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2.
Vet Rec ; 188(10): e26, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) has been given little attention by practitioners compared to other respiratory viruses, mainly because of the lack of diagnostic modalities and association with clinical disease. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of detection of ERBV in nasal secretions from 6568 horses with acute onset of respiratory signs. METHODS: ERBV-positive qPCR results from nasal secretions submitted to a molecular diagnostic laboratory from 2013 to 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 333 ERBV qPCR-positive samples (5.1%) were detected with increasing yearly frequency since the introduction of the assay in 2013. In comparison, only three of 356 (0.8%) healthy horses tested qPCR-positive for ERBV. Median age for ERBV qPCR-positive horses was 3 years of age, and fever, coughing and nasal discharge were the most common signs reported. Further, co-infections with other respiratory pathogens were reported in 73 (21.9%) of ERBV qPCR-positive samples. CONCLUSION: ERBV is a commonly detected respiratory virus from nasal secretions of young horses presenting with fever, nasal discharge and coughing.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/virologia , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Nariz/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Animais , Tosse/veterinária , Feminino , Febre/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
3.
Virol J ; 13: 94, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among all known picornaviruses, only two species, equine rhinitis A virus and equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) are known to infect horses, causing respiratory infections. No reports have described the detection of ERBV in fecal samples of horses and no complete genome sequences of ERBV3 are available. METHODS: We performed a molecular epidemiology study to detect ERBVs in horses from Dubai and Hong Kong. Complete genome sequencing of the ERBVs as well as viral loads and genome, phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis were performed on the positive samples. RESULTS: ERBV was detected in four (13.8 %) of the 29 fecal samples in horses from Dubai, with viral loads 8.28 × 10(3) to 5.83 × 10(4) copies per ml, but none of the 47 fecal samples in horses from Hong Kong by RT-PCR. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that three of the four strains were ERBV3 and one was ERBV2. The major difference between the genomes of ERBV3 and those of ERBV1 and ERBV2 lied in the amino acid sequences of their VP1 proteins. The Ka/Ks ratios of all the coding regions in the ERBV3 genomes were all <0.1, suggesting that ERBV3 were stably evolving in horses. Using the uncorrelated lognormal distributed relaxed clock model on VP1 gene, the date of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of ERBV3 was estimated to be 1785 (HPDs, 1176 to 1937) and the MRCA dates of ERBV1 and ERBV2 were estimated to be 1848 (HPDs, 1466 to 1949) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both acid stable (ERBV3) and acid labile (ERBV2) ERBVs could be found in fecal samples of horses. Detection of ERBVs in fecal samples would have implications for their transmission and potential role in gastrointestinal diseases as well as fecal sampling as an alternative method of identifying infected horses.


Assuntos
Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Animais , Erbovirus/classificação , Erbovirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 25(5): 641-4, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23960171

RESUMO

Respiratory infections are a major burden in the performance horse industry. Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) has been isolated from horses displaying clinical respiratory disease, and ERBV-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in 50-80% of horses in reported surveys. Current ERBV isolation and detection methods may underestimate the number of ERBV-positive animals and do not identify multiple serotype infections. The aim of the current study was to develop a serotyping ERBV antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and examine the seroprevalence of ERBV in a group of Australian weanling horses. ELISAs with high sensitivity and specificity were developed. The seroprevalence of ERBV in the weanling horses was high (74-86%); ERBV-3 antibodies were most prevalent (58-62%) and ERBV-2 antibodies were least prevalent (10-16%). Many horses were seropositive to 2 or more serotypes. All 3 serotypes of ERBV were detected, and concurrent positivity to multiple serotypes was common.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/sangue , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 8: 120, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22830930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine rhinitis viruses A and B (ERAV and ERBV) are common equine respiratory viruses belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Sero-surveillance studies have shown that these two viral infections are prevalent in many countries. Currently, the diagnosis of ERAV and ERBV infections in horses is mainly based on virus isolation (VI). However, the sensitivity of VI testing varies between laboratories due to inefficient viral growth in cell culture and lack of cytopathic effect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop molecular diagnostic assays (real-time RT-PCR [rRT-PCR] and conventional RT-PCR [cRT-PCR] assays) to detect and distinguish ERAV from ERBV without the inherent problems traditionally associated with laboratory diagnosis of these infections. RESULTS: Three rRT-PCR assays targeting the 5'-UTR of ERAV and ERBV were developed. One assay was specific for ERAV, with the two remaining assays specific for ERBV. Additionally, six cRT-PCR assays targeting the 5'-UTR and 3D polymerase regions of ERAV and ERBV were developed. Both rRT-PCR and cRT-PCR assays were evaluated using RNA extracted from 21 archived tissue culture fluid (TCF) samples previously confirmed to be positive for ERAV (n = 11) or ERBV (n = 10) with mono-specific rabbit antisera. The ERAV rRT-PCR and cRT-PCR assays could only detect ERAV isolates and not ERBV isolates. Similarly, the ERBV rRT-PCR and cRT-PCR assays could only detect ERBV isolates and not ERAV isolates. None of the rRT-PCR or cRT-PCR assays cross-reacted with any of the other common equine respiratory viruses. With the exception of one cRT-PCR assay, the detection limit of all of these assays was 1 plaque forming unit per ml (pfu/ml). CONCLUSION: The newly developed rRT-PCR and cRT-PCR assays provide improved diagnostic capability for the detection and differentiation of ERAV and ERBV. However, a larger number of clinical specimens will need to be tested before each assay is adequately validated for the detection of ERAV and/or ERBV in suspect cases of either viral infection.


Assuntos
Aphthovirus/isolamento & purificação , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Animais , Aphthovirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Erbovirus/genética , Coelhos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sorotipagem
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 155(2-4): 128-36, 2012 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21930350

RESUMO

Erbovirus is a genus of the family Picornaviridae and equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) is the sole species. Erboviruses infect horses causing acute respiratory disease and sub-clinical and persistent infections. Despite the high seroprevalence and worldwide distribution of these viruses, the pathogenesis and antigenic structure of the three ERBV serotypes (ERBV1, 2 and 3) is poorly understood. To characterise linear epitopes on ERBV structural proteins, a set of fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. These proteins were tested in Western blot and ELISA and reactive proteins were also used to identify neutralisation epitopes. VP1 contained serotype specific epitopes whereas VP2 was highly cross-reactive across the serotypes. The C-terminus of VP1 accounted for most of the reactivity of full-length VP1 and was also the location of a neutralising site in each serotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Erbovirus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Western Blotting , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Erbovirus/genética , Cavalos/imunologia
7.
Virus Res ; 155(2): 506-13, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21185890

RESUMO

Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) is the single species in the genus Erbovirus, family Picornaviridae. Equine rhinitis B viruses exist in three serotypes and are associated with respiratory disease in horses. Members of the species vary in stability at acid pH. To date there has been discordance in genotype, serotype and acid stability phenotype groupings. To identify capsid regions associated with acid stability, two viruses were serially treated at pH 3.3 to isolate acid-stable mutants. An acid-stable mutant of the prototype acid-labile serotype 1 virus contained a single amino acid change in the C-terminus of VP1. Similar treatment with a separate isolate identified a multiple ERBV serotype infection with acid-labile serotype 1 and acid-stable serotype 3. Dual infections were subsequently identified in original swabs taken from the infected horse and from two further cell culture passaged viruses originally isolated in Switzerland. Serotype specific rat antisera were produced and used to examine a collection of isolates from a range of genotypes, acid stability phenotypes and serotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we showed viruses previously classified as acid-stable serotype 1 are in fact serotype 3 and that there is a clear association of serotype with genotype and acid stability phenotype in ERBVs. Additionally, we have shown that ERBV capsids dissociate into pentamers in acidic conditions below their threshold of stability, similarly to closely related viruses in the same family.


Assuntos
Erbovirus/genética , Erbovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Erbovirus/classificação , Genótipo , Cavalos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Coelhos , Ratos
8.
Equine Vet J ; 42(2): 98-104, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20156243

RESUMO

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine rhinitis viruses (ERV) cause respiratory disease and loss of performance in horses. It has been suggested that the economic significance of these viruses may have been underestimated due to insensitive methods of detection. OBJECTIVES: To develop a sensitive, rapid, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay suitable for the routine diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of the A and B variants of ERV. METHODS: TaqMan primer probe sets for ERAV and ERBV were designed from conserved regions of the 5' UTR of the ERV genome. Over 400 samples from both clinically affected and asymptomatic horses were employed for validation of the assays. ERAV samples positive by rRT-PCR were verified by virus isolation and ERBV positive samples were verified by rRT-PCR using a different set of primers. RESULTS: The detection limit of the rRT-PCR for both viruses was 10-100 genome copies. Of 250 archival nasal swabs submitted for diagnostic testing over a 7 year period, 29 were ERAV positive and 3 were ERBV positive with an average incidence rate per year of 10 and 1.5%, respectively. There was evidence of co-circulation of ERAV and ERBV with equine influenza virus (EIV). Of 100 post race urine samples tested, 29 were ERAV positive by rRT-PCR. Partial sequencing of 2 ERBV positive samples demonstrated that one was 100% identical to ERBV1 from a 270 bp sequence and the other was more closely related to ERBV2 than ERBV1 (95% compared to 90% nucleotide identity in 178 bp). CONCLUSIONS: The rRT-PCR assays described here are specific and more sensitive than virus isolation. They have good reproducibility and are suitable for the routine diagnosis of ERAV and ERBV. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: These assays should be useful for investigating the temporal association between clinical signs and rhinitis virus shedding.


Assuntos
Aphthovirus/isolamento & purificação , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Animais , Aphthovirus/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Erbovirus/genética , Cavalos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
J Virol Methods ; 155(2): 175-81, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19013197

RESUMO

Equine rhinitis A and B viruses (ERAV and ERBV) are respiratory viruses of horses belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Although these viruses are considered to cause respiratory disease in horses and are potentially infectious for humans, little is known about their prevalence and pathogenesis. Virus isolation is often unsuccessful due to their inefficient growth and lack of cytopathic effect in cell cultures. Therefore, molecular assays should be considered as the method of choice to detect infection in symptomatic or apparently healthy horses. In the present study, a novel real-time duplex PCR was developed for the detection and differentiation of both ERAV and ERBV. The method was evaluated for its ability to detect viral RNA in cell culture supernatants and nasal swabs, and lung and urine spiked with known quantities of virus. The assay demonstrated high analytical specificity, sensitivity and good reproducibility, with coefficients of variation (CV%) ranging from 1% to 7.4% and from 1.2% to 12% for intra- and inter-assay variability respectively. The assay detected ERBV in 14 of 86 nasal swabs collected from horses with respiratory disease. The real-time duplex PCR is a useful new diagnostic method for the rapid detection and differentiation of ERAV and ERBV.


Assuntos
Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Rinite/veterinária , Animais , Primers do DNA , Erbovirus/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rinite/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taq Polimerase
10.
Virus Res ; 140(1-2): 205-8, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19041914

RESUMO

Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), genus Erbovirus, is most closely related to the Cardiovirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. The structural proteins (VP1-4) of erboviruses are not well described, but are predicted by sequence to be 35, 29, 26 and 7 kDa. Methods for the purification of cardioviruses (polyethylene glycol, trypsin treatment) were used to characterise the structural proteins of ERBV1. Only one of the virus proteins detected was an expected molecular mass, and this 26 kDa protein was identified as VP3 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. N-terminal sequencing of the 56 and a 29 kDa protein identified sequences consistent with VP2 and VP1 respectively, despite these being 27 kDa larger and 6 kDa smaller than predicted. Virus purified without trypsin showed proteins more consistent with masses predicted for VP1, VP2 and VP3 at 35, 29 and 26 kDa respectively. These proteins were further identified with antibodies affinity purified to recombinant VP1, VP2, VP3 produced in E. coli. Interestingly, antibodies affinity purified to the non-structural protein 3C(pro), produced in insect cells, strongly detected a 27 kDa protein in western blots of virus purified with and without trypsin treatment, suggesting the non-structural 27 kDa 3C(pro) co-purifies with ERBV1 virions.


Assuntos
Erbovirus/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/isolamento & purificação , Vírion/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Peso Molecular , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
11.
Acta Vet Hung ; 56(2): 265-70, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18669254

RESUMO

Equine rhinitis B virus 1 (ERBV1), genus Erbovirus, family Picornaviridae, is a pathogen of horses which causes clinical and subclinical infection of the upper respiratory tract in horses. The virus is widespread in European horse populations and the current standard method for the detection of antibody against ERBV1 is by virus neutralisation (VN). VN tests, however, are labour-intensive and time-consuming, require tissue culture facilities, and generally do not provide same-day results. In this study, a protocol for the high-level expression and purification of recombinant virion protein 1 (rVP1) was established using metal-chelate affinity chromatography under denaturing condition. When used as a coating antigen in a prototype enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), denatured rVP1 was recognised by ERBV1 antibody present in horse serum. This finding suggests that denatured rVP1 is a promising candidate for the development of an ELISA to be used in the routine laboratory diagnosis of ERBV1 infection in horses.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Epitopos de Linfócito B/análise , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/química , Erbovirus/imunologia , Cavalos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
12.
Aust Vet J ; 85(1-2): 46-50, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17300454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of viruses with acute febrile respiratory disease in horses. Design Nasal swab and serum samples were collected from 20 horses with acute febrile upper respiratory disease that was clinically assessed to have a viral origin. METHODS: Each of the samples was inoculated onto equine fetal kidney, RK13 and Vero cell cultures, and viral nucleic acid was extracted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription PCR. PCR primers were designed to amplify nucleic acid from viruses known to cause or be associated with acute febrile respiratory disease in horses in Australia. A type specific ELISA was used to measure equine herpesvirus (EHV1 and EHV4) antibody, and serum neutralisation assays were used to measure equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and equine rhinitis B virus 1 and 2 (ERBV1 and ERBV2) antibody titres in serum samples. RESULTS: Virus was isolated from 4 of 20 nasal swab samples. There were three isolations of EHV4 and one of ERBV2. By PCR, virus was identified in the nasal swab samples of 12 of the 20 horses. Of the 12 horses [corrected] that were positive, 17 viruses were detected as follows: there was [corrected] one triple positive (EHV4, EHV2, and EHV5), three double positives (EHV4, ERBV and EHV5, ERBV (2 horses)) and 8 [corrected] single positives (EHV4 (2 horses), EHV5 (3 horses) and ERBV (3 [corrected] horses). CONCLUSION: By virus isolation and PCR, 17 viruses were identified in nasal swab samples from 12 of 20 horses that had acute febrile respiratory disease consistent with a diagnosis of virus infection. Initial PCR identification and subsequent virus isolation led to the isolation of ERBV2 for the first time in Australia and the second time anywhere of ERBV2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Varicellovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aphthovirus/isolamento & purificação , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 119(1): 65-71, 2007 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17046179

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of serum neutralising (SN) antibody to ERAV, ERBV1 and ERBV2 in a population of horses from birth to 22 years of age. The prevalences of ERAV, ERBV1 and ERBV2 SN antibodies in 381 sera obtained from 291 horses were 37%, 83% and 66%, respectively. ERAV, ERBV1 and ERBV2 maternal antibody was present in foals 12 h postsuckling but by 10-12 months, ERAV SN antibody was not detected in any of the horses, while ERBV1 and ERBV2 SN antibodies were common (83% and 100%, respectively). Sera were obtained from 44 Thoroughbred horses when they were newly introduced into a training centre when their average age was 23 months and a second sample was obtained approximately 7 months later. ERAV SN antibody was present in 8 (18%) when first bled and in 27 (61%) when tested 7 months later. Accordingly 19 of the 44 horses (43%) seroconverted to ERAV within 7 months of entering the training stable. Among all the horses the average ERAV SN antibody titre was relatively high (3796) and in contrast, ERBV1 and ERBV2 titres were relatively low (average 84 and 45, respectively) and often fell to below detectable levels over time and at a rate comparable to new seroconversions in the same group of horses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aphthovirus/imunologia , Erbovirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
Arch Virol ; 152(1): 137-49, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16932985

RESUMO

Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), genus Erbovirus, family Picornaviridae occurs as two serotypes, ERBV1 and ERBV2. An ERBV-specific nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that amplified a product within the 3D(pol) and 3' non-translated region of the viral genome was developed. The RT-PCR detected all 24 available ERBV1 isolates and one available ERBV2 isolate. The limit of detection for the prototype strain ERBV1.1436/71 was 0.1 50% tissue culture infectious doses. The RT-PCR was used to detect viral RNA in six of 17 nasopharyngeal swab samples from horses that had clinical signs of acute febrile respiratory disease but from which ERBV was not initially isolated in cell culture. The sequences of these six ERBV RT-PCR positive samples had 93-96% nucleotide identity with six other partially sequenced ERBV1 isolates and one ERBV2. ERBV was isolated from one of the six samples at fourth cell culture passage when it was shown that the addition of 20 mg/mL MgCl(2) to the cell culture medium enhanced the growth of the virus. This isolated virus was antigenically similar to ERBV2.313/75. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the P1 region of the genome also indicated that the isolate was ERBV2, and it was therefore designated ERBV2.1576/99. This is the first reported isolation of ERBV in Australia. The study highlights the utility of PCR for the identification of viruses in clinical samples that may initially be considered negative by conventional cell culture isolation.


Assuntos
Erbovirus/genética , Erbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais , Austrália , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Primers do DNA/genética , Erbovirus/classificação , Erbovirus/imunologia , Produtos do Gene pol/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Testes de Neutralização , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sorotipagem
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