealed changes in extracellular matrix and adherens junction gene expression following knockdown of NFIX. Finally, the ablation of Nfix from ependymal cells in the adult brain using a conditional approach culminated in enlarged ventricles, sloughing of ependymal cells from the lateral ventricles and abnormal localisation of adhesion proteins, which are phenotypes observed during development. Collectively, these data demonstrate a pivotal role for NFIX in the regulation of cell adhesion within ependymal cells of the lateral ventricles.


Assuntos
Epêndima , Hidrocefalia , Fatores de Transcrição NFI , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Hidrocefalia/genética , Ventrículos Laterais , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Neuroglia
5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 174, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794632

RESUMO

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space is convoluted. CSF flow oscillates with a net flow from the ventricles towards the cerebral and spinal subarachnoid space. This flow is influenced by heartbeats, breath, head or body movements as well as the activity of the ciliated epithelium of the plexus and ventricular ependyma. The shape of the CSF space and the CSF flow preclude rapid equilibration of cells, proteins and smaller compounds between the different parts of the compartment. In this review including reinterpretation of previously published data we illustrate, how anatomical and (patho)physiological conditions can influence routine CSF analysis. Equilibration of the components of the CSF depends on the size of the molecule or particle, e.g., lactate is distributed in the CSF more homogeneously than proteins or cells. The concentrations of blood-derived compounds usually increase from the ventricles to the lumbar CSF space, whereas the concentrations of brain-derived compounds usually decrease. Under special conditions, in particular when distribution is impaired, the rostro-caudal gradient of blood-derived compounds can be reversed. In the last century, several researchers attempted to define typical CSF findings for the diagnosis of several inflammatory diseases based on routine parameters. Because of the high spatial and temporal variations, findings considered typical of certain CNS diseases often are absent in parts of or even in the entire CSF compartment. In CNS infections, identification of the pathogen by culture, antigen detection or molecular methods is essential for diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ventrículos Cerebrais , Epêndima , Humanos , Medula Espinal
6.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 19(1): 58, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common type of primary brain tumor in adults. Tumor location plays a role in patient prognosis, with tumors proximal to the lateral ventricles (LVs) presenting with worse overall survival, increased expression of stem cell genes, and increased incidence of distal tumor recurrence. This may be due in part to interaction of GBM with factors of the subventricular zone (SVZ), including those contained within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, direct interaction of GBM tumors with CSF has not been proved and would be hindered in the presence of an intact ependymal cell layer. METHODS: Here, we investigate the ependymal cell barrier and its derived extracellular matrix (ECM) fractones in the vicinity of a GBM tumor. Patient-derived GBM cells were orthotopically implanted into immunosuppressed athymic mice in locations distal and proximal to the LV. A PBS vehicle injection in the proximal location was included as a control. At four weeks post-xenograft, brain tissue was examined for alterations in ependymal cell health via immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: We identified local invading GBM cells within the LV wall and increased influx of CSF into the LV-proximal GBM tumor bulk compared to controls. In addition to the physical disruption of the ependymal cell barrier, we also identified increased signs of compromised ependymal cell health in LV-proximal tumor-bearing mice. These signs include increased accumulation of lipid droplets, decreased cilia length and number, and decreased expression of cell channel proteins. We additionally identified elevated numbers of small fractones in the SVZ within this group, suggesting increased indirect CSF-contained molecule signaling to tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data is the first to show that LV-proximal GBMs physically disrupt the ependymal cell barrier in animal models, resulting in disruptions in ependymal cell biology and increased CSF interaction with the tumor bulk. These findings point to ependymal cell health and CSF-contained molecules as potential axes for therapeutic targeting in the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Animais , Cílios , Epêndima/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Camundongos
7.
Cell Tissue Res ; 389(3): 531-546, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737105

RESUMO

The morphology of the deep pineal gland of the Sprague Dawley rat was investigated by serial block face scanning electron microscopy. Cells were three-dimensionally (3-D) reconstructed using the software Fiji TrackEM. The deep pineal gland consisted of 2-5 layers of electron-lucent pinealocytes, with a euchromatic nucleus, endowed with one or two processes. Laterally, the deep pineal merged with the habenula and the stria medullaris thalami, via an intermediate area containing cells with more electron-dense cytoplasm and an indented nucleus with heterochromatin. Neither nerve terminals nor capillaries were observed in the deep pineal itself but present in the intermediate parts of the gland. The deep pineal was in contact with the third ventricle via the pineal and suprahabenular recesses. The ependymal lining in these recesses was an epithelium connected by tight junctions between their lateral cell membranes. Several intraventricular nerve terminals were in contact with the ependyma. 3-D reconstructions showed the ependymal cells endowed with long slender process penetrating the underlying pineal parenchyma. Few "tanocyte-like" ependymal cells, endowed with a process, reaching the subarachnoid space on the inferior surface of the deep pineal were observed. In addition, pinealocyte and astrocyte processes, often connected by gap junctions, bordered the inferior surface. In summary, the rat deep pineal gland is a neuroendocrine structure connected to the habenula. We here report specialized ependymal cells that might transmit signals from the cerebrospinal fluid to the deep pineal parenchyma and a "trans-pineal tanocyte-like cell" that connects the ventricular system with the subarachnoid space.


Assuntos
Glândula Pineal , Animais , Ventrículos Cerebrais , Epêndima , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Ann Neurol ; 92(4): 670-685, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748636

RESUMO

Leptomeningeal and perivenular infiltrates are important contributors to cortical grey matter damage and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Whereas perivenular inflammation induces vasculocentric lesions, leptomeningeal involvement follows a subpial "surface-in" gradient. To determine whether similar gradient of damage occurs in deep grey matter nuclei, we examined the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 41 postmortem secondary progressive MS cases compared with 5 non-neurological controls and 12 controls with other neurological diseases. CSF/ependyma-oriented gradient of reduction in NeuN+ neuron density was present in MS thalamic lesions compared to controls, greatest (26%) in subventricular locations at the ependyma/CSF boundary and least with increasing distance (12% at 10 mm). Concomitant graded reduction in SMI31+ axon density was observed, greatest (38%) at 2 mm from the ependyma/CSF boundary and least at 10 mm (13%). Conversely, gradient of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II+ microglia density increased by over 50% at 2 mm at the ependyma/CSF boundary and only by 15% at 10 mm and this gradient inversely correlated with the neuronal (R = -0.91, p < 0.0001) and axonal (R = -0.79, p < 0.0001) thalamic changes. Observed gradients were also detected in normal-appearing thalamus and were associated with rapid/severe disease progression; presence of leptomeningeal tertiary lymphoid-like structures; large subependymal infiltrates, enriched in CD20+ B cells and occasionally containing CXCL13+ CD35+ follicular dendritic cells; and high CSF protein expression of a complex pattern of soluble inflammatory/neurodegeneration factors, including chitinase-3-like-1, TNFR1, parvalbumin, neurofilament-light-chains and TNF. Substantial "ependymal-in" gradient of pathological cell alterations, accompanied by presence of intrathecal inflammation, compartmentalized either in subependymal lymphoid perivascular infiltrates or in CSF, may play a key role in MS progression. SUMMARY FOR SOCIAL MEDIA: Imaging and neuropathological evidences demonstrated the unique feature of "surface-in" gradient of damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) since early pediatric stages, often associated with more severe brain atrophy and disease progression. In particular, increased inflammation in the cerebral meninges has been shown to be strictly associated with an MS-specific gradient of neuronal, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte loss accompanied by microglial activation in subpial cortical layers, which is not directly related to demyelination. To determine whether a similar gradient of damage occurs in deep grey matter nuclei, we examined the potential neuronal and microglia alterations in the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei from postmortem secondary progressive MS cases in combination with detailed neuropathological characterization of the inflammatory features and protein profiling of paired CSF samples. We observed a substantial "subependymal-in" gradient of neuro-axonal loss and microglia activation in active thalamic lesions of progressive MS cases, in particular in the presence of increased leptomeningeal and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation. This altered graded pathology was found associated with more severe and rapid progressive MS and increased inflammatory degree either in large perivascular subependymal infiltrates, enriched in B cells, or within the paired CSF, in particular with elevated levels of a complex pattern of soluble inflammatory and neurodegeneration factors, including chitinase 3-like-1, TNFR1, parvalbumin, neurofilament light-chains and TNF. These data support a key role for chronic, intrathecally compartmentalized inflammation in specific disease endophenotypes. CSF biomarkers, together with advance imaging tools, may therefore help to improve not only the disease diagnosis but also the early identification of specific MS subgroups that would benefit of more personalized treatments. ANN NEUROL 2022;92:670-685.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Epêndima , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/complicações , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Tálamo/patologia
9.
Br J Neurosurg ; 36(3): 329-339, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579079

RESUMO

Congenital hydrocephalus affects approximately one in 1000 newborn children and is fatal in approximately 50% of untreated cases. The currently known management protocols usually necessitate multiple interventions and long-term use of healthcare resources due to a relatively high incidence of complications, and many of them mostly provide a treatment of the effect rather than the cause of cerebrospinal fluid flow reduction or outflow obstruction. Future studies discussing etiology specific hydrocephalus alternative treatments are needed. We systematically reviewed the available literature on the effect of ciliary abnormality on congenital hydrocephalus pathogenesis, to open a discussion on the feasibility of factoring ciliary abnormality in future research on hydrocephalus treatment modalities. Although there are different forms of ciliopathies, we focused in this review on primary ciliary dyskinesia. There is growing evidence of association of other ciliary syndromes and hydrocephalus, such as the reduced generation of multiple motile cilia, which is distinct from primary ciliary dyskinesia. Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed using the search terms 'hydrocephalus,' 'Kartagener syndrome,' 'primary ciliary dyskinesia,' and 'immotile cilia syndrome.' Only articles published in English and reporting human patients were included. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, reporting 12 cases of hydrocephalus associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia. The patients had variable clinical presentations, genetic backgrounds, and ciliary defects. The ependymal water propelling cilia differ in structure and function from the mucus propelling cilia, and there is a possibility of isolated non-syndromic ependymal ciliopathy causing only hydrocephalus with growing evidence in the literature for the association ependymal ciliary abnormality and hydrocephalus. Abdominal and thoracic situs in children with hydrocephalus can be evaluated, and secondary damage of ependymal cilia causing hydrocephalus in cases with generalized ciliary abnormality can be considered.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Síndrome de Kartagener , Cílios/genética , Cílios/patologia , Epêndima/patologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Kartagener/complicações , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Síndrome de Kartagener/patologia
10.
Neurosci Res ; 181: 22-38, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452717

RESUMO

The adult mammalian central nervous system has limited regenerative ability, and spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes lifelong motor disability. While regeneration is limited in adults, injured spinal cord tissue can be regenerated and neural function can be almost completely restored in neonates. However, difference of cellular composition in lesion has not been well characterized. To gain insight into the age-dependent cellular reaction after SCI, we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing, analyzing 4076 nuclei from sham and injured spinal cords from adult and neonatal mice. Clustering analysis identified 18 cell populations. We identified previously undescribed cells with ependymal cell-like gene expression profile, the number of which was increased in neonates after SCI. Histological analysis revealed that these cells line the central canal under physiological conditions in both adults and neonates. We confirmed that they were enriched in the lesion only in neonates. We further showed that these cells were positive for the cellular markers of ependymal cells, astrocytes and radial glial cells. This study provides a deeper understanding of neonate-specific cellular responses after SCI, which may determine regenerative capacity.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Motores , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Epêndima/metabolismo , Epêndima/patologia , Humanos , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Transtornos Motores/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 99: 10-16, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial ependymal cysts (IECs) are rare, histologically benign neuroepithelial cysts that mostly occur in the cerebral parenchyma. The majority of these cysts are clinically silent and discovered incidentally, but when symptomatic they may compress surrounding structures, thus surgical intervention is needed. The current data in the literature about ECs is very scarce, and many are misdiagnosed, once they share many radiological characteristics with a variety of intracranial benign cysts. Also their terminology is confusing, and its definitive diagnosis can only be made through a thorough histopathological study, hence a detailed description about these uncommon lesions is necessary. The correct identification of the lesion lead to our better understanding of the condition and further improvement of the patient's prognosis. METHODS: A descriptive case is presented; moreover, a detailed PubMed search according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline was performed. The data found was analyzed by various criteria in order to correctly describe the characteristics of this lesion. RESULTS: The literature review gathered 9 descriptions of patients with IECs with a diverse range anatomopathological and clinical manifestations. All of the included studies found were case reports. Moreover, the authors suggest an updated classification of the lesion, involving their immunohistochemical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The information obtained from this study highlights IECs rarity and their inaccurately classification. We propose that the definitive diagnosis of IECs shall be made upon histopathological confirmation of an ependyma-lined cyst along with a positive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).


Assuntos
Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central , Cistos , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/patologia , Epêndima/patologia , Epêndima/cirurgia , Humanos
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(2): 90, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35072772

RESUMO

The choroid plexus (CP) consists of specialized ependymal cells and underlying blood vessels and stroma producing the bulk of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CP epithelial cells are considered the site of the internal blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, show epithelial characteristics (basal lamina, tight junctions), and express aquaporin-1 (AQP1) apically. In this study, we analyzed the expression of aquaporins in the human CP using immunofluorescence and qPCR. As previously reported, AQP1 was expressed apically in CP epithelial cells. Surprisingly, and previously unknown, many cells in the CP epithelium were also positive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4), normally restricted to ventricle-lining ependymal cells and astrocytes in the brain. Expression of AQP1 and AQP4 was found in the CP of all eight body donors investigated (3 males, 5 females; age 74-91). These results were confirmed by qPCR, and by electron microscopy detecting orthogonal arrays of particles. To find out whether AQP4 expression correlated with the expression pattern of relevant transport-related proteins we also investigated expression of NKCC1, and Na/K-ATPase. Immunostaining with NKCC1 was similar to AQP1 and revealed no particular pattern related to AQP4. Co-staining of AQP4 and Na/K-ATPase indicated a trend for an inverse correlation of their expression. We hypothesized that AQP4 expression in the CP was caused by age-related changes. To address this, we investigated mouse brains from young (2 months), adult (12 months) and old (30 months) mice. We found a significant increase of AQP4 on the mRNA level in old mice compared to young and adult animals. Taken together, we provide evidence for AQP4 expression in the CP of the aging brain which likely contributes to the water flow through the CP epithelium and CSF production. In two alternative hypotheses, we discuss this as a beneficial compensatory, or a detrimental mechanism influencing the previously observed CSF changes during aging.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Plexo Corióideo/metabolismo , Epêndima/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Aquaporina 4/genética , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Geroscience ; 44(4): 2077-2094, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075585

RESUMO

Ependymal cells (ECs) line the ventricular surfaces of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and their development is indispensable to structural integrity and functions of the CNS. We previously reported that EC-specific genetic deletion of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Marcks) disrupts barrier functions and elevates oxidative stress and lipid droplet accumulation in ECs causing precocious cellular aging. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms that mediate these changes in ECs. To gain insight into Marcks-mediated mechanisms, we performed mass spectrometric analyses on Marcks-associated proteins in young and aged ECs in the mouse forebrain using an integrated approach. Network analysis on annotated proteins revealed that the identified Marcks-associated complexes are in part involved in protein transport mechanisms in young ECs. In fact, we found perturbed intracellular vesicular trafficking in cultured ECs with selective deletion of Marcks (Marcks-cKO mice), or upon pharmacological alteration to phosphorylation status of Marcks. In comparison, Marcks-associated protein complexes in aged ECs appear to be involved in regulation of lipid metabolism and responses to oxidative stress. Confirming this, we found elevated signatures of inflammation in the cerebral cortices and the hippocampi of young Marcks-cKO mice. Interestingly, behavioral testing using a water maze task indicated that spatial learning and memory is diminished in young Marcks-cKO mice similar to aged wildtype mice. Taken together, our study provides first line of evidence for potential mechanisms that may mediate differential Marcks functions in young and old ECs, and their effect on forebrain homeostasis during aging.


Assuntos
Epêndima , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Camundongos , Animais , Fosforilação , Epêndima/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Substrato Quinase C Rico em Alanina Miristoilada/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Homeostase , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 512, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017589

RESUMO

To compare free-water corrected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in the normal-appearing periependymal area between AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD and multiple sclerosis (MS) to investigate occult pathophysiology. This prospective study included 44 patients (mean age, 39.52 ± 11.90 years; 14 men) with AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD (n = 20) and MS (n = 24) who underwent DTI between April 2014 and April 2020. Based on free-water corrected DTI measures obtained from normal-appearing periependymal voxels of (1) lateral ventricles and (2) the 3rd and 4th ventricles as dependent variables, MANCOVA was conducted to compare the two groups, using clinical variables as covariates. A significant difference was found between AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD and MS in the 3rd and 4th periependymal voxels (λ = 0.462, P = 0.001). Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity was significantly decreased and radial diffusivity was increased in AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD in post-hoc analysis, compared with MS (F = 27.616, P < 0.001, F = 7.336, P = 0.011, and F = 5.800, P = 0.022, respectively). Free-water corrected DTI measures differ in the periependymal area surrounding the diencephalon and brain stem/cerebellum between MS and NMOSD, which may suggest occult white matter injury in areas with distribution of AQP-4 in NMOSD.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Epêndima/diagnóstico por imagem , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Epêndima/anormalidades , Epêndima/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuromielite Óptica/sangue , Neuromielite Óptica/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 40, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997023

RESUMO

The generation of new neurons within the mammalian forebrain continues throughout life within two main neurogenic niches, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and the subependymal zone (SEZ) lining the lateral ventricles. Though the SEZ is the largest neurogenic niche in the adult human forebrain, our understanding of the mechanisms regulating neurogenesis from development through aging within this region remains limited. This is especially pertinent given that neurogenesis declines dramatically over the postnatal lifespan. Here, we performed transcriptomic profiling on the SEZ from human post-mortem tissue from eight different life-stages ranging from neonates (average age ~ 2 months old) to aged adults (average age ~ 86 years old). We identified transcripts with concomitant profiles across these decades of life and focused on three of the most distinct profiles, namely (1) genes whose expression declined sharply after birth, (2) genes whose expression increased steadily with age, and (3) genes whose expression increased sharply in old age in the SEZ. Critically, these profiles identified neuroinflammation as becoming more prevalent with advancing age within the SEZ and occurring with time courses, one gradual (starting in mid-life) and one sharper (starting in old age).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Epêndima/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Dev Biol ; 66(1-2-3): 125-135, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549790

RESUMO

The superiority of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) compared with other vertebrates does not involve an advanced capacity for regeneration, and any insult results in irreversible functional loss. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one example of CNS trauma affecting thousands of individuals, mostly young, each year. Despite enormous progress in our comprehension of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology after SCI, also providing targets for therapeutic interventions, no efficient therapy exists as yet, emphasizing the need for further research. A breadth of studies have demonstrated that, after SCI, principles of development come into play either to promote or to prohibit spontaneous regeneration, and their appropriate manipulation has the potential to contribute towards functional recovery. In this overview, some of the most recent and important studies are discussed.These offer explicitly novel input from the field of development to the field of CNS repair regarding the modification of the inhibitory environment of the injured spinal cord - mainly referring to the glial scar - the activation of endogenous cell populations such as ependymal stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and the developmental transcriptional program that is transiently activated in neurons after injury. Furthermore, current advances in stem cell technology are highlighted in terms of refinement and precise design of the appropriate stem cell population to be transplanted, not only for cell replacement but also for modulation of the host environment. As single-dimension applications have not yet proved clinically successful, it is suggested that combinatorial strategies tackling more than one target might be more effective.


Assuntos
Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Regeneração da Medula Espinal , Animais , Epêndima , Mamíferos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia
17.
J Neurosci ; 42(2): 202-219, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815315

RESUMO

Multiciliated ependymal cells line the ventricle wall and generate CSF flow through ciliary beating. Defects in ependymal cells cause hydrocephalus; however, there are still significant gaps in our understanding the molecular, cellular and developmental mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Here, we demonstrate that specific deletion of RNA-binding protein (RBP) Hu antigen R (HuR) in the mouse brain results in hydrocephalus and causes postnatal death. HuR deficiency leads to impaired ependymal cell development with defective motile ciliogenesis in both female and male mice. Transcriptome-wide analysis reveals that HuR binds to mRNA transcripts related to ciliogenesis, including cilia and flagella associated protein 52 (Cfap52), the effector gene of Foxj-1 and Rfx transcriptional factors. HuR deficiency accelerates the degradation of Cfap52 mRNA, while overexpression of Cfap52 is able to promote the development of HuR-deficient ependymal cells. Taken together, our results unravel the important role of HuR in posttranscriptional regulation of ependymal cell development by stabilizing Cfap52 mRNA.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study identifies Hu antigen R (HuR) as a genetic factor involved in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Mechanistically, HuR regulates ependymal cell differentiation and ciliogenesis through stabilizing Cfap52 mRNA, the effector gene of Foxj-1 and Rfx transcriptional factors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína Semelhante a ELAV 1/metabolismo , Epêndima/metabolismo , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Animais , Cílios/metabolismo , Proteína Semelhante a ELAV 1/genética , Epêndima/citologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hidrocefalia/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
18.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(4): 1238-1247, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817902

RESUMO

The current study was designed to give a complete microscopic description of the ependymal cells of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) using histological, immunohistochemical, and transmission microscopic descriptions of the ependymal cells of the fresh 35 spinal cord samples immediately after their slaughtering. In our findings, the central canal of the spinal cord was lined by multilayered stratified cuboidal or columnar ependymal cells. The ependymal cells had an irregular striated border at their free surface. The ependymal cells do not exhibit a basement membrane. The simple oval nucleus was occupied a large part of the cell with spherical mitochondria. The apical surface of the ependymal cells possesses long cilia; each cilium was bounded by an evagination of the luminal plasma membrane. Some ependymal cells had minute finger-like projections on their luminal plasma membrane. In the perinuclear zone of ependymal cells, many cristiform mitochondria, free ribosomes, and Golgi complexes usually occur. Vacuoles with homogenous and clear fluid were observed. The lateral surface of the adjacent ependymal cells exhibits several tight junctions represented by zonulae occludens and adherens. There were many desmosomes between the neighboring ependymal cells. A perinuclear whorl of filaments fills the lateral part of these ependymal cells. The ependymal cells revealed a clear immunohistochemical reaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and nestin stain. There were no obvious differences between the different segments of the spinal cord. Our data concluded that the ependymal cells display clear differences in anatomy as well as ultrastructure that may reflect their distinct functional activity.


Assuntos
Camelus , Epêndima , Animais , Camelus/anatomia & histologia , Epêndima/anatomia & histologia , Microvilosidades , Mitocôndrias , Medula Espinal
19.
J Neuroimmunol ; 362: 577766, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823119

RESUMO

Patients with ovarian cancer and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, a cancer-related immune disorder, often have anti-Yo antibody. Here we studied the distributions of anti-Yo antigens CDR2L and CDR2 in rat and human brain using immunohistochemistry and western blot. CDR2L localized mainly to the Purkinje cells and large neurons scattered in the brain stem. CDR2 was detected in vascular smooth muscle cells of rat and human and in cells lining the ventricle system in rats. The observed distribution of CDR2L is compatible with the hypothesis that this antigen is the major target of anti-Yo. CDR2 and CDR2L are expressed by different cell subtypes.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Animais , Epêndima/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Células de Purkinje/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943841

RESUMO

Ependymal cells reside in the adult spinal cord and display stem cell properties in vitro. They proliferate after spinal cord injury and produce neurons in lower vertebrates but predominantly astrocytes in mammals. The mechanisms underlying this glial-biased differentiation remain ill-defined. We addressed this issue by generating a molecular resource through RNA profiling of ependymal cells before and after injury. We found that these cells activate STAT3 and ERK/MAPK signaling post injury and downregulate cilia-associated genes and FOXJ1, a central transcription factor in ciliogenesis. Conversely, they upregulate 510 genes, seven of them more than 20-fold, namely Crym, Ecm1, Ifi202b, Nupr1, Rbp1, Thbs2 and Osmr-the receptor for oncostatin, a microglia-specific cytokine which too is strongly upregulated after injury. We studied the regulation and role of Osmr using neurospheres derived from the adult spinal cord. We found that oncostatin induced strong Osmr and p-STAT3 expression in these cells which is associated with reduction of proliferation and promotion of astrocytic versus oligodendrocytic differentiation. Microglial cells are apposed to ependymal cells in vivo and co-culture experiments showed that these cells upregulate Osmr in neurosphere cultures. Collectively, these results support the notion that microglial cells and Osmr/Oncostatin pathway may regulate the astrocytic fate of ependymal cells in spinal cord injury.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Epêndima/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Oncostatina M/metabolismo , RNA/genética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética , Células-Tronco/patologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cílios/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Oncostatina M , RNA/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
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