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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 160-168, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635609

RESUMO

Background: Automated urine sediment analysis has been developed to address the limitations of microscopic examination of dysmorphic red blood cells (RBCs). We evaluated the urinary RBC distribution (URD) parameter of a recently launched automated urinary flow cytometry analyzer, UF-5000 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan), to differentiate glomerular hematuria (GH) from non-GH (NGH). Methods: Samples submitted for urine sediment analysis from patients with hematuria (>20 RBCs/µL) were divided into derivation (N=156; 101 GH, 55 NGH) and validation cohorts (N=107; 60 GH, 47 NGH). The clinical diagnosis of GH or NGH was established based on clinical data review. Differences in UF-5000 parameters (URD, small RBC, lysed RBC, RBC-P70FSC, RBC-SF-FSC-W, mean forward-scattered light, and mean side-scattered light) between GH and NGH, and areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were analyzed in the derivation cohort. The derived ideal cut-off value was evaluated in the validation cohort. We applied the Kitasato criteria to compare the diagnostic performance. Results: URD (%), differed significantly between GH and NGH (P<0.001) in the two cohorts. The AUC of URD was 0.814 and 0.806 in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Using a cut-off of >20.1%, the sensitivity was 99.0%/89.4% and the specificity was 50.9%/63.3% in the derivation/validation cohort. When the Kitasato criteria were applied, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.2% and 52.7%, respectively. Conclusions: URD is a rapid, objective, and quantitative measure that can be used to differentiate GH and NGH.


Assuntos
Hematúria , Nefropatias , Diferenciação Celular , Eritrócitos , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2066-2069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to determine the ultramicroscopic characteristics of erythrocytes in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, borreliosis or toxoplasmosis as a marker, comorbid or concomitant pathology for babesiosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Blood samples from the patients with revealed borreliosis (Lyme disease) (19 cases), toxoplasmosis (15 cases), rheumatoid arthritis in the stage of exacerbation (10 cases) served as the study material (group 2). In all patients of group 2, positive results for babesiosis were obtained during the polymerase chain reaction. The group of comparative control (group 1) consisted of clinically healthy people (n=31), who underwent the blood cytological examination (light microscopy) preceding the scanning electron microscopy, followed by verification of the results by resources of molecular genetic research (polymerase chain reaction). Scanning electron microscopy was used in this study. RESULTS: Results: In patients with babesiosis and marker, comorbid and concomitant conditions for this disease (rheumatoid arthritis, borreliosis, toxoplasmosis) it was identified the specific diagnostic criteria for the presence of extraerythrocyte forms of babesia, constant number of erythrocytes and their regenerative forms, the appearance of degenerative forms of erythrocytes with their size and shape pathology. The latter lead to hemodynamic disorders, the development of ischemic and hypoxic changes in tissues of different organs of human body. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Scanning electron microscopy of erythrocytes in patients with babesiosis and marker, comorbid and concomitant conditions for this disease (rheumatoid arthritis, borreliosis, toxoplasmosis) plays the role of an objective method of verifying the results of previous clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The use of scanning electron microscopy allow us to determine in these patients the specific diagnostic criteria for the presence of extraerythrocyte forms of babesia, constant number of erythrocytes and their regenerative forms, degenerative forms of erythrocytes with their size and shape pathology.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Babesiose , Toxoplasmose , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Babesiose/complicações , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
3.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 35(4): E40-E49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726655

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to verify the influence of the gravitational infusion method or syringe infusion pump on changes in hemolysis markers of irradiated and nonirradiated packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in vitro administered in a neonate peripheral intravenous catheter. An experimental study was conducted in a laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. Irradiated and nonirradiated PRBCs were administered in triplicate by the gravitational method and 10-mL/hour syringe infusion pump, in peripheral intravenous catheter, Vialon, 24-G caliber. Aliquots were collected directly from the PRBC bag, after manual filling of the infusion system and after infusion by the catheters. The following hemolytic markers were analyzed: degree of hemolysis (%), hematocrit (Ht, %), free hemoglobin (fHb, g/dL), potassium (K, mmol/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, U/L). Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used, P ≤ .05. The gravitational method significantly influenced increasing fHb (P = .007), Ht (P = .002), K (P = .002), and LDH (P = .003) values after PRBC irradiated infusion. The infusion of irradiated and non-irradiated PRBCs interferes with changes in hemolytic markers with the gravitational method. Syringe infusion pump proved to be a beneficial and safe alternative to irradiated and nonirradiated PRBC transfusion in newborns.


Assuntos
Hemólise , Seringas , Cateteres , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Bombas de Infusão
4.
Hematology ; 26(1): 881-884, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753407

RESUMO

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) as a measure of the size of red blood cells (RBCs) has been pivotal in the diagnosis and morphologic classification of anemias for over a century. Despite its ubiquitous use and time-honored diagnostic value, one essential attribute of MCV has remained under the radar. It has been long underappreciated that the size of RBC correlates with the amount of hemoglobin (Hb) that it accommodates and, therefore, is an important determining factor of the total Hb level. By scrutinizing this basic principle, it has become possible to uncover a hitherto obscured relationship between MCV, hematocrit (Hct) and RBCs described as a dynamic equilibrium. This principle is shown to be invaluable in interpreting RBC parameters, particularly for the evaluation of patients with polycythemia.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/patologia , Hematócrito , Policitemia/patologia , Idoso , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Índices de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Policitemia/sangue
5.
Anal Chem ; 93(45): 15142-15149, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738468

RESUMO

A method for the ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group typing from individual erythrocytes is proposed in this study. Blood-group-specific antibodies immobilized to gold nanoparticles (BG-AuNP) were utilized for the identification of blood groups from individual erythrocytes by objective-type dark-field microscopy (OTDFM). The scattering of free BG-AuNP and their Brownian motion as well as BG-AuNP attached on erythrocytes is easily observed by OTDFM. The strong scattering intensity caused by BG-AuNP packing-enhanced nanoscattering (PENS) on erythrocytes is first demonstrated. PENS combined with OTDFM allows us to identify blood groups within 5 s for all blood group antigens including A, B, D, C, c, E, and e. This was immediately identified by mixing with BG-AuNP without any washing step or waiting for hemoagglutination. Therefore, PENS combined with OTDFM demonstrates feasibility and advantages for use in emergency transfusions where the blood group of patients is unknown. Moreover, matching RhD+ in the case of emergency transfusions may also be beneficial in reducing the shortage of RhD- red blood cell concentrate in the case of a population with a high frequency in RhD-.


Assuntos
Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Eritrócitos , Ouro , Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr
6.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211056846, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantitate plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in healthy individuals and to clarify how these levels are affected by blood sample handling procedures during short-term storage. METHODS: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-treated plasma samples were simultaneously collected from 14 healthy individuals and stored on ice prior to analysis of the IL-6 levels. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells, and platelets were counted immediately after blood collection. IL-6 levels were analyzed every 30 minutes using a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients between plasma IL-6 levels and WBC counts ranged between 0.605 and 0.554, higher than those for other cell types. The lowest IL-6 value in healthy individuals was estimated at 0.04 pg/mL and the mean values remained under 2 pg/mL over time. CONCLUSION: Analysis of IL-6 levels in EDTA-treated plasma samples centrifuged within 1 hour and stored on ice can be performed within 90 minutes of short-term storage if the analytical method has a sensitivity in the range of 10 fg/mL.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Interleucina-6 , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Interleucina-8 , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 1): e20190657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730667

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effect of thermal stress on erythrocytes of Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps, abundant notothenioids in Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. In both species, the antioxidant defense system enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase were punctually altered (8°C for 1, 3 and 6 days) in erythrocytes, indicating that these markers are not ideal for termal stress. However, under the influence of thermal stress, morphological changes in Notothenia coriiceps erythrocytes were observed at all exposure times (1, 3 and 6 days at 8°C), and in Notothenia rossii occurred in 6 days. These results suggest that Notothenia corriceps presents a lower tolerance to thermal stress at 8°C for up to 6 days, since the cellular and nuclear alterations recorded are pathological and may be deleterious to the cells. Among the morphological markers analyzed in this work, we believe that the shape change and nuclear bubble formation may be good stress biomarkers in erythrocytes of Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Eritrócitos , Peixes
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e249617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730698

RESUMO

Hibernation is a natural condition of animals that lives in the temperate zone, although some tropical lizards also experience hibernation annually, such as the lizard native from South America, Salvator merianae, or "tegu" lizard. Even though physiological and metabolic characteristic associated with hibernation have been extensively studied, possible alterations in the red blood cells (RBC) integrity during this period remains unclear. Dehydration and fasting are natural consequences of hibernating for several months and it could be related to some cellular modifications. In this study, we investigated if the osmotic tolerance of RBCs of tegu lizard under hibernation is different from the cells obtained from animals while normal activity. Additionally, we indirectly investigated if the RBCs membrane of hibernating tegus could be associated with oxidation by quantifying oxidized biomolecules and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that RBCs are more fragile during the hibernation period, although we did not find evidence of an oxidative stress scenario associated with the accentuated fragility. Even though we did not exclude the possibility of oxidative damage during hibernation, we suggested that an increased RBCs volume as a consequence of hypoosmotic blood during hibernation could also affect RBCs integrity as noted.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Lagartos , Animais , Eritrócitos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27255, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664873

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with 3-month poor functional outcome in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke.RDW was measured in patients with thrombolytic therapy in emergency department. Functional outcome was assessed after 3 months and poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale 3 to 6.A total of 240 patients were enrolled, and 82 (34.2%) had a poor functional outcome. The median RDW was significantly elevated in patients with a poor functional outcome compare with those with a good outcome. RDW was independently associated with a 3-month poor functional outcome (odds ratio 3.369, 95% confidence interval 2.214-5.125). The optimal RDW cutoff for predicting 3-month poor functional outcome was 12.8%, and the area under the curve for RDW was 0.818 (95% confidence interval 0.761-0.876). The area under the curve for RDW was higher in male patients than in female patients. The RDW correlated positively with the modified Rankin scale score after 3 months and the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score.Initial higher RDW level is related to a 3-month poor functional outcome in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/classificação , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesos e Medidas/instrumentação
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(11): 890-896, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of leukoreduction on N-methylhistamine (NMH; a stable histamine metabolite) concentration in units of canine whole blood during storage and incubation at room temperature (approx 22 °C) to simulate temperature conditions during transfusion. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult Walker Hounds. PROCEDURES: A standard unit of blood (450 mL) was obtained from each dog twice, with at least 28 days between donations. Blood units collected from 4 dogs during the first donation underwent leukoreduction, whereas the blood units collected from the other 4 dogs did not undergo leukoreduction, prior to storage at 4 °C. The alternate treatment was applied to blood units collected during the second donation. A sample from each unit was obtained for determination of plasma NMH concentration the day of donation (before and after leukoreduction when applicable) and before and after incubation at room temperature for 5 hours on days 14 and 28 of storage. RESULTS: Units that underwent leukoreduction had substantially lower leukocyte and platelet counts than nonleukoreduced units. Plasma NMH concentration increased immediately after leukoreduction but did not change significantly during the subsequent 28 days of storage, nor did it differ between units that did and did not undergo leukoreduction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Leukoreduction and simulated transfusion temperature did not affect the histamine load in units of canine whole blood during the first 28 days of storage. Further research is necessary to determine whether histamine contributes to the development and severity of blood transfusion reactions in dogs.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue , Eritrócitos , Animais , Preservação de Sangue/veterinária , Cães , Leucócitos , Metilistaminas
11.
Nanoscale ; 13(40): 17106-17115, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633018

RESUMO

Herein we report the coating of visible light-driven polycaprolactone (PCL) based micromotors with an anti-biofouling poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) layer for effective navigation and detoxification in blood samples. The micromotors encapsulate CdSe@ZnS quantum dots as photoresponsive materials and a Fe3O4 nanoparticle patch to promote electron transfer and reaction with glucose present in the media for diffusiophoretic propulsion in diluted blood. The coating of the micromotor with the PLGA layer prevents red blood cell adhesion and protein adsorption due to the creation of a highly efficient hydration layer. This results in an enhanced speed and efficient operation for enhanced toxin removal as compared with the bare PCL micromotors. Hemolysis and MTT assays along with no platelets aggregation revealed the high biocompatibility of the micromotors with living cells. Effective adsorptive removal of two relevant toxins, sepsis associated Escherichia coli O111:B4 toxin and snake venom α-bungarotoxin from blood is achieved with the PLGA micromotors. The new developments illustrated here represent one step forward in the use of light-driven micromotors for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Pontos Quânticos , Eritrócitos , Escherichia coli
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5904-5912, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Liver injury has been reported in patients with COVID-19. This condition is characterized by severe outcome and could be related with the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to activate cytotoxic T cells. The purpose of this study is to show the histological and scanning electron microscopy features of liver involvement in COVID-19 to characterize the liver changes caused by the activation of multiple molecular pathways following this infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liver biopsies from 4 patients (3 post-mortems and 1 in vivo) with COVID-19 were analyzed with histology and by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The liver changes showed significant heterogeneity. The first case showed ground glass hepatocytes and scattered fibrin aggregates in the sinusoidal lumen. The second evidenced intra-sinusoidal thrombi. The third was characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, atrophy of hepatocytes, Disse's spaces dilatation and intra-sinusoidal aggregates of fibrin and red blood cells. The fourth case exhibited diffuse fibrin aggregates in the dilated Disse spaces and microthrombi in the sinusoidal lumen. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19-related liver injury, a large spectrum of pathological changes was observed. The most peculiar features were very mild inflammation, intra-sinusoidal changes, including sinusoidal dilatation, thrombotic sinusoiditis and diffuse intra-sinusoidal fibrin deposition. These findings suggested that a thrombotic sinusoiditis followed by a local diffuse intra-vascular (intra-sinusoidal) coagulation could be the typical features of the SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Idoso , Autopsia , Biópsia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Fibrina , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/complicações , Adulto Jovem
14.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 547, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMC) in the treatment of inflammatory orthopedic conditions has become a common practice. The therapeutic effect of BMA/BMC is thought to revolve primarily around the mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) population residing within the nucleated cell fraction. MSCs have the unique ability to respond to site of injury via the secretion of immunomodulating factors, resolving inflammation in diseased joints. Recently, the importance of hematocrit (HCT) in BMC has been debated, as the potential impact on MSC function is unknown. In the present study, we investigate MSC health over a short time-course following exposure to a range of HCT and red blood cell releasate (RBCrel) conditions. METHODS: Bone marrow-derived human MSCs in early passage were grown under conditions of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% HCT and RBCrel conditions for 3 days. At each day, the percentage of viable, apoptotic and necrotic MSCs was determined via flow cytometry. Relative viable MSC counts in each condition was determined to account for dynamic changes in overall MSC densities over the time-course. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA comparing test conditions to the control followed by a Dunnett's multiple comparison test. RESULTS: Significant reductions in viable MSCs concurrent with an increase in necrotic MSCs in high HCT and RBCrel conditions was observed within 24 h. At each successive timepoint, the percent and relative number of viable MSCs were reduced, becoming significant in multiple HCT and RBCrel conditions by Day 3. Necrosis appears to be the initial mode of MSC death following exposure to HCT and RBCrel, followed by apoptosis in surviving MSC fractions. CONCLUSION: Various levels of HCT and RBCrel severely compromise MSC health within 3 days and HCT should be controlled in the preparation of BMC products. Further, HCT of BMCs should be routinely recorded and tracked with patient outcomes along with routine metrics (e.g. nucleated cell counts, fibroblast-colony forming units). Differences in HCT may account for the inconsistencies in the efficacy of BMC reported when treating orthopedic conditions.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células da Medula Óssea , Sobrevivência Celular , Eritrócitos , Humanos
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 730413, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604112

RESUMO

Glycolysis controls cellular energy, redox balance, and biosynthesis. Antiglycolytic therapies are under investigation for treatment of obesity, cancer, aging, autoimmunity, and microbial diseases. Interrupting glycolysis is highly valued as a therapeutic strategy, because glycolytic disruption is generally tolerated in mammals. Unfortunately, anemia is a known dose-limiting side effect of these inhibitors and presents a major caveat to development of antiglycolytic therapies. We developed specific inhibitors of enolase - a critical enzyme in glycolysis - and validated their metabolic and cellular effects on human erythrocytes. Enolase inhibition increases erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative damage and induces rapid and premature erythrocyte senescence, rather than direct hemolysis. We apply our model of red cell toxicity to address questions regarding erythrocyte glycolytic disruption in the context of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides a framework for understanding red blood cell homeostasis under normal and disease states and clarifies the importance of erythrocyte reductive capacity in malaria parasite growth.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos , Glicólise , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638816

RESUMO

Vertebrates generate mature red blood cells (RBCs) via a highly regulated, multistep process called erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis involves synthesis of heme and hemoglobin, clearance of the nuclei and other organelles, and remodeling of the plasma membrane, and these processes are exquisitely coordinated by specific regulatory factors including transcriptional factors and signaling molecules. Defects in erythropoiesis can lead to blood disorders such as congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, Diamond-Blackfan anemias, sideroblastic anemias, myelodysplastic syndrome, and porphyria. The molecular mechanisms of erythropoiesis are highly conserved between fish and mammals, and the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has provided a powerful genetic model for studying erythropoiesis. Studies in zebrafish have yielded important insights into RBC development and established a number of models for human blood diseases. Here, we focus on latest discoveries of the molecular processes and mechanisms regulating zebrafish erythropoiesis and summarize newly established zebrafish models of human anemias.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritropoese , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Anemia Aplástica/genética , Anemia Aplástica/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20502, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654867

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is difficult to contain due to its high transmissibility rate and a long incubation period of 5 to 14 days. Moreover, more than half of the infected patients were young and asymptomatic. Virus transmission through asymptomatic patients is a major challenge to disease containment. Due to limited treatment options, preventive measures play major role in controlling the disease spread. Gargling with antiseptic formulation may have potential role in eliminating the virus in the throat. Four commercially available mouthwash/gargle formulations were tested for virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2 in both clean (0.3 g/l BSA) and dirty (0.3 g/l BSA + 3 mL/L human erythrocytes) conditions at time points 30 and 60 s. The virus was isolated and propagated in Vero E6 cells. The cytotoxicity of the products to the Vero E6 was evaluated by kill time assay based on the European Standard EN14476:2013/FprA1:2015 protocol. Virus titres were calculated as 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50/mL) using the Spearman-Karber method. A reduction in virus titer of 4 log10 corresponds to an inactivation of ≥ 99.99%. Formulations with cetylperidinium chloride, chlorhexidine and hexitidine achieved > 4 log10 reduction in viral titres when exposed within 30 s under both clean and dirty conditions. Thymol formulations achieved only 0.5 log10 reduction in viral titres. In addition, salt water was not proven effective. Gargle formulations with cetylperidinium chloride, chlorhexidine and hexetidine have great potential in reducing SAR-CoV-2 at the source of entry into the body, thus minimizing risk of transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Eritrócitos/virologia , Antissépticos Bucais , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Antivirais , Cetilpiridínio , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Timol/química , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Água
18.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 53(3): 214-219, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658415

RESUMO

Cell saver blood is typically washed with normal saline (NS); however, recent studies have reported decreased red blood cell hemolysis and increased platelet function when a more physiologic washing solution, such as Plasma-Lyte A (PL-A) is used. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of NS compared to PL-A as washing solutions for cell saver blood in pediatric cardiac surgery. Cell saver blood was re-infused for up to 24 hours post-collection. Laboratory and clinical data were collected from infants receiving cell saver washed with either NS (n = 20) or PL-A (n = 21). Compositions of the cell saver blood were compared between groups at 5 in vitro time points and in vivo patient blood at 24 hours post-bypass. Although there were differences in in vitro laboratory values between groups; 24 hours post-bypass, in vivo results were similar. Our data supports 24-hour reinfusion of cell saver washed with either NS versus PL-A in pediatric cardiac surgery patients, and provides data on the differences in cell saver composition to guide future studies.


Assuntos
Eletrólitos , Hemoglobinas , Solução Salina , Eritrócitos/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente
19.
Clin Lab ; 67(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periodic transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is an essential supportive therapy for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. Nevertheless, this therapy can cause some adverse effects, such as RBC alloimmunization. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RBC's alloimmunization and frequency of Rhesus (Rh) and Kell (K) antigens among SCA and beta-thalassemia patients in Al-Madinah region of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 multiple transfusion patients with SCA and beta-thalassemia, who attended two of the largest hospitals located in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Demographic and medical data were collected from medical files of patients. Blood samples were collected from patients and Rh and Kell typing were done. Also, antibody screening and identification tests were performed. RESULTS: There were 66 (48.18%) pediatric patients with mean age of 7.8 years, while adult patients were 71 (51.82%) with mean age of 24.5 years. RBC alloantibodies were found in 9 patients (6.57%), and the most frequent alloantibody was anti-K. Antigen e (99.05%) was the most common antigen, while the least common was the antigen K (3.81%). The association between age (pediatric and adult) and alloimmunization rates was insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Although the RBC alloimmunization rate among SCD and beta-thalassemia patients in this study is low compared to other studies in Saudi Arabia and countries all over the world, it still warrants more attention. Phenotyping of donors/recipients' RBCs for K and Rh subgroups may reduce the risk of alloimmunization and increase the efficiency of blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Talassemia beta , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Isoanticorpos , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/epidemiologia , Talassemia beta/terapia
20.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(9): 1798-1805, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688324

RESUMO

A pectin-oligochitosan microcapsule system has recently been developed for novel oxygen therapeutic design. To improve the stability of the pectin-oligochitosan microcapsules in physiological conditions, both covalent (glutaraldehyde) and noncovalent (Mn2+ and Ca2+) cross-linkers were tested. The chemistry and morphology of the microcapsules were studied using FTIR and SEM, respectively. Results showed that glutaraldehyde is an effective cross-linker, even at low concentrations and short incubation times, and the glutaraldehyde cross-linking does not negatively impact the morphology of the microcapsules. Moreover, it was confirmed that the hemoglobin could be retained within the microcapsules with a minimal release.


Assuntos
Oxigênio , Pectinas , Cápsulas , Eritrócitos
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