Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.593
Filtrar
1.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-08-05. (OPAS/HSS/BIO/COVID-19/22-0019).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56222

RESUMO

A pesquisa é um componente essencial da preparação e resposta a emergências de saúde pública. Portanto, é fundamental poder realizar pesquisas de imediato quando uma emergência de saúde tem início e garantir que elas sejam realizadas de forma ética. Esta publicação da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde fornece orientação sobre estratégias e diretrizes para modificar os processos de supervisão ética em situações de emergência, sobre o monitoramento ético de pesquisas já em andamento à medida que surgem novas evidências e sobre formas de abordar outros desafios éticos que surjam ao realizar pesquisas durante emergências de saúde pública. Também fornece orientação sobre como o uso emergencial de intervenções não comprovadas fora do ambiente de pesquisa pode ser realizado de forma ética. Finalmente, inclui lições aprendidas na Região das Américas durante a pandemia de COVID-19 e recomendações resultantes de um exercício de reflexão regional que visam a melhorar a preparação ética para realizar pesquisas no decurso de futuras emergências de saúde.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bioética , Ética , Revisão Ética , Pesquisa , Emergências , América
2.
Can Vet J ; 63(8): 787-788, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919472
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-07-11. (PAHO/HSS/BIO/COVID-19/22-0019).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56139

RESUMO

Research is an essential component of public health emergency preparedness and response. Therefore, it is essential to be able to carry out research as soon as a health emergency begins and to ensure that it is carried out in an ethical manner. This Pan American Health Organization publication provides direction for strategies and guidelines on modifying ethical oversight processes in emergency situations, ethically monitoring ongoing research in the face of new evidence, and overcoming other ethical challenges that arise when doing research in public health emergencies. It also provides guidance so that the emergency use of unproven interventions outside of a research setting is carried out in an ethical manner. Finally, it includes the lessons learned in the Region of the Americas during the COVID-19 pandemic and recommendations resulting from a regional reflection exercise aimed at improving ethical preparation for conducting research during future health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bioética , Ética , Revisão Ética , Pesquisa , Emergências , América
4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 317-331, abr.-jun. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378391

RESUMO

O artigo analisa distintas finalidades de práticas desinformacionais, notadamente no campo da saúde pública. O método contempla análise bibliográfica comparada multidisciplinar nas dobras da filosofia e da ciência da informação, tendo como principais objetos de investigação um documento literário de Machado de Assis, de 1822, e um documento governamental da Comissão Parlamentar de Inquérito da Pandemia, de 2021. O intuito é comparar a ética que orienta as ações ficcionais dos charlatões do conto machadiano (os "pomadistas") e as práticas de desinformação em saúde apontadas pela CPI em pauta. O resultado da análise revela a amplitude do fenômeno da desinformação e seus resultados, em um arco que pode se estender da proteção à vida até a condução à morte. Conclui-se que a desinformação precisa ser discutida com responsabilidade para evitar representações irrefletidas ou moralistas, e os estudos baseados na ética da informação podem contribuir para o aprofundamento filosófico e a avaliação crítica do fenômeno.


The article analyzes different purposes of disinformation practices, notably in the field of public health. The method includes a multidisciplinary comparative bibliographic analysis, in the interface of philosophy and information science, having as main objects of investigation a literary document by Machado de Assis, published in 1822, and a government document made available for the public by the Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry on the Pandemic, in 2021. The aim is to compare the ethics that guide the fictional actions of the charlatans of the Machadian tale (the "pomadistas") and the practices of disinformation in public health, as pointed out by the CPI. The result of the analysis reveals the scope of the phenomenon of disinformation and its results, in an arc that can go from the life protection until driving to death. It is concluded that disinformation needs to be discussed responsibly to avoid thoughtless or moralistic representations, and the studies based on information ethics can contribute to the philosophical deepening and critical evaluation of the phenomenon.


El artículo analiza diferentes propósitos de las prácticas de desinformación, especialmente en el campo de la salud pública. El método incluye un análisis bibliográfico comparativo multidisciplinario, en la interfaz de la filosofía y las ciencias de la información, teniendo como principales objetos de investigación un documento literario de Machado de Assis, de 1822, y un documento gubernamental de la Comisión Parlamentaria de Investigación sobre la Pandemia, de 2021. El objetivo es comparar la ética que guía la acción ficcional de los charlatanes del cuento de Machado de Assis (los "pomadistas") y las prácticas de desinformación en salud, señaladas por la CPI. El resultado del análisis revela la amplitud del fenómeno de la desinformación y sus resultados, en un arco que puede ir desde la protección a la vida hasta la conducción a la muerte. Se concluye que la desinformación necesita ser discutida con responsabilidad para evitar representaciones irreflexivas o moralistas, y los estudios basados en la ética de la información pueden contribuir para la profundización filosófica y la evaluación crítica del fenómeno.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Pública , Comunicação , Ética , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Desinformação , Charlatanismo , Literatura
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-06-20. (OPS/HSS/BIO/COVID-19/22-0019).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56104

RESUMO

La investigación es un componente esencial de la preparación y la respuesta para emergencias de salud pública. Por tanto, es fundamental poder realizar investigaciones tan pronto se inicia una emergencia de salud y asegurar que se lleven a cabo de manera ética.  En esta publicación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se ofrecen orientaciones para presentar estrategias y pautas sobre la modificación de los procesos de supervisión ética en situaciones de emergencia, monitorear de forma ética las investigaciones en curso ante el surgimiento de nueva evidencia y superar otros desafíos éticos que se planteen al hacer investigaciones en emergencias de salud pública. Asimismo, brinda orientación para que el uso de emergencia de intervenciones no probadas y fuera de un ámbito de investigación se lleve a cabo de manera ética. Por último, incluye la lecciones aprendidas en la Región de las Américas durante la pandemia de COVID-19 y recomendaciones resultantes de un ejercicio de reflexión regional dirigido a mejorar la preparación ética para realizar investigaciones en el transcurso de emergencias de salud futuras.  


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bioética , Ética , Revisão Ética , Pesquisa , América
7.
Am J Bioeth ; 22(8): 22-30, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621314

RESUMO

The majority of U.S. abortion patients are poor women, and Black and Hispanic women. Therefore, this article encourages bioethicists and equity advocates to consider whether the need for abortion care should be considered a health disparity, and if yes, whether framing it this way would increase the ability of poor women and women of color to get the medical care they need. In order to engage with these critical questions, bioethicists must avoid abortion exceptionalism and respect patients as moral agents. Centering the conscience of pregnant people shifts our analysis away from the ethics of the act of abortion, and toward the ethics of access to abortion care. Because the Supreme Court is on the brink of shifting the question of abortion's legality to state legislatures, this is the moment for all bioethicists to clarify and strengthen their thinking, writing, and teaching in abortion ethics.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Legal , Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
8.
J Med Philos ; 47(2): 257-278, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543469

RESUMO

Plans to attempt what has been called a head transplant, a body transplant, and a head-to-body transplant in human beings raise numerous ethical, social, and legal questions, including the circumstances, if any, under which it would be ethically permissible to attempt whole-body transplantation (WBT) in human beings, the possible effect of WBT on family relationships, and how families should shape WBT decisions. Our assessment of many of these questions depends partially on how we respond to sometimes centuries-old philosophical thought experiments about personal identity. As with so much in bioethics, it is impossible to escape, or at least inadvisable to try to bypass, the relevant foundational philosophical concerns.


Assuntos
Bioética , Encéfalo , Ética , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Princípios Morais , Autonomia Pessoal , Autoimagem
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2119967119, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507875

RESUMO

Science has traditionally been driven by curiosity and followed one goal: the pursuit of truth and the advancement of knowledge. Recently, ethics, empathy, and equity, which we term "the 3Es," are emerging as new drivers of research and disrupting established practices. Drawing on our own field of GIScience (geographic information science), our goal is to use the geographic approach to accelerate the response to the 3Es by identifying priority issues and research needs that, if addressed, will advance ethical, empathic, and equitable GIScience. We also aim to stimulate similar responses in other disciplines. Organized around the 3Es we discuss ethical issues arising from locational privacy and cartographic integrity, how our ability to build knowledge that will lead to empathy can be curbed by data that lack representativeness and by inadvertent inferential error, and how GIScientists can lead toward equity by supporting social justice efforts and democratizing access to spatial science and its tools. We conclude with a call to action and invite all scientists to join in a fundamentally different science that responds to the 3Es and mobilizes for change by engaging in humility, broadening measures of excellences and success, diversifying our networks, and creating pathways to inclusive education. Science united around the 3Es is the right response to this unique moment where society and the planet are facing a vast array of challenges that require knowledge, truth, and action.


Assuntos
Empatia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Ciência da Informação , Ética
12.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 52 Suppl 1: S69-S71, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470892

RESUMO

This essay argues that womanism, a social theory focused on the embodied lives of Black women, can be useful to bioethicists as they consider health care ethics during a pandemic-and beyond. A general social justice-oriented ethical framework is helpful to begin a conversation on pandemic ethics, but it does not directly lead to the kind of on-the-margins-of-society framework that is necessary to increase health equity and justice. With particular concern for poor Black women, I discuss three main reasons that such an ethics framework needs to incorporate womanist ethics: the feminization of poverty, lack of access to high-quality health care, and rape and other historical violence against Black women. I conclude by proposing that an understanding of womanism as a correlative to the Black Lives Matter clarion call can create an ethical narrative in bioethics that can exist beyond times of pandemic.


Assuntos
Bioética , Eticistas , Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Justiça Social
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-04-18. (OPAS/HSS/BIO/21-0009).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55915

RESUMO

Em 2018, os Estados Membros da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) avaliaram o progresso para integrar a ética em diferentes âmbitos da saúde e salientaram a importância de promover um enfoque sistemático para que as pesquisas sejam sempre realizadas de forma ética. Para fortalecer os sistemas de ética em pesquisa, a OPAS elaborou indicadores que contemplam os componentes centrais de um sistema nacional de ética em pesquisa. Os indicadores contribuem para determinar os avanços em cada componente, avaliar o progresso no fortalecimento dos sistemas e elaborar um plano de ação para cada país a partir dos indicadores ainda não alcançados. Esta estratégia baseada em indicadores pode ser útil fora da Região das Américas e servir de modelo para outros países e regiões fortalecerem seus sistemas nacionais de ética em pesquisa e incentivarem a pesquisa ética.


Assuntos
Bioética , Ética , Pesquisa , Ética em Pesquisa , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Sistemas de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-04-18. (OPS/HSS/BIO/21-0009).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55914

RESUMO

En 2018, les États Membres de l’Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé (OPS) ont évalué les progrès réalisés en matière d’intégration de l’éthique dans les différents domaines de la santé et ont souligné l’importance de promouvoir une approche systémique afin de garantir que la recherche soit toujours menée de manière éthique. Afin de renforcer les systèmes d’éthique de la recherche, l’OPS a élaboré des indicateurs qui tiennent compte des composantes essentielles d’un système national d’éthique en matière de recherche. Les indicateurs permettent d’identifier les progrès au sein de chaque composante, d’évaluer les progrès réalisés dans le renforcement des systèmes et d’élaborer un plan d’action pour chaque pays en fonction des indicateurs à atteindre. Cette stratégie fondée sur des indicateurs pourrait être utile au-delà de la Région des Amériques et servir de modèle à d’autres pays et régions pour renforcer leurs systèmes nationaux d’éthique de la recherche et catalyser la recherche éthique.


Assuntos
Ética , Bioética , Ética em Pesquisa , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Pesquisa , Sistemas de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde
15.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 25(2): 180-194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272545

RESUMO

In this article, we consider the One Health framework for orienting guidance for animal disaster management through an ethics of care approach. While One Health was created at the beginning of the 21st century in response to the persistence of emerging infectious diseases and the view that the health of humans and other animals are contiguous, it can be a useful tool for promoting animal welfare and considering animals' experiences during a disaster. However, implementing One Health strategies into animal disaster management is not without its challenges, since ethical judgments are implicit in all decisions and recommendations made about how to conceptualize a "disaster" and their impact on animals and their welfare. Our discussion is divided into three sections. First, we consider the significance of a One Health framework for animal disaster management. Here, we highlight how One Health strategies can be employed in disaster health and natural disaster. Next, we use an ethics of care approach to lay the contours for an interspecies account of relational solidarity, thus offering a vision for how One Health strategies can reimagine the ethical dilemmas involving human-animal conflicts during a disaster. Lastly, we consider the textured nature of our relationship with animals, the moral weight of common vulnerability and interdependency and illuminating insights from animal welfare science.


Assuntos
Desastres , Saúde Única , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Ética , Julgamento
16.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(1): 11-24, 01/03/2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367713

RESUMO

It may be stated that qualitative texts harbour a set of voices that, as if they were drawings, seek to sensitize and,ultimately­ transform those who listen to them. These voices come from participants in studies, from ourselves, researchers, and from others who have preceded us and who speak to us from the literature. Our research studies set off from participant's lived experience and, when interpreted, express the universal in the particular, as in the drawings by Goya who, by using images he took from the streets, expressed the pain and loneliness of people (Figure 1) and denounced events that occurred during the war, which over two-hundred years later still shudder and overwhelm us (Figure 2). Thus, similarly, carefully chosen and wisely combined in research reports, they, the low voices, will move those who read them into situations and experiences evoking potentially transformative images.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ética
17.
Appetite ; 173: 105981, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245645

RESUMO

Currently, there are many advocacy interventions aimed at reducing animal consumption. We report results from a lab (N = 267) and a field experiment (N = 208) exploring whether, and to what extent, some of those educational interventions are effective at shifting attitudes and behavior related to animal consumption. In the lab experiment, participants were randomly assigned to read a philosophical ethics paper, watch an animal advocacy video, read an advocacy pamphlet, or watch a control video. In the field experiment, we measured the impact of college classes with animal ethics content versus college classes without animal ethics content. Using a pretest, post-test matched control group design, humane educational interventions generally made people more knowledgeable about animals used as food and reduced justifications and speciesist attitudes supporting animal consumption. None of the interventions in either experiment had a direct, measurable impact on self-reported animal consumption. These results suggest that while some educational interventions can change beliefs and attitudes about animal consumption, those same interventions have small impacts on animal consumption.


Assuntos
Ética , Carne , Animais , Atitude , Humanos
18.
Can Vet J ; 63(3): 237-238, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35237010
19.
J Med Ethics ; 48(3): 153, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232769
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...