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1.
Brain Res ; 1778: 147780, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007547

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between two cognitive stages of humor processing (i.e., detecting incongruity and resolving it) and the subjective feeling of humor, using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Unlike traditional English jokes, Japanese nazokake puns have a structure in which the detection of incongruity and the resolution of it are separated, which enabled this study to observe the ERPs for these two stages independently. In addition, to investigate how the cognitive stages work when people subjectively find a pun funny, the ERPs elicited by funny and unfunny puns, categorized according to participants' subjective ratings, were compared. This subjective feeling has not received enough attention in previous literature. The results showed that N400 and P600 responses occurred during the incongruity detection stage and the resolution stage, respectively. Furthermore, funny puns enlarged the P600 amplitude compared to unfunny ones, but the N400 amplitude did not significantly differ between the funniness categories. These findings indicate that the resolution stage of humor processing is related to the subjective feeling of humor, rather than the incongruity detection stage.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879055

RESUMO

Humor is crucial for social development. Despite this, very few studies have examined the neurodevelopment of humor in very young children, and none to date have used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to study this important cognitive construct. The main aim of the current study was to characterize the neural basis of humor processing in young children between the ages of 6-8 years. Thirty-five healthy children (6-8 years old) watched funny and neutral video clips while undergoing fNIRS imaging. We observed activation increases in left temporo-occipito-parietal junction (TOPJ), inferior-parietal lobe (IPL), dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior parietal lobe (SPL) regions. Activation in left TOPJ was positively correlated with age. In addition, we found that coherence increased in humor viewing compared to neutral content, mainly between remote regions. This effect was different for boys and girls, as boys showed a more pronounced increase in coherence for funny compared to neutral videos, more so in frontoparietal networks. These results expand our understanding of the neurodevelopment of humor by highlighting the effect of age on the neural basis of humor appreciation as well as emphasizing different developmental trajectories of boys and girls.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
3.
Med J Aust ; 215(11): 531-535, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the urban myth that surplus chocolate Easter Bunnies are re-packaged as Santa Clauses for the following Christmas holiday season. DESIGN: Prospective radiographic cohort study of seasonal chocolate figurines, supplemented by anonymous 5-item questionnaire survey of belief in the re-wrapping myth (Generic Risk Items Noted by Chocolate consumers in Health care settings; GRINCH). SETTING: Two tertiary referral trauma centres in Germany (Berlin and Duisburg). PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen chocolate Easter Bunnies and 15 chocolate Santa Clauses from different manufacturers purchased during 2020; 502 randomly selected people passing through the entrance halls of the two hospitals during 16 September - 12 October 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole body computed tomography (WBCT) images of chocolate Easter Bunnies and Santa Clauses assessed by four independent, board-certified radiologists using a visual contour resemblance scale (CRS); survey participants' views on statements related to the re-wrapping myth. RESULTS: Expert examiners clearly distinguished the WBCT images of chocolate Easter Bunnies and Santa Clauses; the mean difference in CRS was 84.2 points (95% CI, 78.5-90.0 points), with excellent inter-observer agreement (mean intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00). A total of 214 survey participants (43%) disagreed and 145 (29%) agreed with the proposition that seasonal chocolate figurines are re-packaged and re-sold the following season. CONCLUSION: Although about one-third of our survey respondents did not rule out the possibility of seasonal sweets being re-used, WBCT imaging found no similarity between chocolate foil-wrapped Easter and Christmas figurines, providing solid evidence against this urban myth. Chocolate Santa Clauses are unlikely to pose a significant threat to hospital food hygiene requirements. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN16847363 (prospective).


Assuntos
Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
4.
Med J Aust ; 215(11): 529-531, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897725

RESUMO

•In view of his advanced age and risk factors, Santa Claus is at high risk of developing atrial fibrillation. Despite this, no guidelines exist on the subject. •Following a review of the literature, we present our position on the management of atrial fibrillation in Santa Claus, and propose the use of the SANTA CLAUS mnemonic to aid clinicians: Screen for atrial fibrillation; Anticoagulate; Normalise heart rate; Treat comorbidities; Anti-arrhythmic drugs; Cardioversion; Lifestyle measures; Ablation treatment; Understand emotional and psychological impact; Save Santa Claus.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Clínicos , Humanos , Masculino , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
6.
Med J Aust ; 215(11): 536-540, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how suturing orange and banana peels, pig skin, and synthetic skin compares with the experience of suturing human skin. DESIGN: Interventional study of simple interrupted, vertical mattress, and subcuticular suturing on the four test materials. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING: Fifteen consultants and six trainees in surgical and emergency medicine specialties at a New South Wales regional teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was completion of simple interrupted, vertical mattress, and subcutaneous sutures. Secondary outcomes (assessed in a questionnaire) were similarity of suturing each material to suturing human skin, suitability of each material for practising each suture type, and similarity of each material to human anatomic skin types. RESULTS: All 21 participants completed simple interrupted sutures in bananas and pig and synthetic skins, and 15 in orange skin (P = 0.002). All 21 participants completed vertical mattress sutures in pig and synthetic skins, 18 in bananas, and six in oranges (P < 0.001). The numbers of completed subcuticular sutures were lower for the two fruits (orange, zero; banana, two) than for pig and synthetic skins (each, 21; P < 0.001). Banana peel was rated as somewhat similar to human skin and recommended for practising simple interrupted and vertical mattress suturing. CONCLUSIONS: Bananas are not only useful as healthy snacks between theatre cases, but also for practising and improving simple and vertical mattress suturing skills. However, less portable and nourishing materials are required for subcuticular suturing practice, such as pig skin or synthetic skin.


Assuntos
Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura/educação , Animais , Citrus sinensis , Frutas , Musa , New South Wales , Pele , Pele Artificial , Cirurgiões/educação , Suínos , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21181, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707148

RESUMO

Though humans should defer to the superior judgement of AI in an increasing number of domains, certain biases prevent us from doing so. Understanding when and why these biases occur is a central challenge for human-computer interaction. One proposed source of such bias is task subjectivity. We test this hypothesis by having both real and purported AI engage in one of the most subjective expressions possible: Humor. Across two experiments, we address the following: Will people rate jokes as less funny if they believe an AI created them? When asked to rate jokes and guess their likeliest source, participants evaluate jokes that they attribute to humans as the funniest and those to AI as the least funny. However, when these same jokes are explicitly framed as either human or AI-created, there is no such difference in ratings. Our findings demonstrate that user attitudes toward AI are more malleable than once thought-even when they (seemingly) attempt the most fundamental of human expressions.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/normas , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1013, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When children and young people (CYP) are diagnosed with a brain tumour, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is key to the clinical management of this condition. This can produce hundreds, and often thousands, of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs). METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 families (15 parents and 8 patients), and analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis was supported by the Framework Method. RESULTS: Although the focus of the research was whether paediatric patients and their families find viewing MRIs beneficial, all patients and parents discussed difficult times during the illness and using various strategies to cope. This article explores the identified coping strategies that involved MRIs, and the role that MRIs can play in coping. Coping strategies were classified under the aim of the strategy when used: 'Normalising'; 'Maintaining hope and a sense of the future'; 'Dealing with an uncertain future'; and 'Seeking Support'. CONCLUSIONS: Coping and finding ways to cope are clearly used by patients and their families and are something that they wish to discuss, as they were raised in conversations that were not necessarily about coping. This suggests clinicians should always allow time and space (in appointments, consultations, or impromptu conversations on the ward) for patient families to discuss ways of coping. MRIs were found to be used in various ways: to maintain or adapt normal; maintain hope and a sense of the future; deal with an uncertain future; and seek support from others. Clinicians should recognise the potential for MRIs to aid coping and if appropriate, suggest that families take copies of scans (MRIs) home. Professional coaches or counsellors may also find MRIs beneficial as a way to remind families that the child is in a more stable or 'better' place than they have been previously.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Conselheiros , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Teoria Fundamentada , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessimismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
10.
Cell ; 184(21): 5261-5265, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562364

RESUMO

Truly creative works of science and art produce unexpected and surprising results-just like the punch line of a good joke that generates an unfamiliar twist on a familiar idea. Surprise stimulates curiosity, which triggers a search to reveal the mystery of things unknown.


Assuntos
Arte , Criatividade , Ciência , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Distinções e Prêmios , Humanos , Pinturas , Escultura
12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(3): 205-213, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212702

RESUMO

In this study, we measure psychological suffering and emotional coping using humour among a sample of adult people during Italian lockdown to contain SARS-CoV-2 virus during 2020. We hypothesize that humour is a protective factor against a depressive state development, with the exception of some kind of humour style as aggressive or self-defeating. We revealed important psychopathology levels among subjects, the humour, more precisely self-enhancing one, is a protective factor against most psychopathological disorder, while there we did not find a significant correlation with depression and other humour scales, finding correlation with other humour styles and hostility, paranoia, and psichoticism scales.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19 , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
13.
J Med Life ; 14(2): 262-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104251

RESUMO

Sense of humor constitutes a part of everyday life and work and an indispensable part of healthcare. However, the relationship between sense of humor and nursing occupational health and stress is yet to be studied in Iran. This study aimed to analyze the interplay of demographic factors, occupational stress, sense of humor, and health status of nurses working at the hospitals affiliated with the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran. In this descriptive-analytical study, the statistical population consisted of 203 nurses. Occupational stress was assessed using the Iranian version of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire. The Sense of Humor Questionnaire (SHQ) and the Iranian version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were employed to assess the sense of humor and physio-psychological health, respectively. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. 81% (n=164) of the participants had an "external effort" (E) and "reward" (R) ratio greater than 1, indicating very high occupational stress. 39% (n=79) nurses with high occupational stress displayed their commitment to the workplace. Approximately 42% (n=85) of nurses were suffering from health problems. The mean humor score of participants was 2.90±0.41. Major life events over the past 3 months (p<0.01), weekly working hours (p<0.01), high occupational stress (p<0.01), and sense of humor (p<0.01) were determined to be significant predictors of nurses' health problems. Decision-makers are recommended to reduce nursing working hours through work shift management in order to maintain nurses' health status and reduce their occupational stress. In addition, hospital directors should promote a sense of humor in hospital environments with the help of culture-building practices, comedy books, music CDs, and training courses.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Hospitais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 87-94, maio-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252350

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os níveis de estado de humor de mulheres adultas praticantes de atividade física regular com os de mulheres adultas sedentárias. Participaram do estudo 57 mulheres (53,36 ± 10,68 anos de idade), divididas em dois grupos: ativas e sedentárias. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização da amostra e a Escala de Humor de Brunel (BRUMS). Os resultados do presente estudo demonstraram que as mulheres ativas apresentaram estado de humor positivo, além de apresentaram baixos escores para o estado de humor negativo, quando comparadas aos escores das mulheres sedentárias. Pode-se concluir que a atividade física pode influenciar positivamente o estado de humor.


The aim of this study was to compare mood levels of adult women engaged in regular physical activity with those of sedentary adult women. Fifty-seven women participated in the study (53.36 ± 10.68 years' old), divided into two groups: active and sedentary. A questionnaire was used to characterize the sample, and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was also applied. The results demonstrated that active women had a positive mood state in addition to having low scores for negative mood state when compared to the scores of sedentary women. It can be concluded that physical activity can have a positive influence on mood state.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Caminhada/psicologia , Confusão/prevenção & controle , Depressão , Fadiga/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Psicologia do Esporte
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10685, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021200

RESUMO

The ability to generate humor gives rise to positive emotions and thus facilitate the successful resolution of adversity. Although there is consensus that inhibitory processes might be related to broaden the way of thinking, the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we use functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a humorous alternative uses task and a stroop task, to investigate the brain mechanisms underlying the emergence of humorous ideas in 24 subjects. Neuroimaging results indicate that greater cognitive control abilities are associated with increased activation in the amygdala, the hippocampus and the superior and medial frontal gyrus during the generation of humorous ideas. Examining the neural mechanisms more closely shows that the hypoactivation of frontal brain regions is associated with an hyperactivation in the amygdala and vice versa. This antagonistic connectivity is concurrently linked with an increased number of humorous ideas and enhanced amygdala responses during the task. Our data therefore suggests that a neural antagonism previously related to the emergence and regulation of negative affective responses, is linked with the generation of emotionally positive ideas and may represent an important neural pathway supporting mental health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição , Emoções , Memória , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Conectoma , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7284, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790310

RESUMO

Presentation of humor simultaneously with a stressful event has been shown to dampen the psychological and physiological responses of stress. However, whether a relatively short humorous intervention can be utilized to prevent the subsequent stress processing is still underinvestigated. Furthermore, it is unknown, whether such a humor intervention changes stress processing at a cost of cognitive functioning. According to the broaden-and-build theory inducing positive emotions may subsequently impact cognitive performance. Here, we investigated whether humor protects against subsequent stressors by attenuating both, psychological and physiological stress levels and whether this affects cognitive performance. Participants watched either a humorous or a neutral movie, underwent stress induction and performed in a visual search task. Compared to the control group, psychological stress levels and salivary cortisol levels were lower in the humor group, yet no differences were found in response times and accuracy rates for the visual search task. Our results demonstrate that a short humorous intervention shields against subsequent psychological stress leaving cognitive performance intact, thus making it highly applicable to improve mental and physical health in everyday life situations.


Assuntos
Atenção , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Psicoterapia/métodos , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
19.
Prog Urol ; 31(7): 414-421, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849743

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyze the determinants and severity of perineal pain in the adventures of Tintin and Snowy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 23 adventures of Tintin and Snowy (Hergé, Moulinsart Ed.) were reviewed in order to determine the presence, causes and severity of perineal pain (PP) observed in the various heroes of this comic book. Several parameters were studied: the cause which could be either accidental or voluntary; the type of patient (good guys-bad guys); the hero concerned (Tintin, Captain Haddock, Thompson and Thomson, Snowy, Professor Calculus …); the duration of the pain (by the number of boxes where the subject was represented suffering from such pains); finally, the severity of these pains, by the number of stars or signs designating the region and stereotyping the importance of the pain. The Student and Chi2 tests were used to analyze these different qualitative and quantitative variables. RESULTS: Five hundred and one traumas were found in the adventures of Tintin and Snowy, including 47 PP, 9.4% of cases compared to 299 head traumas (60% of cases). Six albums out of the 23 did not report any PP. PPs are usually traumatic either by a fall (68%) or by direct trauma (kick to the back 6%, spanking 4%) much more exceptionally by a bite (2 cases), a burn (2 cases), needles or arrows inserted in the bottom (5 cases) and a bullet wound (1 case). Tintin is the most concerned (19%) with Captain Haddock (23%), followed by Snowy (15%). The bad guys and the good guys don't share equally the perineal pain since the good guys are forgivably more exposed (79% vs. 21%). There is no correlation between head trauma and PP (r2=0.117). The severity index for PP is 5.21 with a mean duration of 3.01 vs. 6.88 for severity and 3.2 for duration for head trauma, a highly significant difference in the Student test (P=0.00259). The total number of traumas per album progressively decreases over the albums (r2=0.3111) with, for example, 38 for the first album (Tintin and the Soviets) and 4 for the last one (Tintin and the Picaros). This decrease in trauma is clearer for cephalic trauma (r2=0.1436) than for PP (r2=0.2189). CONCLUSION: The frequency of traumatic PP in Tintin's adventures is important and is second only to head injuries. This frequency of PP traumas is undoubtedly linked to the hectic and adventurous life of Tintin and his acolytes exposed in all circumstances to all kinds of direct or indirect injuries. Future studies will have to specify the risk of after-effects and the psychological impact of PPs on the heroes concerned. LEVEL OF PROOF: 4.


Assuntos
Desenhos Animados como Assunto , Dor , Períneo/lesões , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , França , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor
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