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3.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 38: 100829, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in humans and livestock in many pastoral communities in Kenya. The distribution of the disease is enhanced by several factors, including livestock trade, which has allowed for the spread of CE to non-endemic areas such as western Kenya. Dogs' roaming behaviour, with consequent contamination of the environment with intestinal parasites, could then lead to parasite establishment. This study examined dogs' infection levels with taeniid eggs and their potential role in contaminating the environment with intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We selected sixteen ruminant slaughterhouses in Busia and Bungoma Counties, and around each slaughterhouse we identified ten homesteads owning free-roaming dogs. We administered a questionnaire on dog management practices to the homestead owner and collected a faecal sample from the dog's rectum. In homesteads around 8 of the 16 slaughterhouses, we collared dogs with a GPS tracker to assess their movement patterns. The faecal samples were examined microscopically following zinc-chloride sieving-floatation technique for the presence of taeniid eggs and other canine intestinal parasites. Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene and sequencing were used to confirm taeniid eggs identified during microscopy. Additionally, the Coproantigen-ELISA was used to detect the presence of taeniid antigen in a sub-set of the faecal samples. RESULTS: Helminths detected in the 155 dogs sampled included hookworms (n = 92; 59.4%), ascarids (n = 15; 9.7%), and taeniids (n = 1; 0.6%). Through Copro-PCR, 13 eggs extracted from the sample of the only taeniid infected dog were sequenced and identified as E. canadensis (G6/7) [n = 1], Taenia multiceps [n = 1], and Taenia serialis [n = 6]; the remaining were indeterminate. Of the 77 faecal samples tested for E. granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) with the Copro-ELISA, 64 (83.1%) were negative, 12 (15.6%) were positive, while 1 (1.3%) was suspicious. The dogs travelled a median of 13.5 km daily, and 28 dogs visited the slaughterhouses during the 5-day recording period. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a relatively high carriage of zoonotic parasites by free-roaming domestic dogs in western Kenya, which poses a risk to human and livestock populations. We report for the first time a domestic lifecycle of Echinococcus canadensis and Taenia multiceps in western Kenya, as well as a presumptive sylvatic cycle of coenurosis by T. serialis. We recommend an extensive and ongoing Copro-antigen survey of dog faeces, broader assessment of dog parasites with zoonotic potential, adherence to slaughterhouse management practices, and dog-ownership programmes to highlight the importance of deworming and restricted dog movements.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Taenia , Cães , Animais , Humanos , Echinococcus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Quênia/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
4.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 35: e1699, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydatid disease, a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus larvae, is an infectious disease endemic in different areas, such as India, Australia, and South America. The liver is well known as the organ most commonly affected by hydatid disease and may present a wide variety of complications such as hepatothoracic hydatid transit, cyst superinfection, intra-abdominal dissemination, and communication of the biliary cyst with extravasation of parasitic material into the bile duct, also called cholangiohydatidosis. Humans are considered an intermediate host, exposed to these larvae by hand-to-mouth contamination of the feces of infected dogs. AIM: This study aimed to highlight the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with acute cholangitis secondary to cholangiohydatidosis. METHODS: Considering the imaging findings in a 36-year-old female patient with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showing a complex cystic lesion in liver segment VI, with multiple internal vesicles and a wall defect cyst that communicates with the intrahepatic biliary tree, endoscopic biliary drainage was performed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with papillotomy, leading to the discharge of multiple obstructive cysts and hydatid sand from the main bile duct. RESULTS: Clinical and laboratory findings improved after drainage, with hospital discharge under oral antiparasitic treatment before complete surgical resection of the hepatic hydatid cyst. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a safe and useful method for the treatment of biliary complications of hepatic hydatid disease and should be considered the first-line procedure for biliary drainage in cases of cholangiohydatid disease involving secondary acute cholangitis.


Assuntos
Sistema Biliar , Colangite , Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Adulto , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Equinococose/complicações , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/cirurgia , Equinococose Hepática/complicações , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Hepática/cirurgia , Colangite/cirurgia , Colangite/complicações
5.
Parasite ; 30: 3, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700708

RESUMO

Molecular identification of rare human infectious pathogens appears to be one of the most relevant current methods for rapid diagnosis and management of patients. PCR techniques, in particular real-time quantitative PCR, are best suited for the detection of DNA from the pathogens, even at low concentrations. Echinococcosis infections are due to helminths of the Echinococcus genus, with closely related species involved in parasitic lesions affecting animals and, accidentally, humans. We developed a multiplex qPCR (MLX qPCR) assay allowing for the detection of four Echinococcus species involved in Europe in alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) (Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. ortleppi, and E. canadensis), based on short mitochondrial targets. A collection of 81 fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE) of AE and CE lesions was assembled. The qPCR assays were performed in triplex for Echinococcus spp. detection, associated with a qPCR inhibitor control. A duplex qPCR was also designed to enable diagnosis of two other dead-end helminthiases (cysticercosis (Taenia solium), and toxocariasis (Toxocara cati and T. canis)). The sensitivity of the qPCR was assessed and ranged from 1 to 5 × 10-4 ng/µL (seven PCR assays positive), corresponding to 37-42 cycles for quantifiable DNA. The specificity was 100% for all the targets. This multiplex qPCR, adapted to low amounts of DNA can be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid molecular diagnosis of Echinococcosis species.


Title: PCR multiplex en temps-réel pour le diagnostic de l'échinococcose humaine et diagnostic différentiel. Abstract: L'identification moléculaire des pathogènes infectieux humains rares semble être l'une des méthodes actuelles les plus pertinentes pour un diagnostic et une prise en charge rapides des patients. Les techniques de PCR, en particulier la PCR quantitative en temps réel, sont bien adaptées à la détection d'ADN de pathogènes, même pour de faibles concentrations. Les infections à échinocoque sont dues à des helminthes du genre Echinococcus, des espèces étroitement apparentées, impliquées dans des lésions parasitaires affectant les animaux et accidentellement l'homme. Une qPCR multiplex (MLX qPCR), permettant la détection de quatre espèces d'Echinococcus impliquées en Europe dans l'échinococcose alvéolaire (EA) et kystique (EK) (Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. ortleppi et E. canadensis), basée sur de courtes cibles mitochondriales a été développée ici. Une collection a été constituée de 81 tissus frais ou fixés en paraffine (FFPE) de lésions d'EA et EK. Les essais de qPCR ont été réalisées en triplex pour la détection d'Echinococcus spp., associés à une qPCR de contrôle d'inhibition. Une PCR duplex a été développée pour le diagnostic de deux autres helminthiases en impasse chez l'Homme (cysticercose (Taenia solium), et toxocarose (Toxocara cati et T. canis). La sensibilité de la qPCR a été évaluée et s'échelonne de 1 à 5 × 10−4 ng/µl (sept essais de qPCR positifs), correspondant à 37 à 42 cycles pour l'ADN quantifiable. La spécificité était de 100 % pour toutes les cibles. Cette qPCR multiplex, adaptée à de faibles quantités d'ADN peut être mise en œuvre au laboratoire pour un diagnostic moléculaire rapide des espèces d'Echinococcus.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus multilocularis , Animais , Humanos , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética
6.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 34(1): 58-62, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study presents our experience in surgical treatment of extravertebral bone hydatidosis and aims to investigate the utility of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 1990 and December 2019, a total of 10 patients (6 males, 4 females; mean age: 47.2±14.7 years; range, 27 to 71 years) with non-vertebral bone hydatidosis surgically treated in our hospital were retrospectively included. Curettage or wide resection was performed in all cases, followed by medical antihelminthic therapy. Specific IgE p2 was studied in seven patients during and at final follow-up. RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, secondary infection of the cyst was observed as the initial symptom in two patients mimicking an abscess and, in both cases, more surgeries were required without final healing. In two cases, over five specific IgE presented a false negative at the time of diagnosis and it was not correlated with clinical evolution in three cases over seven. In six cases, diagnosis was obtained before surgery. In treatment, pelvic disease had the worst prognosis (none healed) and bacterial overinfection was a common complication after surgery. At the final follow-up, only two femoral cases (20%) were free of disease. Other four cases (three in iliac bone, one in proximal femur) needed several surgeries without healing. The other four patients showed no progression or refused a new surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: Location, bone defect, when it is possible to perform a radical surgery, and associated bacterial overinfection after surgery make cystic hydatidosis in bone an infection very difficult to treat definitively in humans. Negative specific IgE does not exclude bone hydatidosis.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Equinococose/complicações , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Imunoglobulina E
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 245: 108454, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587835

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the zoonotic infections in human, an important global health problem. It was aimed to determine the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of isolates obtained from patients diagnosed with CE in Hatay province, according to the cox1 gene region. A total of 31 patients, 14 males and 17 females, with a mean age of 35.19 (±14.28) years were included in the study. 35 cyst materials obtained from patients were studied. DNA isolation was performed from the samples with protoscoleces determined in the cyst fluid. One-way DNA sequencing was performed with the Sanger Sequencing Protocol through the obtained PCR products. In the study, 35 hydatid cysts of human origin were examined and protoscoleces was detected in 11 (31.43%) of them. Twenty of the patients had liver involvement, seven had lung involvement, and four had both liver and lung involvement. All the samples with protoscoleces detected were observed of PCR product with a size of approximately 446 bp. When the sequence results of the isolates were evaluated within themselves, it was seen that there were three different sequences with 99% similarity to each other. As a result, of the phylogenetic analysis, it was determined that the isolates were identified in the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus s. s.) (G1-G3) complex. This study is thought to contribute to the epidemiology, parasite control, effective diagnosis and treatment techniques, eradication, vaccine and drug development studies of E. granulosus s. s in Türkiye.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia
8.
J Comp Pathol ; 200: 12-17, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610082

RESUMO

We present a case that illustrates the complex contexts in which forensic veterinary pathology examinations may be carried out. A wild muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) had died after a putative bite attack from a domestic dog. Bite attacks by privately owned dogs on wild animals in Switzerland violate the Swiss civil (and/or hunting) laws, and dog owners are generally punished with a monetary fine; hence, this case appeared to be straightforward. However, the results of the subsequent post-mortem examination of the muskrat not only confirmed the presence of injuries related to the bite attack, but also detected alveolar echinococcosis (ie, infestation with Echinococcus multilocularis). Therefore, as an intermediate host of the parasite, the muskrat could have contributed to further spread of a severe helminthic zoonosis had it not been killed by the dog. It was probably an easy prey for the dog as it probably had been weakened by the disease. Furthermore, muskrats are considered as pests and invasive species, and are non-indigenous huntable game in Switzerland and other European countries in which programmes for the prevention of their further spread and endangerment of native wildlife are established. The role of the forensic veterinary pathologist in such a complex scenario is to adopt an unbiased approach and establish the facts, which in this case was to determine the cause of death and suspected perpetrator, identify any concomitant and/or underlying diseases and consider potential animal welfare issues.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Prova Pericial , Patologistas , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 29, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The histological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis can be challenging. Decision support models based on deep learning (DL) are increasingly used to aid pathologists, but data on the histology of tissue-invasive parasitic infections are missing. The aim of this study was to implement DL methods to classify Echinococcus multilocularis liver lesions and normal liver tissue and assess which regions and structures play the most important role in classification decisions. METHODS: We extracted 15,756 echinococcus tiles from 28 patients using 59 whole slide images (WSI); 11,602 tiles of normal liver parenchyma from 18 patients using 33 WSI served as a control group. Different pretrained model architectures were used with a 60-20-20% random splitting. We visualized the predictions using probability-thresholded heat maps of WSI. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) value and other performance metrics were calculated. The GradCAM method was used to calculate and visualize important spatial features. RESULTS: The models achieved a high validation and test set accuracy. The calculated AUC values were 1.0 in all models. Pericystic fibrosis and necrotic areas, as well as germinative and laminated layers of the metacestodes played an important role in decision tasks according to the superimposed GradCAM heatmaps. CONCLUSION: Deep learning models achieved a high predictive performance in classifying E. multilocularis liver lesions. A possible next step could be to validate the model using other datasets and test it against other pathologic entities as well, such as, for example, Echinococcus granulosus infection.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus multilocularis , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Humanos , Equinococose/parasitologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0011031, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595544

RESUMO

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic and fatal infectious parasitic disease, which has not been well-researched. Current recommended therapies for AE by the World Health Organization include complete removal of the infected tissue followed by two years of albendazole (ABZ), administered orally, which is the only effective first-line anti-AE drug. Unfortunately, in most cases, complete resection of AE lesions is impossible, requiring ABZ administration for even longer periods. Only one-third of patients experienced complete remission or cure with such treatments, primarily due to ABZ's low solubility and low bioavailability. To improve ABZ bioavailability, albendazole bile acid derivative (ABZ-BA) has been designed and synthesized. Its structure was identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Its physicochemical properties were evaluated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and polarizing microscopy; it was compared with ABZ to assess its solubilization mechanism at the molecular level. To avoid the effects of bile acid on the efficacy of albendazole, the inhibitory effect of ABZ-BA on protoscolex (PSCs)s was observed in vitro. The inhibitory effect of ABZ-BA on PSCs was evaluated by survival rate, ultrastructural changes, and the expression of key cytokines during PSC apoptosis. The results showed that ABZ-BA with 4-amino-1-butanol as a linker was successfully prepared. Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the molecular arrangement of ABZ-BA presents a short-range disordered amorphous state, which changes the drug morphology compared with crystalline ABZ. The equilibrium solubility of ABZ-BA was 4-fold higher than ABZ in vitro. ABZ-BA relative bioavailability (Frel) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was 26-fold higher than ABZ in vivo. The inhibitory effect of ABZ-BA on PSCs was identical to that of ABZ, indicating that adding bile acid did not affect the efficacy of anti-echinococcosis. In the pharmacodynamics study, it was found that the ABZ-BA group had 2.7-fold greater than that of Albenda after 1 month of oral administration. The relative bioavailability of ABZ-BA is significantly better than ABZ due to the transformation of the physical state from a crystalline state to an amorphous state. Furthermore, sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) expressed in the apical small intestine has a synergistic effect through the effective transport of bile acids. Therefore, we concluded that the NC formulation could potentially be developed to improve anti-AE drug therapy.


Assuntos
Albendazol , Equinococose , Ratos , Animais , Albendazol/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/patologia
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(6): 611-615, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Echinococcus infection in small mammals in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into echinococcosis control in Shiqu County. METHODS: One setting with frequent activity of small mammals was sampled as the survey site from each of 9 townships where human alveolar echinococcosis was hyperendemic, in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2020. Two quadrats measuring 50 m × 50 m were assigned in each survey site during the period between July and August from 2015 to 2020 to capture all small mammals in quadrats, and the species of small mammals were identified by morphological characteristics. All captured small mammals were dissected in the field and Echinococcus infection was identified by visual examinations. The affected organs of Echinococcus - infected small mammals were collected, and Echinococcus infection was detected using PCR assay, with Echinococcus species characterized. The prevalence of Echinococcus infection was calculated in small mammals, and the trends in the prevalence of Echinococcus infection were analyzed during the period from 2015 to 2020. In addition, the prevalence of Echinococcus infection was compared in small mammals using visual examinations and PCR assay. RESULTS: A total of 2 692 small mammals were captured in the survey sites of Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020, and morphology characterized 1 360 Microtus fuscus (50.52%) and 1 332 Plateau pika (49.48%). The prevalence rates of Echinococcus infection were 35.63%, 19.16%, 21.41%, 8.40%, 7.68% and 4.44% by visual examinations and 18.96%, 5.36%, 5.61%, 4.58%, 3.30% and 0.37% by PCR assay in small mammals in Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020, both showing a tendency towards a decline year by year (χ2 = 215.024 and 117.045, both P values < 0.001). The prevalence of Echinococcus infection was significantly higher in small mammals by visual examinations than by PCR assay during the period from 2015 to 2020 except in 2018 (χ2= 33.597, 21.815, 51.373, 17.268 and 9.537, all P values < 0.01). PCR assay detected a reduction in the prevalence of E. multilocularis infection from 10.21% to 0.37% and a reduction in the prevalence of E. shiquicus infection from 8.75% to 0 in small mammals in Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020, both appearing a tendency towards a decline year by year (χ2 = 117.045 and 43.436, both P values < 0.001). In addition, the prevalence of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus infections reduced from 15.19% to 0.45% and from 8.23% to 0 in M. fuscus, and the prevalence of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus infections reduced from 7.76% to 0 and from 9.01% to 0 in P. pika in Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: M. fuscus and P. pika were dominant species of small mammals in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2020, and E. multilocularis infection was mainly found in M. fuscus and E. shiquicus infection mainly found in P. pika. The prevalence of Echinococcus infection appeared a tendency towards a decline in both M. fuscus and P. pika year by year during the period from 2015 to 2020.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Lagomorpha , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/genética , Mamíferos , Arvicolinae , China/epidemiologia
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(1): 426-430, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have evaluated 12 patients with cerebral alveolar echinococcosis (AE). All patients underwent surgery for cerebral AE. We aimed to demonstrate the relationship between the demographic properties of patients and surgical outcomes as well as surgical suggestions about surgical approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were analyzed according to demographic properties, hepatic/ pulmonary AE lesion existence, symptoms, neurological and radiological examination, histopathological findings, and outcome after treatment. RESULTS: Preoperative diagnosis based on the history of the patient, neurological examination, serological tests, and radiology. When enhanced radiological imaging like MR-Tractography and intraoperative neuromonitoring is combined with precision surgical methods cerebral AE is treatable. Ten of twelve cerebral AE patients had favorable outcomes after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: AE of the brain is a rare but life-threatening parasitic disease. Wherever the primary focus is, surgery for cerebral involvement of AE is challenging but safe with appropriate surgical techniques and the help of radiological examination.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Humanos , Doenças Raras , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/cirurgia , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Hepática/cirurgia , Encéfalo/patologia
13.
Acta Trop ; 238: 106802, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565837

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a cosmopolitan distribution, and it is urgent to develop novel anti-helminthic agents. The intraperitoneal (ip) infection mice model was widely used to evaluate the efficacy of potential anti-CE compounds. Still, it's time-consuming, and the inability to achieve real-time monitoring hinders the development of potential anti-CE compounds. In this study, a CE mouse model was established by subcutaneous (sc) injection of protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E.granulosus s.s.) and used to assess the efficiency and efficacy of prospective anti-CE drugs. Compared to the ip infection CE mice model, the lesion volume of sc infection protoscoleces of E.granulosus s.s. (EgPSCs) could be measured by vernier caliper at week 6 post-infection. In contrast, the lesion volume of ip infection CE mice model was detected by ultrasound-assisted diagnosis at week 16 post-infection. Oral administration of albendazole (ABZ) could reduce cystic weight by 32.17% and 17.61%, the cystic number by 12.24% and 25.19%, and damage the ultrastructure of the cysts of E. granulosus s.s. in the sc and ip infection group, respectively. Furthermore, we found that the sc infection mice model could real-time monitor the lesion volume of E. granulosus s.s. during the ABZ and everolimus treatment. Therefore, we consider that the sc infection CE mice model is an assistant tool for screening and developing potential anti-CE compounds.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Camundongos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Equinococose/parasitologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Zoonoses/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(22): 8591-8598, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydatid echinococcosis is worm disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, that is primarily detected in the liver and lungs. This study aimed at determining the clinical tolerance and efficacy of albendazole in patients with cystic echinococcosis, depending on the volume of the previous one. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively (from 2016 to 2020 years) analyzed patients who have been treated with two treatment regimens (28-day courses with a 14-day break and continuous drug intake for 60 days), which are used in the Russian Federation. There were 110 patients (after surgery) who had hydatid echinococcosis of the liver and lungs; the diagnosis of these patients was confirmed morphologically (intra-vitam). A retrospective analysis was carried out on the following matters: (1) the duration of anti-relapse chemotherapy depending on the localization of the parasitic cyst; (2) chemotherapy's side effects and long-term relapses after treatment. We evaluated patients' tolerability of albendazole according to the level of blood cells count and hepatic enzymes. The effectiveness of anti-parasitic treatment was evaluated by imaging studies that did not reveal the growth of new parasitic cysts even in the presence of serum antibodies to echinococcal antigens. RESULTS: A correlation was found between the choice of antiparasitic treatment regimen and the frequency of adverse reactions in lab tests: more often adverse reactions (drug-induced hepatitis, anemia, granulocytopenia) occurred in patients who received a continuous treatment regimen for 60 days (p < 0.05). The frequency of relapses reached 4.5% and was more often observed in patients who received treatment for 28 days with a 14-day break. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous drug intake for 60 days is the most effective.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Equinococose , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 449, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread zoonosis and a significant economic concern and cause of morbidity in humans. A scarcity of education on the sources of CE infection and containment measures is considered to be a key factor responsible for persistent transmission within communities. Recently, edutainment approaches have captured the attention of health education (HE) professionals due to the benefits of integrating cognitive and emotional learning processes. METHODS: A study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, between 2020 and 2022, amid the SARS-Covid-19 pandemic. The project, designed to involve primary school children (via remote or face-to-face learning depending on the evolving Covid-19 containment measures) consisted of four distinct phases: (i) creation of material for school children and teachers focused on cystic echinococcosis; (ii) pre-intervention evaluation of CE knowledge (i.e. True False Don't Know [TFD] pre-intervention questionnaire based on CE-related knowledge and practices); (iii) edutainment activity (e.g. interactive lessons enhanced by the comic booklet and the "Fight the parasite" cartoon video, hands-on educational activities and drawing activities on CE); and (iv) post-intervention evaluation of CE knowledge (via TFD post-intervention questionnaire [same questionnaire as used for the pre-intervention assessment] on CE-related knowledge and practices) and on-site edutainment tour in primary schools taking part to the project. RESULTS: The percentage of correct answers increased from 65% for the questionnaire administered pre-intervention to 87.9% for the same questionnaire administered post-intervention (χ2 = 648.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001), while the percentage of uncertain answers (i.e. 'I don't know') decreased from 23% pre-intervention to 5% post-intervention (χ2 = 603.44, df = 1, P < 0.0001). These differences indicate a significantly enhanced understanding of CE among participating school children after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present survey indicate that the use of digital educational tools, the use of video animations as a model for science communication, as well as other participatory teaching methods, enabled children to retain key knowledge of the routes of CE transmission and ways to prevent it.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equinococose , Parasitos , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 552-555, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464249

RESUMO

Corrosive sclerosing cholangitis is a rare postoperative complication of hepatic cystic echinococcosis. Although corrosive sclerosing cholangitis is rare, it progresses rapidly and lacks effective treatments, which usually results in a poor prognosis. This case report retrospectively analyzed the treatment and diagnosis of a case with corrosive sclerosing cholangitis following surgical treatment of hepatic cystic echinococcosis, so as to provide insights into the diagnosis and treatment of corrosive sclerosing cholangitis.


Assuntos
Cáusticos , Colangite Esclerosante , Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Humanos , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Colangite Esclerosante/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Equinococose Hepática/complicações , Equinococose Hepática/cirurgia
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 500-506, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of establishment of ultrasound radiomics-based models for classification of hepatic echinococcosis, so as to provide insights into precision ultrasound diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis. METHODS: The ultrasonographic images were retrospectively collected from 200 patients with hepatic echinococcosis in Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province in October 2014, and the regions of interest were plotted in ultrasonographic images of hepatic echinococcosis lesions. The ultrasound radiomics features of hepatic echinococcosis were extracted with 25 methods, and screened using pre-selection and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Then, all ultrasonographic images were randomly assigned into the training and independent test sets according to the type of lesions at a ratio of 7:3. Machine learning models for classification of hepatic echinococcosis were created based on two classifiers, including kernel logistic regression (KLR) and medium Gaussian support vector machine (MGSVM). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted, and the sensitivity, specificity and areas under the curves (AUC) of the created machine learning models for classification of hepatic echinococcosis were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 5 005 ultrasound radiomics features were extracted from 200 patients with hepatic echinococcosis using 25 methods, and 36 optimal radiomics features were screened through feature selection, based on which two machine learning models were created, including KLR and MGSVM. ROC curve analysis showed that MGS-VM presented a higher efficacy for hepatic echinococcosis classification than KLR in the training set, with a sensitivity of 0.82, a specificity of 0.78 and AUC of 0.88, while KLR presented a higher efficacy for hepatic echinococcosis classification than MGSVM in the independent test set, with a sensitivity of 0.82, a specificity of 0.72 and AUC of 0.86, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound radiomics-based machine learning models are feasible for hepatic echinococcosis classification.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Humanos , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia
20.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(4): 901-902, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566426

RESUMO

Our study is relevant because our report adds further light on diagnosing and treating the isolated primary hydatid cyst disease of the breast. The purpose of this case report is to educate physicians and health care workers to keep this condition in the differential diagnosis of the breast lump even though the breast is a rare site of primary hydatid disease even in the endemic areas. Awareness of this entity can help in arriving at a pre-operative diagnosis, even without cytological examination, which is important in the management of the cyst. This is the first of its kind case being reported from Pakistan.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Animais , Humanos , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/cirurgia , Mama/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Paquistão
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