Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 367
Filtrar
1.
Torture ; 31(1): 53-63, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to address a lack of information in the literature regarding the frequency and consequences of specific types of torture and abuse among Eritreans seeking asylum in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of Eritreans seeking asylum in the United States presenting to a human rights clinic for forensic medical and psychological evaluations based on Istanbul Protocol. Reports were eligible for inclusion if subjects: 1) immigrated from Eritrea 2) reported torture and abuse in Eritrea, 3) were 18 or older. 59 reports met inclusion criteria. Demographic features of individuals, reported history and specific types of torture, and physical and psychological sequelae were analyzed. RESULTS: Over 300 instances of torture were reported, an average of about 6 per person. The primary forms of torture reported were beating (87.7%) and forced positioning (57.9%). 90% of asylum seekers examined had physical findings which were consistent with the torture they reported, some of which had clinical as well as forensic significance. 86% of asylum seekers met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: Eritreans seeking asylum in the United States bear a high burden of post-traumatic physical and psychological morbidity.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tortura , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046432, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) and their determinants in the Eritrean urban population. DESIGN: A population-based, nation-wide, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Urban settings of Eritrea. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the general public aged ≥18 years and living in 13 urban places of Eritrea. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to select the study participants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Date were collected from July 2019 to September 2019 in a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. The collected data were double entered and analysed using Census and Survey Processing system (V.7.0) and SPSS (V.23), respectively. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test, t-tests, analysis of variance, factorial analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed. All analyses were weighted and p<0.05 was considered significant. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome variables were knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics and ABR. Secondary outcome measure was the determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice. RESULTS: A total of 2477 adults were interviewed. The mean score of knowledge and attitude of antibiotics and ABR was 10.36/20 (SD=3.51, minimum=0 and maximum=20) and 22.34/30 (SD=3.59, minimum=6 and maximum=30), respectively. Of those who used antibiotics, the proportion of at least one inappropriate practice (use of antibiotics without prescription and/or discontinuation of prescribed antibiotics before completing the full course) was 23.8%. Young age <24 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.61, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.41), male sex (AOR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.91), higher level of education (AOR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.88), and negative attitude towards appropriate use of antibiotics (AOR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.97) were found to be the significant determinants of inappropriate practice of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The gap in knowledge and inappropriate practice of antibiotics in the Eritrean urban population was widespread; requiring immediate attention from policy-makers and healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 423, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333713

RESUMO

Most parts of Eritrea are classified as arid and semi-arid land (ASALs) which are characterised by dryness, high ambient temperatures and low precipitation. The country has three different environmental landscapes: highland, Western lowland and Eastern lowland agro-ecological zones (AEZs). The geophysical and biophysical characteristics of the AEZs vary. Indigenous cattle which are mainly kept in extensive production system have to cope with the adverse climatic conditions of these AEZs. They have to adapt to the harsh climate, poor feed quality and endemic diseases and parasites and reproduction challenges in the AEZs. The underlying genetic basis of the indigenous cattle adaption to the specific AEZs in Eritrea is limited. In this study, it is hypothesized that the indigenous cattle have evolved and developed unique adaptive characteristics because of being reared in specific ecological landscapes. This was tested using the landscape genomics and analysis of selection signatures to ascertain the genetic basis of their adaptability to the nutritional and environmental constraints that characterise the AEZ conditions. The study was carried out in three different environmental landscapes: highland, Eastern lowland and Western lowland AEZs. Blood samples were collected from a total of 188 indigenous cattle populations sampled from the three AEZs. DNA was extracted and genotyped using the genotype by sequencing (GBS) method. Analysis revealed the existence of medium to high genetic diversity between and within the indigenous cattle populations. Scanning of selection signatures revealed genomic regions under positive selection. The regions harboured genes (IFNAR2, CASR, AHSG, ATP1B3, AIRE, ROBO2, SCHIP1 and PARS2) of importance for facial morphology, locomotion, mineral homeostasis, immune system and skeletal and muscle system development. Findings pointed out the influence of AEZ landscapes on the genetic differentiation of indigenous cattle appearances probably due to selection driven by diverse climatic and biophysical conditions. The differentiation is orientated towards adaptive characteristics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Genômica , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Eritreia , Genoma , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049000, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge. Dispensing of antibiotics without prescription (DAWP), a major contributor to antibiotic resistance, is extensive in Eritrea. This study was, therefore, aimed at deeply understanding, qualitatively, the pharmacy professionals' perspective on the factors that trigger DAWP and how this practice could be mitigated. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory study design was employed. SETTING: Drug retail outlets of Asmara, capital of Eritrea, and pharmaceutical services of Eritrea. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty pharmacy professionals who were owners and employees of the drug retail outlets stationed in Asmara and six key informants from the pharmaceutical services of all administrative regions of Eritrea, selected purposively, were the study participants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The data were collected using focus group discussions and key informant interviews between March and September 2020. The collected data were transcribed verbatim, translated to English and finally thematically analysed using an inductive approach. RESULTS: The main triggering factors were related to the drug retail outlet owners, dispensers, healthcare system and patients. Knowledge and attitude-based motivation, economic interest, inadequate services in health facilities, weak regulatory enforcement, inadequate training, trust and satisfaction of patients, previous successful experience, seriousness of a condition and saving time and money were reported among others as determinants of DAWP. CONCLUSIONS: The triggering factors to DAWP were found to be very complex and some of them were important that might require immediate attention from policymakers. Ensuring readily available and accessible healthcare services, empowering medicines regulation and continuing sensitisation of dispensers are highly recommended to minimise DAWP.


Assuntos
Farmácias , Farmácia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Eritreia , Humanos , Prescrições
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 281, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eritrea is the most frequent country of origin among asylum seekers in Switzerland. On their journey through the desert and across the Mediterranean Sea, Eritrea refugees are often exposed to traumatizing experiences. The aim of this study is to assess the mental health status and resilience of Eritrean migrants in Switzerland upon arrival and one-year post-arrival, using standardized mental health screening and resilience assessment tools. RESULTS: At baseline, 107 refugees (11.2% female, median age 25) were interviewed: 52 (48.6%) screened positive for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (score ≥ 30), 10.3% for anxiety (≥ 10) and 15.0% for depression (≥ 10); 17.8% scored as risk/hazardous drinkers (≥ 8). The majority (94.4%) had a high resilience score (≥ 65). For one-year follow-up, 48 asylum seekers could be reached. In interviews 18 (38%) of these reported imprisonment in a transit country and 28 (58%) that they had witnessed the death of a close person along the migration route. At the one year assessment, rates of risky/hazardous alcohol use remained unchanged, rates of positive PTSD screening tended to be lower (50.0% (24/48) at baseline vs 25.0% (12/48) at follow-up), as were rates of positive screening for anxiety (8.3% vs 4.2%) and depression (14.6 vs 6.3%).


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6642826, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150909

RESUMO

Generic medicines are clinically equivalent and can be used interchangeably for their intended use. Globally, the usage of generic medicines is highly recommended because of their affordability and accessibility. However, consumers hold a negative perception and attitude of using generic medicine as they consider it poor and having inferior quality compared to branded medicines. This study was conducted to assess the consumers' general view of generic medicines and in vitro evaluation of a locally produced generic medicine, paracetamol. An analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted in three selected hospitals, and in vitro quality control evaluation was done in National Drug Quality Control Laboratory between October 26 and November 21, 2017, in Asmara, Eritrea. A systematic random sampling design was employed, and the data was collected using a questionnaire and a check-list for recording the quality control parameters of paracetamol tablets. A total of 403 respondents were included in the study. The majority of the study participants were females (61.8%). Generally, about half (49.1%) of the respondents choose locally manufactured paracetamol over the imported ones. More than half (68.5%) of the respondents did not believe expensive medicines are of better quality. The main reason consumers prefer the local paracetamol (Azemol) tablet to the imported one was due to their good experience (62.1%). About three-fourths (78.1%) of the consumers also believed that medicines manufactured abroad confer higher quality. At the multivariate level, having educational backgrounds such as elementary (AOR = 4.19, 95% CI: 1.251, 14.035) and junior (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.146, 5.028) was associated with preferability to local paracetamol as a pain killer over the brand ones. The in vitro test of the local paracetamol met the standard specification for the identification test, weight variation test, pharmacopeial test, friability test, disintegration test, and dissolution test. In conclusion, the majority of the consumers considered local paracetamol as having an inferior quality when compared with brand paracetamol. However, the reality revealed that the local paracetamol was of the same quality as the brand ones. To facilitate widespread use of generic medicines, healthcare professionals should educate consumers on the advantages of these medicines.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/análise , Acetaminofen/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos Genéricos/análise , Medicamentos Genéricos/isolamento & purificação , Satisfação do Paciente , Percepção , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade , Tamanho da Amostra , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comprimidos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1137, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is low among East African adolescents in the US. Adolescents' preferences influence HPV vaccine decisions, yet few interventions exist that address East African adolescents' beliefs about HPV vaccines. We describe a multi-step process on how to create a theory-based comic book by integrating empirical findings, theory and focus group data from East African parents in the US. METHODS: Our multi-methods process included conducting focus groups with Somali, Ethiopian, and Eritrean mothers (n = 30) to understand mothers and adolescents socio-cultural beliefs and information needs about the HPV vaccine, creating comic book messages integrating the focus group findings, and assessing the acceptability of the finalized comic book among Somali, Ethiopian, and Eritrean adolescents (n = 134). RESULTS: We identified categories around socio-cultural beliefs (such ethnic representation and concerns about pork gelatin in vaccines), HPV vaccine information needs, and diffusion of information. We then mapped the categories to theoretical constructs and operationalized them into the comic book. Finally, we describe the overall acceptability of the comic book and specifics on comic book structure, appeal of characters, and message relevance. CONCLUSIONS: A rigorous multi-step process that integrates theory and focus group data can help create culturally appropriate health messages that can educate and appeal to the community.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Adolescente , Livros , Eritreia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Somália , Vacinação
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11323, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059763

RESUMO

Eritrea is an East African multiethnic country with an intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B. Our aim was to establish the most prevalent genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among patients with liver disease. A total of 293 Eritrean patients with liver disease who were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive were enrolled. All sera were tested for liver transaminases, HBV DNA viral load, and hepatitis B seromarkers including HBsAg, anti-HBcAb (total), HBeAg, and anti-HBeAb. Those reactive for HBsAg and anti-HBc (total) were further tested for HBV genotyping. The median (interquartile range) of HBV DNA viral load and ALT levels were 3.47 (1.66) log IU/mL and 28 (15.3) IU/L, respectively. Using type-specific primer-based genotyping method, 122/293 (41.6%) could be genotyped. Irrespective of mode of occurrence, HBV genotype D (21.3%) was the predominant circulating genotype, followed by genotypes C (17.2%), E (15.6%), C/D (13.1%), and C/E (10.7%). Genotypes C/D/E (7.4%), A/D (4.9%), D/E (4.1%), A (2.5%), and B, A/E, B/E, and A/D/C (0.8%) were also present. HBV in Eritrea is comprised of a mixture of HBV genotypes. This is the first study of HBV genotyping among patients with liver disease in Eritrea.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 198, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is important for determining optimal management and predicting prognosis in patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different phases of CHB infection among Eritrean patients and to identify the proportion of patients who are eligible for treatment according to the latest American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 293 CHB patients (213 males and 80 females) between Jan 2017 and Feb 2019. The patients were classified into immune-tolerant, immune-active, and inactive CHB phases of the infection, which is based on the results of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological panel (HBsAg, anti-HBc total, HBeAg, and anti-HBe), ALT levels, and HBV DNA viral load. The 2018 AASLD guidelines were also used to identify patients who needed treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 41.66 ± 13.84 years. Of these, 3 (1.0%) were at the immune tolerant phase, 58 (19.8%) at the immune-active CHB phase, and 232 (79.2%) at the inactive CHB phase. As most subjects (93%) were HBeAg-negative, based on AASLD guidelines, only 5 (1.7%) were currently eligible for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that CHB patients in Eritrea were predominantly in the inactive CHB phase. Although initiating antiviral therapy is not recommended in these patients, periodic assessment of liver function and disease severity should be considered in patients older than 40 years. The immune-tolerant phase had the fewest patients, most of whom were aged above 20 years, attesting to the success of incorporating HBV vaccine in the national childhood immunization program since 2002. Our study shows that adopting AASLD treatment guidelines with adjustments to suit the local setting is a suitable option in the management of Eritrean CHB patients.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 645091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996722

RESUMO

Background: Dental caries affects mastication, growth and development, and school attendance and has a long-term psychological effect on affected individuals. In developing countries, the prevalence of dental caries is increasing due to the growing consumption of sugary foods, poor tooth brushing habits, and a low level of awareness about dental caries. Even if there was a high prevalence of dental caries in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of dental caries in East Africa. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and associated factors in East Africa. Methods: A systematic search of articles was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar using all the synonyms of dental caries in published literature (until December 2020) in East Africa. Important data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form prepared in Excel. Stata software (version 14.0) was used to calculate the pooled prevalence of dental caries. Besides, subgroup analysis was done based on country and dentition type. Moreover, associated factors of dental caries were assessed and the overall effect was presented in the form of odds ratios. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute reviewers' manual. Results: The overall pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be 45.7% (95% CI = 38.0-53.4). The pooled prevalence was high in Eritrea (65.2%, 95% CI = 49.2-81.1), followed by Sudan (57.8%, 95% CI = 36.0-79.7), and a low prevalence was found in Tanzania (30.7%, 95% CI = 21.5-39.9). Moreover, the subgroup analysis revealed a prevalence of 50% (95% CI = 38.4-62.1) in permanent dentition and 41.3% (95% CI = 33.5-49.2) in mixed dentition. The overall mean decayed, missed, and filled permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth were 1.941 (95% CI = 1.561-2.322) and 2.237 (95% CI = 1.293-3.181), respectively. High DMFT scores were reported in Sudan (3.146, 95% CI = 1.050-5.242) and Uganda (2.876, 95% CI = 2.186-3.565). Being female (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.24-1.46) and having poor tooth brushing habit (OR = 1.967, 95% CI = 1.67-2.33) were independent risk factors of dental caries. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of dental caries was comparatively high. Being female and poor oral health practice were independent risk factors of dental caries. The Ministry of Health of the member countries, along with dental associations of each country, ought to offer due attention to strengthen the oral health program in schools and primary health care centers and the implementation of school water fluoridation.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Sudão , Tanzânia , Uganda
11.
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0008564, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705384

RESUMO

Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is a classical epidemic disease, which in the past was associated with war, famine, poverty, forced migration, and crowding under poor hygienic conditions around the world. The disease's causative pathogen, the spirochete bacterium Borrelia recurrentis, is confined to humans and transmitted by a single vector, the human body louse Pediculus humanus. Since the disease has had its heyday before the days of modern medicine, many of its aspects have never been formally studied and to date, remain incompletely understood. In order to shed light on some of these aspects, we have systematically reviewed the accessible literature on LBRF, since the recognition of its mode of transmission in 1907, and summarized the existing data on epidemiology and diagnostic aspects of the disease. Publications were identified by using a predefined search strategy on electronic databases and a subsequent review of the reference lists of the obtained publications. All publications reporting patients with a confirmed diagnosis of LBRF published in English, French, German, and Spanish since 1907 were included. Data extraction followed a predefined protocol and included a grading system to judge the certainty of the diagnosis of reported cases. Historically, Ethiopia is considered a stronghold of LBRF. The recognition of LBRF among East African migrants (originating from Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia) arriving to Europe in the course of the recent migration flow from this region suggests that this epidemiological focus ostensibly persists. Currently, there is neither evidence to support or refute active transmission foci of LBRF elsewhere on the African continent, in Latin America, or in Asia. Microscopy remains the most commonly used method to diagnose LBRF. Data are lacking on sensitivity and specificity of most diagnostic methods.


Assuntos
Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Animais , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pediculus/microbiologia , Refugiados , Febre Recorrente/transmissão , Somália/epidemiologia , Migrantes
13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 68, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing conventional healthcare coverage in Eritrea, traditional medicine (TM) remains an essential source of healthcare service to the population. This study, therefore, aims at exploring the attitude, societal dependence, and pattern of TM use of the Gash-Barka community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2018 and January 2019 in Gash-Barka region, one of the six regions of Eritrea. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling design was used to provide representative sample of households. The data collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire was entered twice and analyzed using CSPro7.2 and SPSS 23, respectively. Both descriptive and analytical analyses were performed to test statistical significance. RESULTS: Of the total 210 participants, 202 completed the interview with a response rate of 96.2%. Almost 97% of the respondents were aware of the general existence of TM. About half of the respondents (47.4%) had visited traditional health practitioners (THPs) at least once in their lifetime. The majority of the respondents claimed their medical condition had been improved (63.2%), were satisfied with the outcome (76.8%), and had not encountered complications (95.2%) due to TM use. Around 40% of the respondents admitted they do not disclose previous TM use to conventional health practitioners. Females are more likely to have had ever visited THPs (AOR = 1.85, CI: 1.01, 3.38) and use TM in the future (AOR = 2.26, CI: 0.92, 5.14) than males. Moreover, those who had visited THPs before (COR = 8.30, CI: 3.25, 21.20) are more likely to use TM as a primary treatment choice and prefer to use TM in the future (AOR = 4.40, CI: 1.97, 9.83) than those who had never visited THPs. About 61% of the total families claimed they had circumcised at least one female child, and 96.8% disclosed they had circumcised at least one male child. Out of which, 89.2% of the circumcisions were done by THPs. CONCLUSION: TM is popular and widely relayed upon by Gash-Barka residents with exposure of children to harmful TM practices. Since the reliance of the community on TM is expected to continue, further representative studies are recommended to inform regulatory interventions and integrate TM into the health system.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Circuncisão Feminina , Estudos Transversais , Revelação , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(1): 43-51, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of reliable data on drug-resistant TB in Eritrea, a national survey was conducted in 2018 using molecular-based methods, bypassing the need for culture.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all 77 TB microscopy centres in the country. All 629 newly registered sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled over 12 months. Sputum samples were tested using the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay and targeted next-generation sequencing (Deeplex Myc-TB) to identify resistance and explore the phylogenetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.RESULTS: Drug resistance profiles were obtained for 555 patients (502 new, 53 previously treated). The prevalence of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) was respectively 2.0% and 7.6% among new and previously treated cases. All RR-TB isolates that were susceptible to isoniazid displayed a phylogenetic marker conferring capreomycin resistance, confirming circulation of a previously described resistant TB sub-lineage in the Horn of Africa. Only one case of fluoroquinolone resistance was detected.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of rifampicin resistance among TB patients is encouragingly low. The scarcity of fluoroquinolone resistance bodes well for the success of the recommended all-oral treatment regimen. Surveillance based on molecular approaches enables a reliable estimation of the burden of resistance and can be used to guide appropriate treatment and care.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , África , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Filogenia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(2): 449-453, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089342

RESUMO

Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country of over 3 million of people consisting of different ethnic groups, having each its own language and cultural tradition. Due to the lack of population genetic data for markers of forensic interest, in this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-chromosome STR loci and of 12 X-chromosome STR loci in a sample of 255 unrelated individuals from 8 Eritrean ethnic groups, with the aim to generate a reference haplotype database for anthropological and forensic applications. X- and Y-chromosomes markers may indeed offer information especially in personal identification and kinship testing, when relying on the availability of large local population data to derive sufficiently accurate frequency estimates. The population genetic analyses in the Eritrean sample for both the two set of Y- and X-STR markers showed high power of discrimination both at country-based and population levels. Comparison population results highlight the importance of considering the ethnic composition within the analyzed country and the necessity of increasing available data especially when referring to heterogeneous populations such as the African ones.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Eritreia/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
16.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(2): 145-152, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915299

RESUMO

AIMS: Disparities in health outcomes in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) based on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position (SEP) have been reported. We compared T1D characteristics between Eritrean status-less children living in Israel and native-born Israeli children. METHODS: This observational study compared 7 Eritrean and 28 Israeli children (< 8 years old at T1D diagnosis) who were diagnosed in a single diabetes center during 2015-2019. Sociodemographic and diabetes-related data from diagnosis until the last clinic visit were retrieved from their medical files. RESULTS: At diagnosis, the mean age was 4.8 ± 2.2 years, 17 (48.6%) had diabetic ketoacidosis with a mean HbA1c level of 10.5 ± 2.1% (91.3 mmol/mol) and 29 (82.9%) had ≥ 2 pancreatic autoantibodies. The mean T1D duration of follow-up was 2.7 ± 1.4 years. Overall glycemic control during follow-up (> 6 months from diagnosis, mean number of samples 10.6 ± 5.2) was good, with mean, best, and peak HbA1c levels of 7.4 ± 0.8% (57.4 mmol/mol), 6.7 ± 0.7% (49.7 mmol/mol), and 8.1 ± 1.1% (65 mmol/mol), respectively. Thirty-two children (91.4%) used continuous glucose monitoring devices (CGMs), and the mean time from diagnosis to CGM initiation was 10.8 ± 14.1 months. CGM metrics: time CGM active: 95.4 ± 3.8%, mean glucose level: 170.0 ± 27.0 mg/dl (9.4 mmol/L), time-in-range: 56.4 ± 14.7%, time-below-range: 5.5 ± 5.7%, and time-above-range: 38.6 ± 16.1%. Diabetes-related parameters at diagnosis and during follow-up were similar between groups. Eritrean children had significantly lower SEPs (P < 0.001) and parental education levels (P < 0.001). Correlations between SEP and diabetes parameters and SEP and growth parameters were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Eritrean status-less children in Israel achieved glycemic targets similar to those of Israeli children, perhaps reflecting uniformity in the standard of care and CGM usage.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Cetoacidose Diabética/etnologia , Eritreia/etnologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prognóstico , Classe Social
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 250, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, relatively accurate, non-invasive, and cost-effective method of diagnosing most breast pathologies. To date, there is no sufficient data depicting the distribution of breast lesions detected by fine needle aspiration cytology in our healthcare setting. The aim of this study was to elucidate the general distribution of breast lesions diagnosed by cytology test at Eritrean National Health Laboratory. METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out on 905 symptomatic patients between the years 2013 and 2017 at Eritrean National Health Laboratory. Diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration cytology in patients with palpable breast lump and in some patients direct smear was prepared from a nipple discharge. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. RESULTS: A total of 905 patients were included in the study, of whom 871 (96.24%) were females. The age range of patients was from 13 to 93 years with mean and standard deviation of 33 ± 14.9 years. Breast lump, occurring in 892 (98.56%), was the most frequent presenting symptom. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic breast lesions were the most prevalent lesions accounting for approximately 40% and 15%, respectively. Malignant breast lesions were seen predominantly in females above the age of 40 years with the highest frequency observed in the age range between 51 and 60 years. Pearson Chi-squared test showed significant association between patients' age above 40 years and the risk of having a malignant breast lesion (p < 0.001). The highest number of benign and malignant breast lesions was documented in 2014 with little fluctuation elsewhere in the study period. CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a procedure of choice for preoperative diagnosis in breast lesions mainly in a resource-limited settings. Our study identified the occurrence of malignant breast lesions in young women, which is of a paramount public health concern. Of note, significant proportion of patients were late to seek medical attention. Therefore, enhancement of community awareness regarding breast disease and implementation of screening programs are necessary to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Citodiagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Citodiagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 232, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward menopause are important for women to tackle changes related to menopause. Even though all women experience menopause at some stage in their life, teachers face more difficulties more than other female employees due to the nature of their roles do. In Eritrea, menopause has been given little attention hence gaps exist concerning women's knowledge, attitude, and the effects of health education on the same subject. This study aimed at assessing the effect of health education on knowledge and attitude of menopause among middle-aged teachers in elementary, junior, and secondary schools of Asmara, Eritrea. METHOD: A semi-experimental design with pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and three-month follow up test was used in this study. The data was collected from 99 middle age teachers using stratified random sampling. The intervention was done using lectures, group discussions, brochures, and handouts. Data on socio-demographics, knowledge, and attitude was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire. The effect of educational training at the three-time points was evaluated by repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS version 22. RESULTS: The mean scores of correct knowledge at pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 3-months follow-up were 12.3/22 (SD = 3.06), 17.3/22 (SD = 3.21), and 16.5/22 (SD = 2.52) respectively. A significant difference in scores of knowledge at the three-time points was observed due to the educational intervention with a statistical significance of (p <  0.0001). Post-hoc analysis revealed that knowledge score immediately after intervention was significantly greater than that of pre-intervention (p <  0.0001), and 3-months follow-up (p = 0.004). The mean scores of attitude at the three-time points were 27.9/45 (SD = 5.14), 28.3/45(SD = 5.25), 28.32/45(SD = 5.12). The educational intervention had brought a change in the mean scores of attitude at the three-time point with a statistical significance of (p < 0.0001). Post-hoc analysis revealed that attitude scores at immediate post-intervention were also significant (p = 0.001) with the 3-months follow up at (p < 0.0001) were higher than that of pre-intervention. CONCLUSION: The structured educational intervention was beneficial to the studied women in intensifying their knowledge and tuning them toward a positive attitude. Hence, proper health education programs regarding menopause are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238868, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035226

RESUMO

Globally, usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in elderly with chronic pain has been reported as frequent. Though NSAIDs are fundamental in maintaining their quality of life, the risk of polypharmacy, drug interactions and adverse effects is of paramount importance as the elderly usually require multiple medications for their co-morbidities. If prescriptions are not appropriately monitored and managed, they are likely to expose patients to serious drug interactions and potentially fatal adverse effects. This study was conducted to assess the appropriateness of NSAIDs use and determine the risk of NSAIDs related potential interactions in elderly. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly out-patients (aged 60 and above) who visited three hospitals in Asmara, Eritrea, between August 22 and September 29, 2018. A stratified random sampling design was employed and data was collected using an interview-based questionnaire and by abstracting information from patients' prescriptions and medical cards. Descriptive and analytical statistics including chi-square test and logistic regression were employed using IBM SPSS (version 22). A total of 285 respondents were enrolled in the study with similar male to female ratio. One in four of all respondents were chronic NSAIDs users and NSAIDs risk practice was reported in 24%. Using chronic NSAIDs without prophylactic gastro-protective agents, self-medication, polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions were the main problems identified. A total of 322 potential interactions in 205 patients were identified and of which, 97.2% were classified as moderate, 0.6% severe and the rest were mild. Those who involved in self-medication were more likely to be exposed to drug interactions. Diabetes (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.14, 5.02) and hypertension (AOR = 9.06, 95% CI: 4.00, 20.51) were associated with chronic NSAIDs use and incidence of potential drug interactions (AOR = 3.5, 95%CI: 1.68, 4.3; AOR = 2.81, 95%CI: 1.61, 4.9 respectively), while diabetes AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.43, 8.35) and cardiac problems (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.17, 15.73) were more likely to be associated with incidence of polypharmacy. In conclusion, chronic use of NSAIDs without gastro-protective agents and therapeutic duplication of NSAIDs were commonly which requires attention from programmers, health facility managers and healthcare professionals to safeguard elderlies from preventable harm.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Polimedicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Interações Medicamentosas , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...