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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130533, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274704

RESUMO

We performed a multiscale study to understand the impact of pure exogenous compounds at low concentration on the crystallization of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in anhydrous milk fat (AMF). We selected butyric acid, an inhibitor of crystallization, and palmitic acid, a promotor, to investigate the influence of the chain length. Tripalmitin was also used as a promotor to assess the impact of fatty acid esterification. Melted blends containing the additives (1 wt%) were quenched at 25 °C. X-ray scattering data showed that AMF TAGs crystallized directly in the ß'-2L form. The presence of additives did not modify the nanostructure of TAG crystals. However, they significantly altered the microstructure of AMF, as revealed by polarized light microscopy and rheology. This study emphasizes the interest of a multiscale approach to gain knowledge about the behavior of complex fat blends and of the use of modulators at low concentration to monitor their textural properties.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Cristalização , Ésteres , Leite
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130616, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311240

RESUMO

The lipase from Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 was immobilized onto ß-cyclodextrin (CD) grafted and aminopropyl-functionalized chitosan-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites (Fe3O4-CTS-APTES-GA-ß-CD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that not only the functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized but also the immobilized lipase was successfully produced. The immobilized lipase exhibited higher optimal pH value (10.5) and temperature (60℃) than the free lipase. The pH and thermal stabilities of the immobilized lipase were improved significantly compared to the free lipase. The immobilized lipase remained more than 80% of the relative activity at temperature of 60 ℃ and pH 12.0. The immobilized lipase also remained over 80% of its relative activity after 28 days of storage and 15 cycles of application. The application of the immobilized lipase in esterification of isoamyl acetate and pentyl valerate showed that maximum esterification efficiency was achieved in n-hexane having 68.0% and 89.2% respectively. Therefore, these results indicated that the Fe3O4-CTS-APTES-GA-ß-CD nanoparticles are novel carriers for immobilizing enzyme, and the immobilized lipase can be used as an innovative green approach to the synthesis of fruity flavor esters in food industry.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Ciclodextrinas , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Nanocompostos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Esterificação , Ésteres , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipase/metabolismo , Fenômenos Magnéticos
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130650, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330030

RESUMO

Mixed lauric acid esters (MLE) with antibacterial and antioxidative activities were produced through lipase-catalyzed two-step esterification in solvent-free system without purification. In the first reaction, erythorbyl laurate was synthesized for 72 h. Successive reaction for 6 h at molar ratio of 1.0 (lauric acid to glycerol) produced MLE containing erythorbyl laurate and glyceryl laurate with small amounts of residual substrates, by converting 99.52% of lauric acid. MLE addition (0.5-2.0%, w/w) to Tween 20-stabilized emulsions decreased droplet size, polydispersity index, and zeta-potential, possibly enhancing the emulsion stability. In the emulsions, MLE at 0.5 and 2.0% (w/w) caused 4.4-4.6 and 5.9-6.1 log reductions of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), respectively, within 12 h. Lipid hydroperoxide concentrations decreased to 50.8-98.3% in the presence of 0.5-2.0% (w/w) MLE. These findings support a novel approach without needing purification to produce multi-functional food additives for emulsion foods.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Lipase , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Catálise , Esterificação , Ácidos Láuricos , Lipase/metabolismo , Solventes
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130710, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343802

RESUMO

The levels of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in pumpkin (C. maxima) slices as affected by hot air drying (60-100 °C, 6-17 h) were assessed via an HPLC-MS/MS method. Among the 25 carotenoids and carotenoid esters identified in pumpkin flesh, xanthophyll diesters (including (all-E)-violaxanthin dipalmitate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-palmitate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-palmitate, lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-myristate and lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-palmitate) accounted for 43% of the total carotenoids (853.6 ± 18.5 µg/g, dried weight). Dihydroxy xanthophylls, especially those containing 5,6-epoxy group, were more heat-labile than carotenes, while xanthophylls were less heat stable than their diester counterparts. The degradation rates (first-order reactions, R2 = 0.983-0.992) for lutein diesters (rate constant: 0.002-0.049 h-1) in pumpkin slices were only 10-20% of that for lutein (rate constant: 0.020-0.243 h-1) during hot air drying, and 76-98% of lutein diesters could be retained in the final dried products.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Cucurbita , Ésteres , Luteína , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Food Chem ; 366: 130699, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348221

RESUMO

In this work, magnetic chitosan (MCH) beads were synthesized by phase-inversion method, and grafted with polydopamine (PDA) and then used for direct immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase by Schiff base reaction. The amount of immobilized enzyme and the retained activity were found to be 47.3 mg/g and 72.8%, respectively, at pH 7.0, and at 25 °C. The apparent Km (9.7 mmol/L), and Vmax (384 U/mg) values of the immobilized lipase were significantly changed compared to the free lipase. The MCH@PDA-lipase was better thermal and storage stability at different temperatures than those of the free lipase. In hexane medium, the esterification reaction results showed that the maximum conversions of isoamylalcohol and isopentyl alcohol to isoamyl acetate and isopentyl acetate using the MCH@PDA-lipase were found to be 98.4 ± 1.3% and 73.7 ± 0.7%, respectively. These results showed that the MCH@PDA-lipase can be used as an operative immobilized enzyme system for many biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Lipase , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ésteres , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipase/metabolismo , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Saccharomycetales
6.
Food Chem ; 367: 130646, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364146

RESUMO

Main by-product of white wine production is white grape pomace (WGP). It has attracted attention of food scientists, because it possesses high concentration of nutrients and bioactive substances. In this study, WGP was added to the beer after primary fermentation in two different concentrations (10% w/w and 20% w/w) and two different pretreatments (pasteurised and unpasteurised) to determine, whether the most abundant waste from white wine industry could be used to modify the volatilome and phenolic content of the beer. The addition of white grape pomace increased the concentration of phenolic compounds in all of the tested beers (from 321.584 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/dm3 to 501.459 mg GAE/dm3). Antioxidant activity of the beers with addition of WGP (tested with the ABTS+•, DPPH• and FRAP assays) also increased. The composition of volatiles in beers changed as WGP was added. The most significant difference was in the concentration of acetaldehyde - beers with WGP added had 4-7 times lower acetaldehyde content (17.425-31.425 mg/dm3) than the control sample (134.050 mg/dm3).


Assuntos
Vitis , Álcoois , Antioxidantes/análise , Cerveja , Ésteres , Tecnologia
7.
Food Chem ; 369: 130920, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461518

RESUMO

Chinese traditional fermented baijiu is a famous alcoholic beverage with unique flavor. Despite its consumption for millennia, the flavor mystery behind baijiu is still unclear. Studies indicate that esters are the most important flavor substances, and bring health benefits. However, the aroma contribution and formation mechanism of esters still need to be clarified to reveal the flavor profile of baijiu. This review systematically summarizes all the 510 esters and finds 9 ethyl esters contribute greatly to the flavor of baijiu. The 508 different microbial species that have been identified affect the synthesis of esters through fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. The determination of minimum functional microbial groups and the analysis of their metabolic characteristics are crucial to reveal the mechanism of formation of baijiu flavor, and ensure the reproducible formation of flavor substances.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Aromatizantes , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
8.
Food Chem ; 369: 130878, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469837

RESUMO

This study developed and applied a GC-MS method aiming at molecular fingerprinting of 120 commercial single grape white wines (Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and Silvaner) for possible authentication according to grape variety. The method allowed detection of 372 peaks and tentative identification of 146 metabolites including alcohols, organic acids, esters, amino acids and sugars. The grape variety effect explained 8.3% of the total metabolite variation. Univariate tests showed two-thirds of the metabolites being different between grape varieties. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis based classification models were developed for each grape variety and a panel of classifiers (42 metabolites) was established. All the classification models for grape variety showed a high certainty (>91%) for an independent test set. Riesling contained the highest relative concentrations of sugars and organic acids, while concentrations of hydroxytyrosol and gallic acid, common antioxidants in wine, decreased in the order of Chardonnay > Riesling > Sauvignon Blanc > Silvaner.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Análise Discriminante , Ésteres , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Vinho/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150559, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582879

RESUMO

Urban runoff seems an obvious pathway for the transfer of microplastics (MPs) and phthalate acid esters (PAEs) from land-based sources to the marine environment; an issue that still lacks attention. This study presents the first results on MP and PAE levels in the urban runoff into the northern part of the Persian Gulf during the dry season. Average concentrations of MPs and PAEs in the urban runoff of eight selected sampling sites (N = 72) along the Bushehr coast were 1.86 items/L and 53.57 µg/L, respectively. MPs with a size range of 500-1000 µm had the highest abundance, and the mean levels of PAEs in MPs were 99.77 µg/g. The results of this study show that urban runoff is a main source of MP and PAE contaminants that are discharged into the Persian Gulf. Therefore, to decrease these pollutants from entering the aquatic environment, decision-makers in the area should consider this problem and stop the direct discharging of urban runoff into water bodies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Oceano Índico , Microplásticos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 372: 131248, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619525

RESUMO

Phthalateacid esters (PAEs) concentration in bottled water and different factors (water pH, storage time, sunlight exposure, and temperature) that affect/control them have become hot topics during recent years. Nevertheless, quite contradictory results and disagreements on the effects of these factors have been published. In an attempt to find some consensus on this topic, a comprehensive study considering the combined effect of long storage times (longer than a year) and the water hydrochemical signature (including water pH, elemental composition and the presence/absence of dissolved CO2)was performedusing the four most commonly consumed bottled water brands on the Chilean market. Each water brand was analyzed between 10 or 14 different times, depending on the brand (in total 97 samples were studied). Following the concept ofthe hydrochemical signature typically used in hydrogeology to classify types of waters, the notion of a water phthalate fingerprint was proposed. Finally, concerning the effect of long storage times, this study demonstrates that all the trends (increase, decrease or steady) of the Total PAEs concentration are possible; and these trends are controlled by the specific hydrochemical signatureandphthalate fingerprint of the bottled water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Ácidos Ftálicos , Água Potável/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise
11.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118349, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653588

RESUMO

The adverse effects of fine atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) are closely associated with particulate chemicals. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected from highway and industry sites in Hangzhou, China, during the autumn and winter, and their cytotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity and endocrine-disrupting potential (EDP) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo; the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs), and heavy metals were then characterized. The toxicological results suggested that the PM2.5 from highway site induced higher cytotoxicity (cell viability inhibition, intracellular oxidative stress, and cell membrane injury) and pulmonary toxicity (inflammatory response (IR) and oxidative stress (OS)) than the samples from industry site, while the PM2.5 from industry site exhibited higher EDP (estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity). The cytotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity of PM2.5 in the winter were higher than those in the autumn, while no seasonal difference in the endocrine-disrupting potential was observed (p > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis between the biological effects and particulate chemicals revealed that the PM2.5-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress were closely associated with the particulate PAHs and heavy metals (Pearson correlation coefficients: rIR, PAHs = 0.822-0.988, rIR, heavy metals = 0.895-0.971, rOS, PAHs = 0.843-0.986, and rOS, heavy metals = 0.887-0.933), while particulate di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) substantially contributed to the EDP of PM2.5 (rEDP, DEHP = 0.981). This study indicated that the toxicity and EDP of PM2.5 could vary with the surrounding environment and season, which was closely associated with the variations of particulate chemicals. Further studies are needed to clarify the associations between the harmful effects of PM2.5 and other contributing factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/toxicidade , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Camundongos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano
12.
Food Chem ; 370: 131324, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788959

RESUMO

A novel enzyme-catalyzed method was developed for the synthesis of phytosterol polyol esters from ß-sitosterol and polyols (sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol) by two-step transesterification using divinyl adipate (DVA) as a link. A high conversion (exceeding 94%) of ß-sitosterol with a vinyl group was achieved, in the presence of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), at low temperature (35 °C) within 30 min. Subsequently, the maximum conversion of phytosterol polyol esters (>94%) was obtained using alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis at 65 °C. Phytosterol polyol esters had enhanced thermal stability (up to an above 355 °C) and excellent water solubility (4.6-7.9 mM at 35 °C). Moreover, obvious increases in the bioaccessibility (41.5-63.6%) and intestinal uptake (5.2-6.5%) were observed using a simulated gastrointestinal digestion/Caco-2 cell model. These results highlighted the key role of hydrophilic structural modifications on physicochemical properties and absorption of phytosterols.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Ésteres , Humanos , Polímeros , Saccharomycetales
13.
Food Chem ; 372: 131211, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601423

RESUMO

In this study, the interaction of ovalbumin with lutein dipalmitate and the effect of ovalbumin on marigold lutein esters extracts were investigated. Lutein dipalmitate quenched the fluorescence of ovalbumin by static quenching. Binding and thermodynamic parameters proved that lutein dipalmitate bound to ovalbumin spontaneously by van der Waals force and hydrogen bond, and the complex stoichiometry was 1:1. Through three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism experiments, the conformation of ovalbumin was unfolded, and alteration in the ovalbumin secondary structure induced by lutein dipalmitate was observed. The results of transmission electron microscopy and particle size revealed that there were spherical and nano-sized aggregates in the ovalbumin-lutein dipalmitate system, indicating the lutein dipalmitate not only could bind to ovalbumin at molecular level, but also promote the aggregation of ovalbumin. Additionally, the addition of ovalbumin had a positive effect on the stability of marigold lutein esters extracts.


Assuntos
Calendula , Luteína , Dicroísmo Circular , Ésteres , Ovalbumina , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica
14.
Food Chem ; 372: 131256, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627092

RESUMO

In this study, a continuous-flow bioreactor packed with well-organized lipase microarrays was developed for the sustainable synthesis of functional lipid-phytosterol esters (PEs). Hollow mesoporous silicon spheres with a suitable pore size were prepared for lipase immobilization, and the hydrophobic modification endowed the lipase with excellent catalytic activity and stability. The results showed that the condensely packed lipase microarrays offered large specific surface areas and guaranteed the thorough interaction between the lipase and substrates in the continuous-flow bioreactor. Meanwhile, the substrate could pass through the reactor at 1 mL/min with a high conversion of 93.6% due to the hollow structure of the packing spheres. Moreover, the reactors were able to produce 1564 g PEs/g catalyst in a continuous 30-day processing period, which set the highest records for PEs synthesis. This sustainable and highly-converting flow system provided a feasible path for scale-up production of PEs in the food processing area.


Assuntos
Lipase , Fitosteróis , Reatores Biológicos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Esterificação , Ésteres , Lipase/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo
15.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118377, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656682

RESUMO

Concentrations of organophosphate esters (OPEs) plasticizers were analysed in the present study. Fifty-five fish samples belonging to three highly commercial species, European sardine (Sardina pilchardus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), and European hake (Merluccius merluccius), were taken from the Western Mediterranean Sea. OPEs were detected in all individuals, except for two hake samples, with concentrations between 0.38 and 73.4 ng/g wet weight (ww). Sardines presented the highest mean value with 20.5 ± 20.1 ng/g ww, followed by anchovies with 14.1 ± 8.91 ng/g ww and hake with 2.48 ± 1.76 ng/g ww. The lowest OPE concentrations found in hake, which is a partial predator of anchovy and sardine, and the higher δ15N values (as a proxy of trophic position), may indicate the absence of OPEs biomagnification. Eleven out of thirteen tested OPEs compounds were detected, being diphenyl cresyl phosphate (DCP) one of the most frequently detected in all the species. The highest concentration values were obtained for tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDClPP), trihexyl phosphate (THP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), for sardines, anchovies, and hakes, respectively. The human health risk associated with the consumption of these fish species showing that their individual consumption would not pose a considerable threat to public health regarding OPE intake.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Plastificantes , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Organofosfatos/análise , Plastificantes/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131858, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399256

RESUMO

Phthalates and 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), bisphenols (BPs), parabens (PBs), and triclosan (TCS) are high-production-volume chemicals of pseudo-persistence that are concerning for the environment and human health. This study aims to assess the exposure to 10 phthalates, DINCH, and environmental phenols (3 BPs, 7 PBs, and TCS) of Slovenian men (n = 548) and lactating primiparous women (n = 536). We observed urinary concentrations comparable to studies from other countries and significant differences among the sub-populations. In our study, men had significantly higher levels of phthalates, DINCH, and BPs, whereas the concentrations of PBs in urine were significantly higher in women. The most significant determinant of exposure was the area of residence and the year of sampling (2008-2014) that mirrors trends in the market. Participants from urban or industrialized sampling locations had higher levels of almost all monitored analytes compared to rural locations. In an attempt to assess the risk of the population, hazard quotient (HQ) values were calculated for individual compounds and the chemical mixture. Individual analytes do not seem to pose a risk to the studied population at current exposure levels, whereas the HQ value of the chemical mixture is near the threshold of 1 which would indicate a higher risk. We conclude that greater emphasis on the risk resulting from cumulative exposure to chemical mixtures and additional studies are needed to estimate the exposure of susceptible populations, such as children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criança , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ésteres , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Parabenos , Fenóis
17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 1849-1863, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688976

RESUMO

Infected wounds show delayed and incomplete healing processes and even render patients at a high risk of death due to the formed bacterial biofilms in the wound site, which protect bacteria against antimicrobial treatments and immune response. Nitric oxide based therapy is considered a promising strategy for eliminating biofilms and enhancing wound healing, which encounters a significant challenge of controlling the NO release behavior at the wound site. Herein, a kind of phenylalanine based poly(ester urea)s with high thermal stability are synthesized and fabricated to electrospun films as NO loading vehicle for infected wound treatment. The resultant films can continuously and stably release nitric oxide for 360 h with a total concentration of 1.15 µmol L-1, which presents obvious advantages in killing the bacteria and removing biofilms. The results exhibit the films have no cytotoxicity and may accelerate the wound repair without causing inflammation, hemolysis, or cytotoxic reactions as well as stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and increase the synthesis of collagen. Therefore, the films may be a suitable NO releasing dressing for removing biofilms and repairing infected wounds.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Óxido Nítrico , Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Humanos , Fenilalanina , Ureia , Cicatrização
18.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118255, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600061

RESUMO

Seven organophosphate esters (OPEs) in atmospheric particles and surface seawater were observed during a cruise in the western South China Sea (SCS) in 2014. The median concentrations of ∑OPEs were 688 pg/m3 and 5.55 ng/L for particle and seawater samples, respectively. Total OPEs were dominated by tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). The spatial distribution of OPEs indicates that the OPEs in particle phase were mainly influenced by the air masses originating from China, Indochina Peninsula and Malay Archipelago, showing the significant contribution of anthropogenic sources from these regions. Significant positive correlations between Tri-n-butylphosphate (TnBP) and organic carbon (P < 0.05) in particle phase over the western SCS suggests that it might be a potential tracer for the source regions of Indochina Peninsula and Malay Archipelago. The spatial distribution of OPEs in seawater was contributed by freshwater inputs associating with variations of human activities as well as salinity. Seawater pollution levels of OPEs in the eastern coast of Vietnam were increased compared to those measured in the northern SCS. The loadings of ∑OPEs transported to the vast area of western SCS vias atmospheric deposition and air-seawater gas exchange were estimated to be 59 tons/year and 105 tons/year, respectively. This work highlights the importance of transport processes and air-seawater interface behavior of OPEs in the oceanic area.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Água do Mar
19.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118391, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678394

RESUMO

To investigate tissue distribution, spatial difference, temperature variation, and potential health risks of PAEs in vegetables, celery was used as a model plant. Celery samples were collected from open fields and greenhouses from two provinces in China over four seasons. Celery tissues were analyzed for 16 PAE compounds by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total content of PAEs was 89.0-1130.3 µg kg-1 dry weight (dw) in stems and 155.0-2730.8 µg kg-1 dw in leaves. Concentrations of PAEs in celeries showed notable spatial differences (P < 0.05), and the levels in samples from open fields were lower than those in samples from plastic greenhouses. In celeries from greenhouses, higher PAE concentrations were observed for plants grown at high temperatures than in plants grown at low temperatures. Discrepancies in tissue distribution indicated different uptake pathways of PAE contaminants. Risk assessments to humans found that both carcinogenic risks and non-carcinogenic risks of PAEs via celery consumption were at an acceptable level. Further research should consider other exposure pathways of PAEs and pay special attention to reducing PAE contents in vegetables.


Assuntos
Apium , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes do Solo , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Exposição Dietética , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Distribuição Tecidual , Verduras
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