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1.
Lancet ; 400(10354): 730-731, 2022 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058219
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011977

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated the prevalence and negative consequences of rape myths in various social contexts, including their impact on jury decision-making. The current study adopted a mixed methods design to explore how educating jurors about rape myths via a judge's direction affected their decision-making regarding the guilt or innocence of a defendant in a rape case. Data were obtained from two mock trials and 12 questionnaire responses. The sample consisted of 12 women participants aged from 20 to 25. The thematic analysis indicated that participants who received rape myths education exhibited resistance to rape myths, increased scrutiny of the defendant as opposed to the complainant, and less disbelief of the complainant's alleged behaviours. Quantitative analysis suggested a strong positive correlation between the understanding of rape myths education and its influence on decision making; however, this was only found in the intervention group. Findings showed insights into the possible advantages of rape myths education for jurors that were delivered via the judge's direction. Future research directions and implications were discussed.


Assuntos
Estupro , Atitude , Escolaridade , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos
3.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(2): 2107820, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35992226

RESUMO

Background: Rape is a common traumatic event which may result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet few studies have investigated risk biomarkers in sexually traumatised individuals. Adiponectin is a novel cytokine within inflammatory and cardiometabolic pathways with evidence of involvement in PTSD. Objective: This prospective exploratory study in a sample of female rape survivors investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity, and the interaction of these SNPs of interest with childhood trauma in modifying the association with PTSS severity. Method: The study involved 455 rape-exposed black South African women (mean age (SD), 25.3 years (±5.5)) recruited within 20 days of being raped. PTSS was assessed using the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and childhood trauma was assessed using a modified version of the Childhood Trauma Scale-Short Form Questionnaire. Eight ADIPOQ SNPs (rs17300539, rs16861194, rs16861205, rs2241766, rs6444174, rs822395, rs1501299, rs1403697) were genotyped using KASP. Mixed linear regression models were used to test additive associations of ADIPOQ SNPs and PTSS severity at baseline, 3 and 6 months following rape. Results: The mean DTS score post-sexual assault was high (71.3 ± 31.5), with a decrease in PTSS severity shown over time for all genotypes. rs6444174TT genotype was inversely associated with baseline PTSS in the unadjusted model (ß = -13.6, 95% CI [-25.1; -2.1], p = .021). However, no genotype was shown to be significantly associated with change in PTSS severity over time and therefore ADIPOQ SNP x childhood trauma interaction was not further investigated. Conclusion: None of the ADIPOQ SNPs selected for investigation in this population were shown to be associated with change in PTSS severity over a 6-month period and therefore their clinical utility as risk biomarkers for rape-related PTSD appears limited. These SNPs should be further investigated in possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.


Antecedentes: La violación sexual es un evento traumático común que puede resultar en el desarrollo del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT); no obstante, pocos estudios han investigado biomarcadores de riesgo en personas sexualmente traumatizadas. La adiponectina es una citocina recientemente involucrada en vías inflamatorias y cardiometabólicas que tienen evidencia de compromiso en el TEPT.Objetivo: Este estudio prospectivo exploratorio, realizado en una muestra de mujeres sobrevivientes a violación sexual, investigó la asociación entre polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNPs por sus siglas en inglés) en el gen de la adiponectina (ADIPOQ) y la severidad de los síntomas de estrés postraumático (SEPT), así como también cómo la interacción de estos SNPs sobre el trauma infantil modifica la asociación con la severidad de los SEPT.Método: El estudio incluyó a 455 mujeres sudafricanas de raza negra expuestas a una violación sexual (edad promedio de 25,3 años ± 5,5) reclutadas 20 días después de haber sido violadas sexualmente. Los SEPT se evaluaron empleando la Escala de Trauma de Davidson (DTS por sus siglas en inglés) y el trauma infantil se evaluó empleando una versión modificada de la Escala de Trauma Infantil ­ Cuestionario de versión corta. Se realizó la genotipificación de ocho SNPs del gen ADIPOQ (rs17300539, rs16861194, rs16861205, rs2241766, rs6444174, rs822395, rs1501299, rs1403697) empleando el KASP. Se emplearon modelos de regresión lineal para evaluar las asociaciones aditivas entre los SNPs del gen ADIPOQ y la severidad de los SEPT de base, a los tres y a los seis meses luego de la violación sexual.Resultados: El promedio del puntaje en la DTS luego de una violación sexual fue alto (71,3 ± 31,5) con una disminución en la severidad de los SEPT evidenciada a lo largo del tiempo para todos los genotipos. El genotipo rs6444174TT se encontró inversamente asociado a los SEPT de base en el modelo no ajustado (ß = −13.6, 95% CI [−25.1; −2.1], p = .021). Sin embargo, ningún genotipo mostró estar asociado significativamente con cambios en la severidad de los SEPT a lo largo del tiempo y, por tanto, ya no se investigó la interacción entre los SNPs del gen ADIPOQ y el trauma infantil.Conclusiones: Ninguno de los SNPs del ADIPOQ elegidos para esta investigación mostraron tener alguna asociación entre los cambios en la severidad de los SEPT en un periodo de seis meses y, por tanto, su utilidad clínica como marcadores de riesgo para el TEPT asociado a violación sexual es limitada. Se debería investigar más estos SNPs para evaluar las posibles interacciones gen-gen y gen-ambiente.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Estupro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adiponectina/genética , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Estupro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(9): 3689-3700, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000655

RESUMO

The provision of abortion in pregnancies resulting from rape in Brazil is limited, restricted to a few facilities and concentrated in large urban centers. We aimed to estimate the potential for expansion of this service considering the installed capacity in the country's municipalities. From the data of June 2021 in the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (Brazilian National Registry of Health Facilities, CNES), three different scenarios of abortion provision provided by law in pregnancies resulting from rape were elaborated, and the percentage of female population of childbearing age living in the municipalities of each scenario was calculated by region. The first scenario included the municipalities with installed provision; the second, those with potential for provision considering the current regulations; and the third, those with potential for provision considering only the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the Penal Code of Brazil. The scenarios were composed of 55, 662 and 3,741 municipalities, respectively, and were home to 26.7%, 62.1%, and 94.3% of the country's females between the ages of 10 and 49. In all regions, there was installed capacity to expand provision, both in light of current regulations and international recommendations.


A oferta do aborto em gestações decorrentes de estupro é limitada no Brasil, restrita a poucos estabelecimentos e concentrada em grandes centros urbanos. Objetivou-se estimar o potencial de expansão da oferta do serviço considerando a capacidade instalada nos municípios país. A partir dos dados de junho de 2021 no Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde foram elaborados três diferentes cenários de oferta de aborto previsto em lei em gestações decorrentes de estupro, e calculado o percentual da população do sexo feminino em idade fértil residente nos municípios de cada cenário por região. No primeiro cenário foram incluídos os municípios com oferta instalada, no segundo aqueles com potencial de oferta considerando as normativas vigentes, e no terceiro aqueles com potencial de oferta considerando apenas as recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde e o Código Penal brasileiro. Os cenários foram compostos, respectivamente, por 55, 662 e 3.741 municípios, sendo residência de 26,7%, 62,1% e 94,3% das pessoas do sexo feminino entre 10 e 49 anos do país. Em todas as regiões havia capacidade instalada para ampliação da oferta tanto à luz das normativas vigentes quanto das recomendações internacionais.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Estupro , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(9): 3715-3728, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000657

RESUMO

The objective was to characterize the cases of sexual violence (SV) against women in Minas Gerais state, associating the care provided in cases of rape with the type of health service that provided the care (specialized or not). The Notifiable Diseases Information System was used for data referring to the notification of SV among women (age ≥10 years old), which occurred in 2017, and the National Registry of Health Facilities for information on the type of health service. The SV occurred mainly among women under 29 years old (77.1%), blacks (61.1%), singles (69.7%), and with low education (42.4%). Rape was the most frequent SV (73.5%), with the majority being notified within 72 hours of the occurrence. For all the procedures recommended for acute situations of SV, there was an association between attendance at a specialized service and a greater chance of carrying out the planned procedures. The only exception was abortion permitted by law. The results demonstrated the importance of continuing investment in the qualification and expansion of the SV care network and the importance of a better territorial distribution of reference services in Minas Gerais.


Objetivou-se caracterizar os casos de violência sexual (VS) contra mulheres, em Minas Gerais-MG, investigando a associação entre a atenção prestada nos casos de estupro, ao tipo de unidade de saúde que realizou o atendimento (especializada ou não). Utilizou-se o Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação, para dados referentes à notificação de VS entre mulheres (idade≥10 anos), ocorridos em 2017, e o Sistema Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde, para informações sobre o tipo de unidade de saúde. A VS ocorreu, principalmente, entre mulheres abaixo de 29 anos (77,1%), negras (61,1%), solteiras (69,7%) e de baixa escolaridade (42,4%). O estupro foi a VS mais frequente (73,5%), sendo a maioria notificado até 72h após ocorrência. Para todos os procedimentos preconizados para situações agudas de estupro, houve associação entre o atendimento em unidade especializada e a maior chance de realização dos procedimentos previstos. Única exceção foi o aborto previsto em lei. Os resultados demostraram a importância da continuidade do investimento na qualificação e ampliação da rede de atenção à VS, e, também, a importância da melhor distribuição territorial das unidades de referência em MG.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the frequency and sociodemographic characteristics associated with sexual violence by a partner/ex-partner (PSV), someone other than a partner or ex-partner (NPSV), or sexual harassment (SH). METHODS: The study is based on the 2019 Macro-survey of Violence against Women conducted by the Spanish Ministry of Equality among a sample of 9568 women age 16 or more years. Odds Ratios were calculated and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Forty-four women had suffered some kind of sexual violence over their lifetime, 9.2% had experienced PSV, 6.5% NPSV and 40.4% SH. More than 7% of women had been raped by a partner and 2.2% by another man. In the three groups, violence was associated with lower age and having a certified disability. NPSV and SH were significantly associated with a higher education and internet use. In NPSV, 9.2% of cases were reported to the police and 3.9% were reported to the courts. In SH, 91.7% of women told a family member or a close friend and 4.2% reported it to the police or the courts. CONCLUSIONS: A greater emphasis needs to be placed on reporting sexual violence in its various forms. Rape within intimate partnerships ought to be investigated and studied in greater depth.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 90: 102392, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of clarity around the prevalence of anal injuries sustained following anal penetration. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of injury amongst clients attending Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre (SARC), Manchester, UK following anal penetration and identify predisposing or protective factors such as age, sex and pubertal status. This should facilitate an evidence-based approach to providing evidence statements in court for allegations of anal penetration. METHOD: This was an observational retrospective study analysing the forensic medical examination (FME) case notes of 239 clients between January 2015 and December 2016. Subjects were excluded if the nature of alleged assault was unclear. Data was extracted from the FME case notes on to a data collection proforma and statistical analysis undertaken. RESULTS: Of the 239 subject, 156 [65.3%] were female and 83 [34.7%] male. Subjects were predominantly post-pubertal, 185 [79.4%]. The alleged assaults were categorised in to penile anal, digital anal and object anal; penile anal assault was the most common type, 177 [75.97%]. No association was found between type of assault and presence of anal injury. Anal injuries did not occur more frequently in one sex than another [21.15% female, 21.69% male]. Logistic regression indicated pre-pubertal children were less likely to have injury [(odds ratio = 0.34, 95% CI (0.078, 0.70), p = 0.016)], although this was not significant when adjusted for time since assault. Most pre-pubertal children presented more than 72 h after alleged assault, [68.2% female, 73.1% male] The presence of anal injury was significantly associated with time since assault across all subjects, with those examined after 72 h less likely to have injury [p = 0.0016]. A greater proportion of single suspect assaults [22.8%] resulted in anal injury than multiple suspect assaults [13.9%]. Whilst there was alcohol consumption in most alleged assaults against post-pubertal subjects [56.1% female, 50.9% male], there was no statistically significant data to associate alcohol consumption with anal injury. And, the same was true of drug consumption. Among post-pubertal females 96.21% of assaults involved threats or violence, comparable with 71.70% amongst post-pubertal males. The data did not suggest threats and violence increase the rate of anal injury. CONCLUSION: The study identifies a statistically significant relationship between time since assault and prevalence of anal injury. Further, a relationship between pubertal status and prevalence of anal injury was found. The low prevalence of anal injury amongst pre-pubertal children suggests that absence of injury at the time of examination, following allegation of anal assault, is a common finding. Importantly, whilst not demonstrating statistical significance, it should be noted that the majority of assaults reported in the study did not result in anal injury. The study provides contemporary evidence in the field of forensic medicine which can be used in court proceedings in allegations of anal assault.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Traumatismos Torácicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(6): 3183-3195, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861946

RESUMO

Acquaintance-initiated sexually aggressive behavior (SAB) is a widespread problem on college campuses, and intervention strategies thus far have not produced sustained reductions in SAB. Peer-related social norms and cognitive processes underlying sexual decision-making have separately been implicated in SAB. The present study integrates this work by examining the effect of perspective (self vs. typical college male referent) on college men's judgments of the justifiability of unwanted sexual advances, determining the cognitive processes underlying men's misperceptions, and evaluating rape-supportive attitudes (RSA) as a correlate of the implicated processes. College men attracted to women (n = 217) completed the Heterosocial Perception Survey-Revised, in which they judged the justifiability of a man's increasingly intimate sexual advances as a woman responds increasingly negatively. Participants completed the Heterosocial Perception Survey-Revised from their own perspective and from the typical college male perspective. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing RSA and demographics. Undergraduate men, and particularly those endorsing more RSA, greatly overestimated how much the typical college male perceives increasingly nonconsensual behavior as justified. Three cognitive processes were strongly implicated in this misperception. When responding from the self-perspective, RSA correlated significantly with all cognitive processes. These findings illustrate the utility of integrating work on social norms and cognitive processing to document the global effect of perspective on average justifiability ratings and the perspective effect on cognitive processes underlying the ratings. Future work should evaluate personalized normative feedback and cognitive-training approaches to target misperceptions of peers' sexual judgments, given the well-established relation between sexual misperception and SAB risk.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Estupro , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805572

RESUMO

While ample evidence from high-income country settings indicates the prevalence and risk factors for multiple mental ill-health symptoms in student populations, evidence from low- and middle-income higher education settings remains limited. We determined the frequency, associations, and structural pathways between mental health outcomes and possible risk factors among a sample of 1292 predominantly Black African and female students ages 18-30 years, enrolled at nine purposefully selected public universities and Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) campuses. We measured and created a mental ill-health latent outcome consisting of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal thoughts. We also measured traumatic exposures including childhood trauma, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), non-partner rape, and other life traumatic events. We used structural equation modelling to analyse data. We found that 50% of the surveyed students binge drank, 43% reported depressive symptoms, 9% reported PTSD symptoms, and 21% had suicidal thoughts. Students' experiences of childhood trauma, food insecurity, other traumatic events, non-partner rape, and IPV impacted the mental ill-health latent. IPV experiences mediated the relationships between experiences of childhood trauma or other trauma and the mental ill-health latent, and the relationship between binge drinking and other life traumatic events. Non-partner rape mediated the relationship between food insecurity and the mental ill-health latent. Binge drinking directly impacted non-partner rape experience. The findings substantiate the need for campus-based mental health promotion, psychosocial services and treatments, and implementation of combined interventions that address the intersections of violence against women and mental health among students in South Africa.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e134, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875952

RESUMO

Benenson et al. (2022) amass impressive evidence of robust sex differences as support for expanding "staying alive" theory. We argue for a broader and more domain-specific conceptualization focusing on life history tradeoffs between survival and mating success. Using three examples - women's disgust, fear of rape, and cultivation of bodyguards - we illustrate these tradeoffs and suggest a broader theoretical framework.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Estupro , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(6): E495-517, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Árabe, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713918

RESUMO

This article outlines the history of international humanitarian law vis-à-vis conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) from the promulgation of the Lieber Code in 1863 until the adoption in 2019 of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2467. This article considers how a survivor-centered approach to CRSV has emerged, particularly since 2008. The authors identify 3 significant clinical, ethical, and legal lessons: (1) international humanitarian law, as articulated in the Geneva Conventions and other legal instruments, requires clinicians to adopt a holistic approach to care; (2) during or after any conflict in which CRSV has allegedly been inflicted, a clinician may be required to provide evidence to an official investigatory body or court; and (3) infliction of rape in any conflict may equate to commission of torture and possibly genocide, a reality which obliges every clinician to appreciate that a patient may simultaneously be a victim of human rights violations and of crimes.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Altruísmo , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Sobreviventes
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682393

RESUMO

Environmental criminological research on rape series is an understudied field due largely to deficiencies in official and publicly available data. Additionally, little is known about the spatial patterns of rapists with a large number of stranger rapes. With a unique integration and application of spatial, temporal, behavioral, forensic, investigative, and personal history data, we explore the geography of rape of a prolific, mobile serial stranger rapist identified through initiatives to address thousands of previously untested rape kits in two U.S. urban, neighboring jurisdictions. Rape kit data provide the opportunity for a more complete and comprehensive understanding of stranger rape series by linking crimes that likely never would have been linked if not for the DNA evidence. This study fills a knowledge gap by exploring the spatial offending patterns of extremely prolific serial stranger rapists. Through the lens of routine activities theory, we explore the motivated offender, the lack of capable guardianship (e.g., built environment), and the targeted victims. The findings have important implications for gaining practical and useful insight into rapists' use of space and behavioral decision-making processes, effective public health interventions and prevention approaches, and urban planning strategies in communities subjected to repeat targeting by violent offenders.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Geografia , Humanos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1147, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a growing issue faced across diverse South Asian American communities under the backdrop of a distinct religious and cultural environment that intersects with the ability to prevent and manage this public health crisis. There is also growing attention on sexual violence experienced by younger or second-generation South Asian Americans, although little is known on the prevalence of this violence and its impact on health outcomes. Using data from a community-driven sexual violence survey, this study describes the experience of sexual violence and related help seeking behaviors and mental health outcomes among 18-34-year-old South Asian Americans living near the New York (NY) State region. METHODS: Participants were recruited via social media to participate in an anonymous survey developed in partnership with an advisory board of South Asian young adult representatives. Data was analyzed descriptively and through adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: Overall, responses from 335 sexual assault survivors were analyzed. Types of assault experienced included no-contact (97.6%), contact (75.2%), rape attempts (50.2%), rape (44.6%), and multiple rape (19.6%). Many reported perpetrators were South Asian (65.1%) or family members (25.1%). Only 27.6% indicated they had reported assaults to authorities or received services. In adjusted analyses, odds of help seeking were higher among participants who were older (AOR:1.10, 95%CI:1.02-1.20), were a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) (1.98, 1.05-3.71), had a family member as the perpetrator (1.85, 1.01-3.40), had lower disclosure stigma (1.66, 1.16-2.44), and experienced depression (2.16, 1.10-4.47). Odds of depression were higher among sexual minority participants and lower among those with higher sexual assault disclosure stigma (3.27, 1.61-7.16; 0.68, 0.50-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Findings call for greater targeted policy interventions to address the prevention of sexual violence among young South Asian Americans and greater focus on improving help seeking behaviors and improving mental health outcomes among survivors.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742707

RESUMO

In Bangladesh, traffickers have trapped socially and economically marginalised girls and women and sold them into sex work. Furthermore, multiple sociocultural factors shape women's forced and voluntary movement into sex work. However, there are limited peer-reviewed studies of how sex work operators and sociocultural and economic factors shape women's forced and voluntary engagement in sex work in Bangladesh and worldwide. This study examines how sex work operators and various factors shape Bangladeshi women's forced and voluntary involvement in sex work. This study used a qualitative approach by employing in-depth interviews with 10 female sex workers (FSWs) and 8 other stakeholders who work in a Bangladeshi brothel context. This study also used field notes to document how sex work operators and various factors shape women's engagement in sex work. The interview transcripts and field notes were coded and analysed thematically. Participants' accounts reveal two key themes about how sex work operators and sociocultural factors shape women's engagement in sex work. Findings suggest that sex work operators (e.g., traffickers, pimps, madams, house owners) forced girls and women into sex work by putting them in situations in which they had limited power. Furthermore, various economic (poverty, limited employment opportunities) and sociocultural (rape, harassment, exploitation, divorce, limited support from family members and friends, feeling of disempowerment, desire to be autonomous) factors shaped their voluntary engagement in sex work by creating a condition of victimhood in which women felt limited agency and obligated to work for madams as bonded sex workers. However, some women supported by an FSW-led organisation had more agency than others to work and earn in the brothel area. We suggest three important strategies that are likely to benefit brothel-based women and their families, children, and the wider community.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Estupro , Profissionais do Sexo , Criança , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho Sexual
16.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 90: 102377, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724433

RESUMO

There are 47 Sexual Assault Referral Centres (SARCs) in the UK positioned regionally to provide specialist medical and forensic services to the victims of rape and sexual assault. The centres are managed and operated through multiagency agreements bringing together medical and forensic expertise to provide the necessary care for the victim and support the recovery of forensic evidence. A principal factor in preserving the evidence integrity and mitigating the risk of miscarriages of justice is reducing the risk from background DNA contamination to the samples and evidence recovered. This paper outlines a study reviewing the implementation of contamination reduction procedures at one SARC, providing a longitudinal examination of the outcomes of environmental monitoring procedures over a 12-month period. The outcomes show a myriad of factors affecting the process that need continual review and modification of the operating procedures to counteract these risks, as they arise. The Forensic Regulator's "Code of Practice for Forensic Medical Examinations - FSR-C-116", published in May 2020, provides an essential and useful mandate of activities, but this study shows further consideration is required in regard to SARC cleaning procedures and measuring the extent of background DNA contamination. Considerable investment, and further research is needed to implement new and more effective approaches within 'real-world' and local constraints.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
17.
J Trauma Dissociation ; 23(5): 584-601, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593140

RESUMO

In a given year, between 3 and 10% of women attending college will experience a completed rape. Unfortunately, when college survivors seek help following rape, representatives from their university may respond inadequately or harmfully, such as by blaming them, failing to provide adequate support and accommodations, or by minimizing the assault. The failures of an institution to protect its members from harm has been termed institutional betrayal (IB). The present study sought to examine college women rape survivors' (n = 28) experiences with disclosing to three types of campus resources: confidential sources (e.g., counselor), mandated reporters (e.g., faculty member), and Title IX and/or police via examination of their quantitative ratings of IB and institutional support, as well as via thematic analysis of their written help seeking narratives (n = 19). Results support that those who disclosed to Title IX and/or police reported the greatest amount of IB, and there was a trend for those who disclosed to a confidential source to report more support. Thematic analysis revealed four IB themes and two institutional support themes. Implications of findings for university sexual assault prevention and response efforts are discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Traição , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 207, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585046

RESUMO

Sexual assault and rape are crimes that impact victims worldwide. Although the psychosocial and eco-evolutionary factors associated with this antisocial behavior have repeatedly been studied, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we established a novel paradigm to provoke and subsequently assess sexual aggression (SxA) in adult male Wistar rats: the sexual aggression test (SxAT). Briefly, male Wistar rats are sexually aroused by a receptive female, which is exchanged by a non-receptive female immediately after the first intromission. This protocol elicits forced mounting and aggressive behavior toward the non-receptive female to different degrees, which can be scored. In a series of experiments we have shown that SxA behavior is a relatively stable trait in rats and correlates positively with sexual motivation. Rats with innate abnormal anxiety and aggressive behavior also show abnormal SxA behavior. In addition, central infusion of oxytocin moderately inhibits aggressive behavior, but increases forced mounting. Finally, we identified the agranular insular cortex to be specifically activated by SxA, however, inhibition of this region did not significantly alter behavior in the SxAT. Altogether, the SxAT is a paradigm that can be readily implemented in behavioral laboratories as a valuable tool to find answers regarding the biological mechanisms underlying SxA in humans, as well as social decision-making in general.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Agressão , Animais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Feminino , Masculino , Estupro/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Violence Vict ; 37(4): 515-531, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613885

RESUMO

Little is known about victims' experiences with the perpetrator after they report a sexual assault. This study examined harassment of sexual assault victims during the prosecution process utilizing case notes from a large, southern District Attorney's office. Specifically, harassment cases were compared to cases where no harassment was reported by the victim. We found that approximately 15% of victims vocalized harassment by the defendant, his family, or friends. The results detail characteristics and factors related to how harassment was carried out in these cases. These findings unveil the importance of communicating with victims during the prosecution process and suggest control balance theory to be an appropriate lens through which to view harassing behavior.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Adulto , Humanos
20.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 33: 100738, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640526

RESUMO

Abortion is still a controversial medical practice. One country where it is not possible to have an abortion freely is Poland. During the war between Russia and Ukraine, many Ukrainian women became pregnant due to rape. These women, refugees in Poland, have asked for an abortion; however, under Polish law, it is not possible to have an abortion if the rape has not yet been legally recognized. This situation is causing a very serious violation of the fundamental rights to the health and self-determination of Ukrainian women. It will be necessary to implement all possible international measures to allow these women to abort freely.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Estupro , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Política , Gravidez , Ucrânia
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