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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115581, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948141

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Grayanoids are natural diterpenoids that are mostly found in the Ericaceae family, such as Rhododendron molle (Blume) G. Don (Relevant herb: nao yang hua), Rhododendron micranthum Turcz (also known as: zhao shan bai), which have traditionally been used to treat abdominal pain, cephalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: The review investigated advancements in notable anti-nociception, toxicity, and probable mechanisms of grayanoids. Meanwhile some binding sites of these compounds on voltage-gated sodium channels (VSGCs) were also analyzed and evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The substantial grayanoids literature published before 2022, in SCI Finder, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Scopus, Wiley Online Library, J-Stage, and other literature databases had been exhaustively consulted and thoroughly screened. RESULTS: More than 50 compounds in grayanoids exhibited exceptionally significant anti-nociception (intraperitoneal injection, less than 1 mg/kg), and the alteration of several substituents that were closely associated to the change in activity were investigated. Multiple possible mechanisms of analgesic action and toxicity had been proposed, with VSGCs playing a key part in both. As a result, the binding locations of these compounds on VGSCs (mostly grayanotoxin I and III) had been summarized. CONCLUSIONS: The considerable anti-nociception, toxicity, and probable mechanisms of grayanoids, as well as the investigation of the binding sites on VSGCs, were discussed in this review. Furthermore, the homology of toxicity and anti-nociception of these substances was considered, as well as the possibility of grayanoids being developed as analgesics.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Rhododendron , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Ericaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhododendron/química
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14498, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008434

RESUMO

The importance of plant chemistry in the host specialization of phytophagous insects has been emphasized. However, only a few chemicals associated with host shifting have been characterized. Herein, we focus on the leaf-mining moth Acrocercops transecta (Gracillariidae) consisting of ancestral Juglans (Juglandaceae)- and derived Lyonia (Ericaceae)-associated host races. The females of the Lyonia race laid eggs on a cover glass treated with an L. ovalifolia leaf extract; the extract was fractionated using silica gel and ODS column chromatography to isolate the oviposition stimulants. From a separated fraction, two analogous Lyonia-specific triterpenoid glycosides were characterized as oviposition stimulants. Furthermore, we observed probable contact chemosensilla on the distal portion of the female antennae. Lyonia race females laid their eggs on the non-host Juglans after the leaves were treated with a Lyonia-specific oviposition stimulant, although they do not lay eggs on Juglans. These results suggest that Lyonia race females do not lay eggs on Juglans leaves because the leaves do not contain specific oviposition stimulant(s). Otherwise, the activity of the oviposition stimulants overcomes oviposition deterrents contained in Juglans leaves. This paper describes the roles of plant chemicals in the different preferences between host races associated with distantly related plant taxa.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Juglandaceae , Juglans , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Oviposição , Folhas de Planta
3.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 73(2): 158-168, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792769

RESUMO

Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey (STH), also known as "bitter honey", is a traditional medicine widely used in the Mediterranean area. Regardless of geographical origin, it usually has a very high content of phenolic compounds and strong antioxidant capacity. Yet, little is still known about the effects of STH, its phenolic extract (STHE), and its main bioactive compound - homogentisic acid (HGA) - at the cell level. The aim of this study was to estimate total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power of STH made in Croatia and investigate cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects of STH, STHE and HGA on three human cell lines: tongue squamous cell carcinoma (CAL 27), hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) cells. These substances were tested at four concentrations (0.5-5× average human daily intake of STH) and over 30 min and 1 and 2 h. Croatian STH had a total phenolic content of 1.67 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per kg of honey, DPPH radical scavenging activity of 2.96 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE) per kg of honey, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of 13.5 mmol Fe2+ per kg of honey. Our results show no clear and consistent time- or concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in any of the cell lines. ROS levels in all the three cell types at almost all exposure times were not significantly higher than control. The most important observation is that the tested substances have low cytotoxicity and high biocompatibility, regardless of concentration, which is a good starting point for further research of their biological effects in other models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Ericaceae , Ácido Homogentísico , Mel , Extratos Vegetais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Células CACO-2 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Cromanos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Ericaceae/química , Ácido Gálico , Células Hep G2 , Ácido Homogentísico/farmacologia , Humanos , Ferro/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Neoplasias da Língua , Árvores/química
4.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807222

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile and selected biological activities of the leaf and aerial extracts of three Ericaceae species, namely Erica multiflora, Erica scoparia, and Calluna vulgaris, collected from three different places in the north of Morocco. The phenolic composition of all extracts was determined by LC coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Among the investigated extracts, that of E. scoparia aerial parts was the richest one, with a total amount of polyphenols of 9528.93 mg/kg. Up to 59 phenolic compounds were detected: 52 were positively identified and 49 quantified-11 in C. vulgaris, 14 in E. multiflora, and 24 in E. scoparia. In terms of chemical classes, nine were phenolic acids and 43 were flavonoids, and among them, the majority belonged to the class of flavonols. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was investigated by three different in vitro methods, namely DPPH, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating assays; E. scoparia aerial part extract was the most active, with an IC50 of 0.142 ± 0.014 mg/mL (DPPH test) and 1.898 ± 0.056 ASE/mL (reducing power assay). Further, all extracts were non-toxic against Artemia salina, thus indicating their potential safety. The findings attained in this work for such Moroccan Ericaceae species, never investigated so far, bring novelty to the field and show them to be valuable sources of phenolic compounds with interesting primary antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Calluna , Ericaceae , Scoparia , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Ericaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 342, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhododendron molle (Ericaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used to treat rheumatism and relieve pain since ancient times. The characteristic grayanoids of this plant have been demonstrated to be the chemical basis for the analgesic activity. Moreover, unlike morphine, these diterpenoids are non-addictive. Grayanoids mainly distribute in the leaves, flowers, roots, and fruits of R. molle, with low content. Currently the research on the biosynthesis of grayanoids is hindered, partially due to lack of the genomic information. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 744 Mb sequences were generated and assembled into 13 chromosomes. An ancient whole-genome duplication event (Ad-ß) was discovered that occurred around 70 million years ago. Tandem and segmental gene duplications led to specific gene expansions in the terpene synthase and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene families. Two diterpene synthases were demonstrated to be responsible for the biosynthesis of 16α-hydroxy-ent-kaurane, the key precursor for grayanoids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a species-specific bloom of the CYP71AU subfamily, which may involve the candidate CYP450s responsible for the biosynthesis of grayanoids. Additionally, three putative terpene biosynthetic gene clusters were found. CONCLUSIONS: We reported the first genome assembly of R. molle and investigated the molecular basis underpinning terpenoids biosynthesis. Our work provides a foundation for elucidating the complete biosynthetic pathway of grayanoids and studying the terpenoids diversity in R. molle.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Ericaceae , Rhododendron , Cromossomos , Ericaceae/genética , Filogenia , Rhododendron/genética
6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 86(9): 1200-1206, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776954

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites in plants influence the health of herbivores such as Japanese rock ptarmigans that feed on the leaves and fruits of alpine plants. Thus, it is important to understand the secondary metabolites of alpine plants and their biological activities for conserving Japanese rock ptarmigans. We isolated C-methylflavone from the leaves of Kalmia procumbens, on which Japanese rock ptarmigans feed. Although its structure was deduced to be 8-demethyleucalyptin by comparing its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data with the reported ones, the possibility that the isolated compound is 6-demethyleucalyptin cannot be ruled out. Thus, both isomers were synthesized. The isolated compound was unambiguously determined to be 8-demethyleucalyptin by comparing its NMR data with those of the synthetic ones. Cytotoxic evaluation of 8- and 6-demethyleucalyptins revealed that only the former showed cytotoxicity against HCT116 and MRC-5 cells. The present study provides not only easy access to 8- and 6-demethyleucalyptins, but also their biological information.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Ericaceae , Folhas de Planta/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11013, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773465

RESUMO

Plants harbor in their external surfaces and internal tissues a highly diverse and finely structured microbial assembly, the microbiota. Each plant compartment usually represents a unique ecological niche hosting a distinct microbial community and niche differentiation, which may mirror distinct functions of a specialized microbiota, has been mainly investigated for bacteria. Far less is known for the fungal components of the plant-associated microbiota. Here, we applied a metabarcoding approach to describe the fungal assemblages in different organs of Vaccinium myrtillus plants (Ericaceae) collected in a subalpine meadow in North-West Italy, and identified specific taxa enriched in internal tissues of roots, stems, leaves and flowers. We also traced the distribution of some important fungi commonly associated with plants of the family Ericaceae, namely the ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi and the dark septate endophytes (DSE), both playing important roles in plant growth and health. Operational taxonomic units attributed to established ErM fungal species in the genus Hyaloscypha and to DSE species in the Phialocephala-Acephala applanata complex (PAC) were found in all the plant organs. Mycorrhizal fungi are thought to be strictly associated with the plant roots, and this first observation of ErM fungi in the above-ground organs of the host plant may be explained by the evolutionary closeness of ErM fungi in the genus Hyaloscypha with non mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. This is also witnessed by the closer similarities of the ErM fungal genomes with the genomes of plant endophytes than with those of other mycorrhizal fungi, such as arbuscular or ectomycorrhizal fungi.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Fungos/classificação , Micorrizas , Vaccinium myrtillus/microbiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Itália , Micobioma , Micorrizas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
8.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(3): 783-791, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417010

RESUMO

Blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest in American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (Ericales: Ericaceae) and wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton (Ericales: Ericaceae), and has been observed in areas of high soil and foliar nutrient levels. New management strategies, including fertilization, will need to be altered to sustain wild blueberry production under climate change and, in turn, may impact the occurrence of this pest. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer application on density of infested stems and the combined effects of fertilizer application with and without infestation on wild blueberry systems. This study was conducted at two field sites in Jonesboro and Washington, ME during 2020 and 2021. Despite increases in habitat availability (blueberry cover) for the gall midge and greater infestation density, wild blueberry production benefited from DAP application. This was shown in the number of buds per stem at both sites, as well as in stem height, flowers, green fruit, blue fruit per stem, and total yield at the Washington site. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus levels had a significant positive linear relationship with infestation density. Growers applying fertilizers should monitor blueberry gall midge field infestation levels due to our findings that DAP fertilizer impacted infestation density and the interaction of DAP fertilizer with infestation impacted wild blueberry production.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Dípteros , Ericaceae , Ericales , Fármacos para a Fertilidade , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Fertilizantes
9.
Mol Ecol ; 31(11): 3083-3097, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364616

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects have evolved counteradaptations to overcome the chemical defences of their host plants. Several of these counteradaptations have been elucidated at the molecular level, in particular for insects specialized on cruciferous host plants. While the importance of these counteradaptations for host plant colonization is well established, little is known about their microevolutionary dynamics in the field. In particular, it is not known whether and how host plant diversity shapes diversity in insect counteradaptations. In this study, we examine patterns of host plant use and insect counteradaptation in three Pieris butterfly species across Japan. The larvae of these butterflies express nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) and its paralogue major allergen (MA) in their gut to overcome the highly diversified glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system of their cruciferous host plants. Pieris napi and Pieris melete colonize wild Brassicaceae whereas Pieris rapae typically uses cultivated Brassica as a host, regardless of the local composition of wild crucifers. As expected, NSP and MA diversity was independent of the local composition of wild Brassicaceae in P. rapae. In contrast, NSP diversity correlated with local host plant diversity in both species that preferred wild Brassicaceae. Both P. melete and P. napi revealed two distinct major NSP alleles, which shaped diversity among local populations, albeit with different evolutionary trajectories. In comparison, MA showed no indication for local adaptation. Altogether, MA appeared to be evolutionary more conserved than NSP, suggesting that both genes play different roles in diverting host plant chemical defence.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Borboletas , Ericaceae , Animais , Brassicaceae/química , Borboletas/genética , Glucosinolatos/genética , Insetos , Larva/genética
10.
Food Funct ; 13(9): 5442-5454, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475440

RESUMO

The plant kingdom is an endless source of molecules that can be applied in almost all realms of society. The food industry has profited from the use of plants and their derived materials for many decades. Recently, the food industry has been looking into plants to find different ways of either preserving, coloring or sweetening foods. In this work, leaf extracts of Arbutus unedo L. obtained by dynamic maceration and ultrasound assisted extraction with prior optimization of their extraction conditions through the response-surface methodology, were incorporated in quark cheese as natural preservatives and analyzed over 8 days of shelf-life. Both extracts showed antioxidant activity with no toxicity towards primary cell lines at the maximum tested concentration, as well as antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-positive strains. After their incorporation in quark cheese, no significant changes were observed in the nutritional profile and physical traits of the quark cheeses, while the microbial load was highly reduced in the cheese, especially using the extracts obtained from dynamic maceration. Thus, leaf extracts of A. unedo can be promising candidates for use in the food industry as natural preservatives.


Assuntos
Queijo , Ericaceae , Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255111

RESUMO

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a member of the Heath family (Ericaceae) and is a temperate low-growing woody perennial native to North America that is both economically important and has significant health benefits. While some native varieties are still grown today, breeding programs over the past 50 years have made significant contributions to improving disease resistance, fruit quality and yield. An initial genome sequence of an inbred line of the wild selection 'Ben Lear,' which is parent to multiple breeding programs, provided insight into the gene repertoire as well as a platform for molecular breeding. Recent breeding efforts have focused on leveraging the circumboreal V. oxycoccos, which forms interspecific hybrids with V. macrocarpon, offering to bring in novel fruit chemistry and other desirable traits. Here we present an updated, chromosome-resolved V. macrocarpon reference genome, and compare it to a high-quality draft genome of V. oxycoccos. Leveraging the chromosome resolved cranberry reference genome, we confirmed that the Ericaceae has undergone two whole genome duplications that are shared with blueberry and rhododendron. Leveraging resequencing data for 'Ben Lear' inbred lines, as well as several wild and elite selections, we identified common regions that are targets of improvement. These same syntenic regions in V. oxycoccos, were identified and represent environmental response and plant architecture genes. These data provide insight into early genomic selection in the domestication of a native North American berry crop.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Domesticação , Ericaceae/genética , Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Vaccinium macrocarpon/genética
12.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335191

RESUMO

The aim of this study is the development of an automated method for myeloperoxidase activity evaluation and its application in testing the inhibitory action of different plant extracts on the activity of the enzyme. This enzyme has its concentration increased in inflammatory and infectious processes, so it is a possible target to limit these processes. Therefore, an automatic sequential in-jection analysis (SIA) system was optimized and demonstrated that it is possible to obtain results with satisfactory accuracy and precision. With the developed method, plant extracts were studied, as promising candidates for MPO inhibition. In the group of selected plant extracts, IC50 values from 0.029 ± 0.002 mg/mL to 35.4 ± 3.5 mg/mL were obtained. Arbutus unedo L. proved to be the most inhibitory extract for MPO based on its phenolic compound content. The coupling of an automatic SIA method to MPO inhibition assays is a good alternative to other conventional methods, due to its simplicity and speed. This work also supports the pharmacological use of these species that inhibit MPO, and exhibit activity that may be related to the treatment of infection and inflammation.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peroxidase , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0252632, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271584

RESUMO

DNA metabarcoding was employed to identify plant-derived food resources for the Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta japonica), which is registered as a natural living monument in Japan, in the Northern Japanese Alps in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, in July to October, 2015-2018. DNA metabarcoding using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of rbcL and ITS2 sequences from alpine plants found in ptarmigan fecal samples collected in the study area. The obtained sequences were analyzed using a combination of a constructed local database and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, revealed that a total of 53 plant taxa were food plant resources for ptarmigans. Of these plant taxa, 49 could be assigned to species (92.5%), three to genus (5.7%), and one to family (1.9%). Of the 23 plant families identified from the 105 fecal samples collected, the dominant families throughout all collection periods were Ericaceae (99.0% of 105 fecal samples), followed by Rosaceae (42.9%), Apiaceae (35.2%), and Poaceae (21.0%). In all of the fecal samples examined, the most frequently encountered plant species were Vaccinium ovalifolium var. ovalifolium (69.5%), followed by Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum (68.6%), Kalmia procumbens (42.9%), Tilingia ajanensis (34.3%) and V. uliginosum var. japonicum (34.3%). A rarefaction analysis for each collection period in the study revealed that the food plant resources found in the study area ranged from a minimum of 87.0% in July to a maximum of 97.5% in September, and that 96.4% of the food plant taxa were found throughout the study period. The findings showed that DNA metabarcoding using HTS to construct a local database of rbcL and ITS2 sequences in conjunction with rbcL and ITS2 sequences deposited at the NCBI, as well as rarefaction analysis, are well suited to identifying the dominant food plants in the diet of Japanese rock ptarmigans. In the windswept alpine dwarf shrub community found in the study area, dominant taxa in the Ericaceae family were the major food plant s for Japanese rock ptarmigans from July to October. This plant community therefore needs to be conserved in order to protect the food resources of Japanese rock ptarmigans in the region.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ericaceae , Animais , DNA de Plantas/genética , Fezes , Japão , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Codorniz
14.
Ann Bot ; 129(4): 443-455, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change is subjecting subarctic ecosystems to elevated temperature, increased nutrient availability and reduced light availability (due to increasing cloud cover). This may affect subarctic vegetation by altering the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and leaf anatomy. We investigated the effects of increased nutrient availability on BVOC emissions and leaf anatomy of three subarctic dwarf shrub species, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Cassiope tetragona and Betula nana, and if increased nutrient availability modifies the responses to warming and shading. METHODS: Measurements of BVOCs were performed in situ in long-term field experiments in the Subarctic using a dynamic enclosure system and collection of BVOCs into adsorbent cartridges analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaf anatomy was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Increased nutrient availability increased monoterpene emission rates and altered the emission profile of B. nana, and increased sesquiterpene and oxygenated monoterpene emissions of C. tetragona. Increased nutrient availability increased leaf tissue thicknesses of B. nana and C. tetragona, while it caused thinner epidermis and the highest fraction of functional (intact) glandular trichomes for E. hermaphroditum. Increased nutrient availability and warming synergistically increased mesophyll intercellular space of B. nana and glandular trichome density of C. tetragona, while treatments combining increased nutrient availability and shading had an opposite effect in C. tetragona. CONCLUSIONS: Increased nutrient availability may enhance the protection capacity against biotic and abiotic stresses (especially heat and drought) in subarctic shrubs under future warming conditions as opposed to increased cloudiness, which could lead to decreased resistance. The study emphasizes the importance of changes in nutrient availability in the Subarctic, which can interact with climate warming and increased cloudiness effects.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Ericaceae/fisiologia , Monoterpenos/análise , Nutrientes , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Protoplasma ; 259(3): 659-677, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282477

RESUMO

Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo, Ericaceae) is an evergreen tree with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. It has a great ecological and economic importance as a source of bioactive compounds with industrial applications and for fruit production. This study aims to characterize the fungi microbiome of this forestry species in order to develop biological control strategies in the increasing orchard production area. For this purpose, fungi endophytes were isolated from wild strawberry tree plants, and a molecular identification was carried out. In vitro assays were carried out to evaluate and characterize the antagonism of some endophytes. Among the several fungi endophytes isolated from strawberry tree (a total of 53 from 20 genera), a Trichoderma atroviride strain proved to have antagonism effect against several phytopathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Glomerella cingulata, and Mycosphaerella aurantia. This antagonism was particularly effective against Phytophthora cinnamomi, causing a reduction in growth of about 80% on this invasive oomycete. An enzymatic assay revealed the production of several enzymes by T. atroviride, such as cellulases, chitinases, glucosidases, alkaline phosphatases, and proteases, which is one of the several mechanisms known to be involved on Trichoderma biological control ability. The enzymatic activity, in particular that of cell wall-degrading enzymes, was accentuated when in a dual culture with P. cinnamomi. The production of serine proteases, aspartyl proteases, metalloproteases, and cysteine proteases was also detected in an experiment carried out in liquid medium, suggesting the involvement of these proteases on Trichoderma mycoparasitism mechanisms. Finally, in a three-way interaction with in vitro strawberry tree plants, the T. atroviride strain identified on this study (Au50) was able to protect the plants against P. cinnamomi, thus proving its potential as a biological control agent.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Phytophthora , Trichoderma , Endófitos , Peptídeo Hidrolases
16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(1): 55-68, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783044

RESUMO

Xylem conductive capacity is a key determinant of plant hydraulic function and intimately linked to photosynthesis and productivity, but can be impeded by temporary or permanent conduit dysfunctions. Here we show that persistent xylem dysfunctions in unstressed plants are frequent in Alpine dwarf shrubs and occur in various but species-specific cross-sectional patterns. Combined synchrotron micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, xylem staining, and flow measurements in saturated samples of six widespread Ericaceae species evidence a high proportion (19%-50%) of hydraulically nonfunctional xylem areas in the absence of drought stress, with regular distribution of dysfunctions between or within growth rings. Dysfunctions were only partly reversible and reduced the specific hydraulic conductivity to 1.38 to 3.57 ×10-4 m2 s-1 MPa-1 . Decommission of inner growth rings was clearly related to stem age and a higher vulnerability to cavitation of older rings, while the high proportion of nonfunctional conduits in each annual ring needs further investigations. The lower the xylem fraction contributing to the transport function, the higher was the hydraulic efficiency of conducting xylem areas. Improved understanding of the functional lifespan of xylem elements and the prevalence and nature of dysfunctions is critical to correctly assess structure-function relationships and whole-plant hydraulic strategies.


Assuntos
Ericaceae/fisiologia , Xilema/fisiologia , Áustria , Ericaceae/anatomia & histologia , Ericaceae/citologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Síncrotrons , Fatores de Tempo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/citologia
17.
Genes Genet Syst ; 96(5): 253-257, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911871

RESUMO

Rhododendron purdomii (Ericaceae) is an endangered ornamental species endemic to the Qinling Mountains of China. Due to the impact of climate change and human disturbance, R. purdomii is threatened by habitat loss, and conservation of this species is urgently needed. In this study, we developed and characterized 13 novel microsatellite markers for R. purdomii based on next-generation sequencing data. For the 13 microsatellite markers in three R. purdomii populations, the number of alleles ranged from two to 12, the number of effective alleles was from 1.000 to 8.892, Shannon's information index was from 0.000 to 2.320, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.888, respectively. Private alleles were found in all three populations. Moderate differentiation between population pairs was indicated by pairwise FST values. The microsatellite markers developed in this study will provide opportunities for examining the genetic diversity and population structure of R. purdomii and contribute to the effective conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Rhododendron , Alelos , Ericaceae/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Rhododendron/genética
18.
Am J Bot ; 108(11): 2208-2219, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606096

RESUMO

PREMISE: Mycoheterotrophic plants rely on fungi to obtain their carbon requirements. Recent experiments demonstrated the presence of endophytic bacteria associated with mycoheterotrophs. Although mycoheterotrophs show high specificity for their fungal partners, it is not known whether they also show high specificity for associated bacteria or whether the bacteria have a definite function in the symbiosis. METHODS: Two 16S rRNA sequencing experiments were designed to explore endophytic microbial community composition and function in root ball fractions of the mycoheterotroph Pterospora andromedea (Ericaceae), and rhizosphere soil and control soil 5 m away from each plant. One experiment compared microbial assemblages in fractions of six plants to those in rhizosphere and control soil samples. Another experiment documented bacterial endophyte diversity in root balls of 97 plants from across North America. RESULTS: Soil samples were similar in bacterial community structure but were significantly more diverse and less consistently structured than were bacterial communities within root balls. The proportion of endophytic bacterial species varied slightly but not their community composition despite differences in P. andromedea lineage, geography, conifer species, and fungi. Predictive metagenomic profiling of the endophytes in P. andromedea-only root ball fractions showed many of the bacterial endophytes likely function in N-metabolism and N-fixation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results document a consistent and largely invariant community of endophytic bacteria in P. andromedea across biotic and abiotic environmental conditions at a continental scale. It is unknown what role these bacteria may play in the quad-partite symbiotic network centered on P. andromedea; however, the predictive metagenomic profiling suggests a possible function in N-metabolism or N-fixation. Discovery of a ubiquitous community of endophytic bacteria with a putative function centered on N-metabolism or N-fixation could have a previously unrecognized impact on understanding of mycoheterotroph ecophysiology.


Assuntos
Endófitos , Ericaceae , Bactérias/genética , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(47): 67224-67233, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247349

RESUMO

This investigation was conducted to identify the content of metals in Calluna vulgaris (family Ericaceae), Empetrum nigrum (family Ericaceae), Festuca vivipara (family Poaceae) and Thymus praecox subsp. arcticus (family Lamiaceae), as well as in the soils where they were growing in eight geothermal heathlands in Iceland. Investigation into the vegetation of geothermal areas is crucial and may contribute to their proper protection in the future and bring more understanding under what conditions the plants respond to an ecologically more extreme situation. Plants from geothermally active sites were enriched with metals as compared to the same species from non-geothermal control sites (at an average from about 150 m from geothermal activity). The enriched metals consisted of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe and Ni in C. vulgaris; Cd, Mn and Ti in E. nigrum; Hg and Pb in F. vivipara; and Cd, Fe and Hg in T. praecox. Notably, C. vulgaris, E. nigrum, F. vivipara and T. praecox had remarkably high concentrations of Ti at levels typical of toxicity thresholds. Cd and Pb (except for C. vulgaris and F. vivipara) were not accumulated in the shoots of geothermal plants. C. vulgaris from geothermal and control sites was characterised by the highest bioaccumulation factor (BF) of Ti and Mn; E. nigrum and F. vivipara by the highest BF of Ti and Cr; and T. praecox by the highest BF of Ti and Zn compared to the other elements. In comparison with the other examined species, F. vivipara from geothermal sites had the highest concentration of Ti in above-ground parts at any concentration of plant-available Ti in soil.


Assuntos
Calluna , Ericaceae , Festuca , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Islândia , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299390

RESUMO

5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde, better known as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), is a well-known freshness parameter of honey: although mostly absent in fresh samples, its concentration tends to increase naturally with aging. However, high quantities of HMF are also found in fresh but adulterated samples or honey subjected to thermal or photochemical stresses. In addition, HMF deserves further consideration due to its potential toxic effects on human health. The processes at the origin of HMF formation in honey and in other foods, containing saccharides and proteins-mainly non-enzymatic browning reactions-can also produce other furanic compounds. Among others, 2-furaldehyde (2F) and 2-furoic acid (2FA) are the most abundant in honey, but also their isomers (i.e., 3-furaldehyde, 3F, and 3-furoic acid, 3FA) have been found in it, although in small quantities. A preliminary characterization of HMF, 2F, 2FA, 3F, and 3FA by cyclic voltammetry (CV) led to hypothesizing the possibility of a comprehensive quantitative determination of all these compounds using a simple and accurate square wave voltammetry (SWV) method. Therefore, a new parameter able to provide indications on quality of honey, named "Furanic Index" (FI), was proposed in this contribution, which is based on the simultaneous reduction of all analytes on an Hg electrode to ca. -1.50 V vs. Saturated Calomel Electrode (SCE). The proposed method, validated, and tested on 10 samples of honeys of different botanical origin and age, is fast and accurate, and, in the case of strawberry tree honey (Arbutus unedo), it highlighted the contribution to the FI of the homogentisic acid (HA), i.e., the chemical marker of the floral origin of this honey, which was quantitatively reduced in the working conditions. Excellent agreement between the SWV and Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) data was observed in all samples considered.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ericaceae/química , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furanos/análise , Mel/análise , Furaldeído/análise
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