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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5825-5831, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951171

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of epimedium polysaccharide(EPS) on the solubility of icariin and baohuoside Ⅰ so as to preliminary explore its solubilization function and the underlying mechanism. The solubility of these two insoluble flavonoids in water and polysaccharide solutions was compared by high performance liquid chromatography, and the mechanism was investigated by diffe-rential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and critical micelle concentration determination. The results indicated that their solubilization in crude EPS solutions was concentration-dependent. The solubility of icariin and baohuoside Ⅰ in 20 mg·mL~(-1) EPS-1-1 was 9.05 times and 5.76 times that in water, respectively; while their solubility in 20 mg·mL~(-1) EPS-2-1 was 10.55 and 8.39 times that in water, respectively. The change of the DSC thermograms suggested the formation of new complexes from icariin and baohuoside Ⅰ with polysaccharides. The critical micelle concentrations proved the micellar properties of both EPS-1-1 and EPS-2-1. In short, EPS can significantly increase the solubility of icariin and baohuoside Ⅰ, the mechanism of which may be related to the formation of micellar complexes between EPS and insoluble flavonoids.


Assuntos
Epimedium , Flavonoides , Polissacarídeos , Solubilidade
3.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1548-1554, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Epimedium polysaccharides (EPS) on bone marrow hematopoietic function and Th17/Treg balance in aplastic anemia (AA) mice, and preliminarily explore its therapeutic mechanism. METHODS: Forty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control (control), model (model), stanozolol (stanozolol) and epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) group, with 10 mice in each group. Except for the control group, Acetophenazine, Gy irradiation and cyclophosphamide triple application were used to establish AA models for the other groups. After the model was established, the stanozolol group was intragastrically administered with 4 mg/kg stanozolol suspension, the EPS group was intragastrically administered with 100 mg/kg epimedium polysaccharide, while the control group and the model group were given an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by gavage once a day, for 14 consecutive days. The automatic animal blood analyzer was used to detect the changes in peripheral blood hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT), flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Treg and Th17 cells, the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 11 (IL-11) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA, the number of nucleated bone marrow cells was counted, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the number, the proliferation and apoptosis of bone marrow cells, Western blot was used to detect the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ (RORγt), transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and fork head transcription factor 3 (Foxp3). RESULTS: Compared with the model group, the levels of Hb, RBC, WBC and PLT in the peripheral blood of mice in stanozolol and EPS group significantly increased, the proportion of Th17 cells was significantly reduced, and the proportion of Treg cells significantly increased. The levels of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum were significantly reduced (P<0.05), the level of IL-11 significantly increased (P<0.05), the number of bone marrow nucleated cells significantly increased (P<0.05), the positive rate of Ki-67 significantly increased (P<0.05) and the positive rate of Caspase-3 was significantly reduced (P<0.05). At the same time, the protein expression of STAT3 and RORγt significantly decreased, and the protein expression of STAT5 and Foxp3 increased, the difference showed statistically significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EPS can promote the recovery of bone marrow hematopoietic function in AA mice and improve Th17/Treg imbalance, the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of STAT3/RORγt expression and promotion of STAT5/Foxp3 expression.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Epimedium , Animais , Medula Óssea , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polissacarídeos , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th17
4.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153680, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragility fractures due to menopausal osteoporosis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Osteoporotic medications have substantial side effects that limit long term use. HYPOTHESES: Ingestion of a purified extract of Epimedium spp. (EP) is safe, can increase serum levels of prenylflavonoid metabolites, exert positive changes in bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), suppress of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) protein in osteoclast-precursor monocytes in peripheral blood and therefore have the potential to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: Healthy postmenopausal women were randomized in a double-blind fashion to consume either EP prenylflavonoid extract (740 mg daily) or placebo daily for 6 weeks. The main outcome measures were safety and pharmacokinetics of EP flavonoids. Fasting blood was collected at 3- and 6-weeks, and two weeks after stopping medication for safety evaluations and measurement of BSAP. Peripheral blood monocytes were harvested for measurement of TRAF6 levels. Serum levels of the EP metabolites icariin, icariside I & II, icaritin and desmethylicaritin were measured using tandem mass spectrometry, and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses performed using WinNonlin software. RESULTS: Between October 2018 and Jun 2020, 58 postmenopausal women, aged 57.9 ± 8.9 years, were randomized and completed the study. Consumption of EP prenylflavonoids was not associated with any significant adverse symptoms, with no changes in hepatic, hematological, and renal parameters observed. The main metabolites detected in sera after ingestion of EP prenylflavonoid capsules were desmethylicaritin, icaritin and icariside II. Icariin and icariside I were below detection levels. Ingestion of EP prenylflavonoids induced a median Cmax and AUC0→∞ for desmethylicaritin of 60.9 nM, and 157.9 nM ×day, respectively; and were associated with higher levels of BSAP (p < 0.05) and a trend (p = 0.068) towards lower levels of TRAF6 in peripheral blood monocytes eight weeks after commencing prenylflavonoid ingestion. Prenylflavonoid metabolites were not detected in the sera of placebo participants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the widespread consumption of EP extracts, the safety, mechanisms of action of their bioactive compounds, and therapeutic indications in humans are unknown. Daily consumption of EP prenylflavonoids for six weeks was safe. The predominant metabolite in sera was desmethylicaritin. Rise in prenylflavonoid metabolites was associated with higher levels of the bone anabolic marker BSAP, suggesting potential therapeutic value for post-menopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Epimedium , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Método Duplo-Cego , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoclastos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Pós-Menopausa , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208231

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation on the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum using the PCSK9 mRNA monitoring assay led to the identification of four previously undescribed acylated flavonoid glycosides and 18 known compounds. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by NMR, MS, and other chemical methods. All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity against PCSK9 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Of the isolates, compounds 6, 7, 10, 15, and 17-22 were found to significantly inhibit PCSK9 mRNA expression. In particular, compound 7 was shown to increase LDLR mRNA expression. Thus, compound 7 may potentially increase LDL uptake and lower cholesterol levels in the blood.


Assuntos
Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/química , Glicosídeos/química , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Epimedium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Prenilação , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/agonistas
6.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068926

RESUMO

Icaritin is a promising anti-hepatoma drug that is currently being tested in a phase-III clinical trial. A novel combination of amorphization and nanonization was used to enhance the oral bioavailability of icaritin. Amorphous icaritin nanoparticles (AINs) were prepared by a reactive precipitation technique (RPT). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was used to investigate the mechanism underlying the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. AINs were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our prepared AINs were also evaluated for their dissolution rates in vitro and oral bioavailability. The resultant nanosized AINs (64 nm) were amorphous and exhibited a higher dissolution rate than that derived from a previous oil-suspension formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the C=O groups from the hydrophilic chain of polymers and the OH groups from icaritin formed hydrogen bonds that inhibited AIN crystallization and aggregation. Furthermore, an oral administration assay in beagle dogs showed that Cmax and AUClast of the dried AINs formulation were 3.3-fold and 4.5-fold higher than those of the oil-suspension preparation (p < 0.01), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the preparation of amorphous drug nanoparticles via our RPT may be a promising technique for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.


Assuntos
Precipitação Química , Flavonoides/síntese química , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Cães , Epimedium/anatomia & histologia , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/sangue , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
7.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(9): 1873-1879, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089567

RESUMO

Epimedium, is used traditionally in Chinese medicine to treat infertility problems. In this study, we establish the cell model to elucidate the protective effect of epimedium against ES by analyzing the molecular relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and steroidogenesis and to explore the molecular mechanism focusing on mitochondria function relating to fertility. ES induced ROS accumulation in mitochondria and the epimedium treatment significantly reduced the ROS accumulation. Furthermore, mitochondria morphology was restored to elongated shape following epimedium treatment. Epimedium treatment promoted dynamin-associated protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated steroidogenesis pathway by upregulating PKA, CREB, Drp1, and StAR protein expression in response to ES exposure in Leydig cells. Moreover, it was also identified that, CREB plays an important role in epimedium activation in Drp1-mediated steroidogenesis signaling pathway by increasing, phospho-CREB expression in nucleus. Testosterone level is decreased in ES-exposed cells; however, the testosterone level was increased after epimedium treatment. In conclusion, epimedium treatment improved mitochondria function in ES-exposed Leydig cells and activated downstream Drp1-dependent steroidogenesis by CREB mediated signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Epimedium , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Dinaminas , Endossulfano , Humanos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas
8.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 81-90, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal lung disease with limited treatment options. Icaritin is the active ingredient derived from the traditional Chinese medical plant Epimedium and possesses many biomedical activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of icaritin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. METHODS: To assess its preventative effects, bleomycin treated mice received 0, 0.04, 0.2, and 1 mg/kg of icaritin from day 1 onwards. To assess its therapeutic effects, bleomycin treated mice received 0 and 1 mg/kg of icaritin from day 15 onwards. Mice were sacrificed on day 21 and lung tissues were collected, stained with HE, Masson and immunohistochemistry. Q-PCR was used to measure Collagen I and Collagen III expression, western blotting was used to quantify α-SMA, Collagen I expression. Hydroxyproline content was measured using a biochemical method. NIH3T3 and HLF-1 cells were treated with TGF-ß1with or without icaritin, and α-SMA, Collagen I were tested. PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and PPARγ-targeted siRNA were used to investigate the mechanism of icaritin in inhibiting myofibroblast differentiation. RESULTS: Both preventative and therapeutic administration of icaritin improved the histopathological changes, decreased Collagen and α-SMA, lowered hydroxyproline content in bleomycin-treated lung tissues. Icaritin decreased α-SMA and Collagen I expression in TGF-ß1-stimulated NIH3T3 and HLF-1 cells. However, its effect in reducing α-SMA and Collagen I expression was suppressed when expression or activity of PPARγ was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Icaritin has therapeutic potential against pulmonary fibrosis via the inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation, which may be mediated by PPARγ.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Animais , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Epimedium/química , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente
9.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802139

RESUMO

It is usually a tedious task to profile the chemical composition of a given herbal medicine (HM) using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) due to the time-consuming sample preparation and laborious post-acquisition data processing procedures. Even worse, some labile compounds may face degradation risks when exposed to organic solvents for a relatively long period. As one of the most popular HMs, the promising therapeutic benefits of Epimedii Herba (Chinese name: Yinyanghuo) are well defined; however, the chemical profile, and in particular those flavonoids that have been claimed to be responsible for the efficacy, remains largely unknown. Attempts are devoted here to achieve direct LC-MS measurement and efficient post-acquisition data processing, and chemome comparison among three original sources of Epimedii Herba, such as Epimedium sagittatum (Esa), E. pubescens (Epu), and E. koreanum (Eko) was employed to illustrate the strategy utility. A home-made online liquid extraction (OLE) module was introduced at the front of the analytical column to comprehensively transfer the compounds from raw materials onto the LC-MS instrument. A mass defect filtering approach was programmed to efficiently mine the massive LC-MS dataset after which a miniature database was built involving all chemical information of flavonoids from the genus Epimedium to draw a pentagonal frame to rapidly capture potential quasi-molecular ions (mainly [M-H]-). A total of 99 flavonoids (66 in Esa, 84 in Eko, and 66 in Epu) were captured, and structurally annotated by summarizing the mass fragmentation pathways from the mass spectrometric data of authentic compounds and an in-house data library as well. Noteworthily, neutral loss of 144 Da was firstly assigned to the neutral cleavage of rhamnosyl residues. Significant species-differences didn't occur among their chemical patterns. The current study proposed a robust strategy enabling rapid chemical profiling of, but not limited to, HMs.


Assuntos
Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Epimedium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915962

RESUMO

This report is third in a three-part clinical trial series screening potential treatments for Gulf War Illness (GWI). The goal of the project was to rapidly identify agents to prioritize for further efficacy research. We used a placebo-controlled, pseudo-randomized, crossover design to test the effects of reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), stinging nettle (Uritca dioica), and epimedium (Epimedium sagittatum) in 29 men with GWI. Participants completed 30 days of symptom reports for baseline, then a botanical line consisting of 30 days of placebo, followed by 30 days each of lower-dose and higher-dose botanical. After completing a botanical line, participants were randomized to complete the protocol with another botanical, until they completed three botanical trials. GWI symptom severity, pain, and fatigue were contrasted between the four conditions (baseline, placebo, lower-dose, higher dose) using linear mixed models. GWI symptom severity was unchanged from placebo in the reishi lower-dose condition (p = 0.603), and was higher in the higher-dose condition (p = 0.012). Symptom severity was not decreased from placebo with lower-dose stinging nettle (p = 0.604), but was significantly decreased with higher-dose stinging nettle (p = 0.048). Epimedium showed no significant decreases of GWI symptoms in the lower (p = 0.936) or higher (p = 0.183) dose conditions. Stinging nettle, especially at higher daily dosages, may help reduce the symptoms of GWI. Epimedium does not appear to beneficially affect GWI symptom severity, and reishi may exaggerate symptoms in some GWI sufferers. These results are in a small sample and are preliminary. Further research is required to determine if stinging nettle is indeed helpful for the treatment of GWI, and what dosage is optimal. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02909686).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Epimedium , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico , Reishi , Urtica dioica , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153485, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Icariin (ICA) is a bioactive compound isolated from epimedium-derived flavonoids that modulates bone mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis and adipogenesis. However, its precise mechanism in this process is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of ICA on human bone mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) osteogenesis and adipogenesis by focusing on miR-23a mediated activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. METHODS: After ICA treatment, hBMSC osteogenesis and adipogenesis were evaluated using alkaline phosphatase staining, an alkaline phosphatase activity assay, Oil Red O staining, and cellular triglyceride levels. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of osteogenic and adipogenic markers as well as key factors of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Lithium chloride, an activator of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, was used as a positive control. Finally, to investigate the role of miR-23a in ICA-induced activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, hBMSCs were transfected with miR-23a mimics or a miR-23a inhibitor. RESULTS: ICA significantly promoted hBMSC osteogenic differentiation by upregulating alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of bone sialoprotein II (BSPII) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2). In contrast, ICA inhibited hBMSC adipogenic differentiation by reducing lipid droplet formation and cellular triglyceride levels as well as by downregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). ICA mediated its effects on hBMSCs by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. It did so by upregulating ß-catenin, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), and T cell factor 1 (TCF1). Notably, the up-regulation of these proteins was blocked by Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Critically, the effects of ICA on hBMSCs were similar to that of the positive control, lithium chloride. Notably, ICA-induced activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway was significantly attenuated following miR-23a up-regulation. Conversely, miR-23a downregulation affected hBMSCs in the same manner as ICA; i.e., it activated the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: ICA promotes and inhibits, respectively, hBMSC osteogenesis and adipogenesis via miR-23a-mediated activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Epimedium/química , Humanos , Sialoproteína de Ligação à Integrina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 198: 113984, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691203

RESUMO

Epimedium herb is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is used for treating kidney-yang deficiency, impotence and rheumatism, and flavonoids are the main active ingredients. The leaves and rhizomes of Epimedium herb are two separate kinds of medicinal materials with different functional indications and clinical applications. This study aimed to comprehensively analyze the chemical components of different parts of the herb from three Epimedium species (Epimedium sagittatum, E. pubescens and E. myrianthum) by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-Q-TOF/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis to clarify the differences. Firstly, the workflow of UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with UNIFI informatics was developed for characterizing the chemical compounds in different parts of Epimedium herb. Based on the exact mass information, the fragmentation characteristics and the retention times of compounds, all chromatographic peaks (74 chemical components) were identified. Secondly, 21 potential chemical markers for differentiating different parts of Epimedium herb were selected through PCA and PLS-DA analysis. The characteristic components in the leaves included flavonoids with Anhydroicaritin (type A, C-4' linked methoxy) as the backbone, and the characteristic components in the stems and rhizomes were Magnoline and flavonoids with Demethylanhydroicaritin (type B, C-4' linked hydroxyl) as the backbone. Thirdly, the UHPLC-PDA combined with heatmap visualization was employed to clarify the distribution of chemical components with high content in different parts of Epimedium herb. The results showed clear differences in the contents of chemical components in leaves, stems and rhizomes. The levels of flavonoids with Anhydroicaritin backbone were high in the leaves, and levels of flavonoids with Demethylanhydroicaritin backbone were high in the rhizomes. The levels of Magnoline in stems and rhizomes were higher than that in leaves. The contents of most of the compounds in stems remained low. The leaves and the other two parts (stems and rhizomes) can be distinguished by qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of Magnoline and Epimedoside A (type B backbone). These results indicated that the different plant parts of Epimedium herb can be quickly and accurately distinguished by this method, establishing a foundation for the application of Epimedium herb.


Assuntos
Epimedium , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Rizoma/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 183-191, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556283

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Icariin (ICA) is the main active ingredient of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim (Berberidaceae), which is used in the immune, reproductive, neuroendocrine systems, and anti-aging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ICA on natural aging rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 16-month-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into aging, low and high-dose ICA groups (n = 8); 6-month-old rats were taken as the adult control (n = 8). Rats were fed regular feed (aging and adult control) or feed containing ICA (ICA 2 and 6 mg/kg group) for 4 months. HE and Nissl staining were used to assess pathological changes. Western blot was used to test the expression of autophagy (LC3B, p62, Atg5, Beclin1) and p-AMPK, p-mTOR and p-ULK1 (ser 757). Immunofluorescence was used to detect the co-localization of LC3 and neurons. RESULTS: ICA improved neuronal degeneration associated with aging and increased the staining of Nissl bodies. Western blot showed that ICA up-regulated autophagy-related proteins LC3B (595%), Beclin1 (73.5%), p-AMPK (464%) protein (p < 0.05 vs. 20 M) in the cortex and hippocampus of aging rats, down-regulated the expression of p62 (56.9%), p-mTOR (53%) and p-ULK1 (ser 757) (65.4%) protein (p < 0.05 vs. 20 M). Immunofluorescence showed that the fluorescence intensity of LC3 decreased in the aging rat brain, but increased and mainly co-localized with neurons after ICA intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Further research needs to verify the expression changes of AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 and the improvement effect of ICA in elderly. These results will further accelerate the applications of ICA and the treatment for senescence.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 69, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of the main mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology and can affect the physiological state of neurons. Icariin (ICA), the main pharmacological component of Epimedium, can relieve the symptoms of patients with SCI and has obvious protective effects on neurons through ERS. METHODS: PC12 cells were induced to differentiate into neurons by nerve growth factor and identified by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 method, cell viability was detected by SRB assay, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and microstructure of ER was observed by transmission electron microscope. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of CHOP and Grp78, and qPCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of CHOP and Grp78. RESULTS: The results of CCK8, SRB and flow cytometry showed that ICA could relieve ERS and reduce apoptosis of PC12 cells. The results of transmission microscope showed that ICA could reduce apoptosis of PC12 cells caused by ERS. The results of Western blot and q-PCR showed that ICA could inhibit ERS by down-regulating the expression of CHOP and Grp78. CONCLUSIONS: ICA can inhibit ERS and promote the repair of PC12 cells by down-regulating the expression of CHOP and Grp78. ICA has the potential to promote the recovery of spinal cord injury.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(2): 2912-2940, 2021 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460401

RESUMO

The clinical notably success of immunotherapy fosters an enthusiasm in developing drugs by enhancing antitumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Epimedium, is a promising herbal medicine for tumor immunotherapy due to the pharmacological actions in immunological function modulation and antitumor. Here, we developed a novel systems pharmacology strategy to explore the polypharmacology mechanism of Epimedium involving in targeting TME of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This strategy integrates the active compounds screening, target predicting, network pharmacology analysis and onco-immune interacting to predict the potential active compounds that trigger the antitumor immunity. Icaritin (ICT), a major active ingredient of Epimedium, was predicted to have good drug-like properties and target immune microenvironment in NSCLC via regulating multiple targets and pathways. Then, we evidenced that the ICT effectively inhibited tumor growth in LLC tumor-bearing mice and increases the infiltration of CD8+ T cells in TME. In addition, we demonstrated that ICT promotes infiltration of CD8+ T cells in TME by downregulating the immunosuppressive cytokine (TNF-α, IL10, IL6) and upregulating chemotaxis (CXCL9 and CXCL10). Overall, the systems pharmacology strategy offers an important paradigm to understand the mechanism of polypharmacology of natural products targeting TME.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Epimedium , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Andrology ; 9(1): 342-351, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE5I) has become the first-line treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, its effective rate for hypertension ED is only 60%-70%. How to improve the efficacy of ED treatment is the focus of current research. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether icariin can improve the erectile function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by affecting post-translational protein-protein interactions to regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS) activity. METHOD: Twelve-week-old healthy male SHR rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were randomly divided into four groups: SHR control group, SHR + icariin (10 mg/kg·d gavage) treatment group, WKY control group, and WKY + icariin (10 mg/kg·d gavage) treatment group (n = 5). After 4 weeks, the maximum penile intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICPmax/MAP), the expression of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), caveolin-1, calmodulin, p-eNOS, and eNOS in penile cavernous tissue and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP were measured. The interaction between eNOS and Hsp90, caveolin-1, and calmodulin were detected by immunoprecipitation. RESULT: The ICPmax/MAP in the SHR + icariin treatment group (0.08 ± 0.01, 0.23 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.05) was significantly higher than the SHR group (0.03 ± 0.01, 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.02) under 3V and 5V electrical stimulations (P < .05). Compared with the SHR group, the expression of HSP90, calmodulin, P-eNOS, eNOS, and P-eNOS/eNOS in the penile cavernous tissue of rats in the WKY group and the SHR + icariin treatment group were significantly increased (P < .05), and the expression of caveolin-1 was significantly decreased (P < .05). The NO content (2.16 ± 0.22 µmol/g) and cGMP concentration (3.69 ± 0.12 pmol/mg) in the SHR + icariin treatment group were significantly higher than those in the SHR group (1.01 ± 0.14 µmol/g, 2.31 ± 0.22 pmol/mg) (P < .05). Compared with the SHR group, the interaction between eNOS and HSP90 in the cavernosa of the rats in the SHR + icariin treatment group was significantly increased (P < .05), the interaction between eNOS and caveolin-1 was significantly decreased (P < .01), and the interaction between eNOS and calmodulin did not significantly change. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Up-regulating the expression of HSP90 and calmodulin and inhibiting caveolin-1 in SHR corpus cavernosum, promoting the interaction between eNOS and HSP90, inhibiting the interaction between eNOS and caveolin-1, increasing p-eNOS/eNOS, may be the mechanism of icariin that improves SHR erectile function.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Epimedium , Disfunção Erétil/enzimologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Masculino , Pênis/enzimologia , Fitoterapia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
17.
Phytochem Anal ; 32(4): 575-591, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epimedium koreanum Nakai (EKN), is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis, immunosuppression, tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Comprehensive component identification is essential for elucidation of its pharmacological mechanism and quality control. However, its complex chemical composition has caused certain difficulties in the analysis of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish a method for rapid classification and identification of EKN chemical components. OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for rapid classification and identification of the main components of flavonoids, organic acids and alkaloids in EKN. METHODS: The samples were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and data post-processing techniques. The UPLC system used a BEH C18 column to separate the total extract of EKN. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, and the EKN extract was analysed by gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. In both the positive and negative ion modes, the fragment information was obtained and compared with those of the characteristic fragmentations and neutral losses described in the literature to quickly identify the target compounds. RESULTS: Finally, we successfully screened out 51 chemical components, including 40 flavonoids, nine organic acids, and two alkaloids. CONCLUSION: The established method not only comprehensively analysed the chemical compositions of EKN, solved the difficult problems of analysis and identification of the complex chemical compositions of the TCM, but also further promoted the development of the application of chemical compositions of TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epimedium , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
J Sep Sci ; 44(2): 656-665, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151025

RESUMO

In this work, a new online preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the fast and efficient separation of complex chemical mixtures from natural products. This system integrates two chromatographic systems into an online automatic separation system using the technique of multiple trap columns with valve switching. The sample was first separated into 18 subfractions in the online preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and the sample eluents were then diluted and captured online on 18 trap columns by the multiple trap columns technique, respectively. Each subfraction retained on the trap column was transferred online to the separation column for the second separation. Finally, the target compounds were purified by appropriate separation conditions and multiple heart-cutting strategies. Importantly, the system was successfully used to separate 18 high-purity flavonoids from the crude extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai online in one step. The entire separation time was approximately 20 h, and the structures were characterized by the high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. This online preparative high-performance liquid chromatography system represents an efficient and rapid separation system that has the potential for a wide array of applications in the separation of complex chemical components from natural products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 269: 113717, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359002

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Epimedium brevicornu Maxim as a Chinese herb, is recommended for the treatment of menopausal women with hypertension for 50 years. Icariin, as the main hydrophilic ingredient of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim, has been proven to be a plant sex hormone and lower blood pressure down. Here, we hypothesized that Icariin can regulate T cells differentiation which leads to the blood pressure decrease in castrated SHR rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the exogenous estrogen, androgen and Icariin on T-cell modulation in hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two weeks after castration, both male and female SHR rats were given estradiol, testosterone, and Icariin intervention respectively. Body weight, blood pressure, and heart rate were tested weekly. After six weeks, proportion of T helper cells (Th), cytotoxic T cells (Tc), and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and splenocytes were tested by flowcytometry. Serum levels of estrogen, testosterone, AngII, TNF-α, IL-17 were tested by Elisa. Aortic arches were isolated for HE and Masson staining. The expressions of ERß and AR in aorta were tested by Western-blot. RESULTS: In both male and female SHR rats, we found that Icariin and estradiol lower blood pressure, but testosterone elevates blood pressure. Similar as testosterone, Icariin can attenuate Tc and Th proportions and elevate Tregs proportion in both peripheral blood and splenocyte in male SHR, which can be blunt by flutamide. Besides, Icariin performs similar function as estradiol that attenuates Tc proportions and elevates Tregs proportion in both peripheral blood and splenocytes in female SHR, which leads to the lower blood pressure and can be partly blunt by fulvestrant. Testosterone increases AngII and TNF-α levels in serum, leading to the higher blood pressure in both male and female SHR rats. CONCLUSION: These results verified that Icariin, as a plant sex hormone, can regulate T cells differentiation related to blood pressure decrease in SHR rats.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/imunologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fitosteróis/imunologia , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Angiotensina II/sangue , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Castração/efeitos adversos , Epimedium/química , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Receptores Androgênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Andrologia ; 53(2): e13943, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368466

RESUMO

Erectile dysfunction is considered an important health problem that impacts the quality of life of men. Yinyanghuo, also called Epimedium or Horny Goat Weed, is a frequently used Chinese traditional herbal medicine, commonly used in treating erectile dysfunction in China. A network pharmacology method was performed systematically, at a molecular level, to analyse the pharmacological mechanism of Yinyanghuo as erectile dysfunction therapy. The network pharmacology method used in this study primarily includes prescreening of the active compounds, prediction of targets, network analysis and gene enrichment analysis. This network analysis proved that 4 targets (AR, NR3C2, PDE5A and BMP2) could be the targets of Yinyanghuo therapy on erectile dysfunction. Besides, gene enrichment analysis predicted that Yinyanghuo might have a role in erectile dysfunction by regulating 10 molecular functions, 8 cellular components, 10 biological processes and 36 possible targets related to 10 signalling pathways. Our study demonstrated the molecular and pharmacological mechanisms of Yinyanghuo against erectile dysfunction with a holistic approach and demonstrated a powerful method for analysing pharmacological mechanisms and rational utilisation of Traditional Chinese Medicine clinically.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epimedium , Disfunção Erétil , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
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