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1.
Global Health ; 16(1): 117, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is studied from many perspectives and has gained unprecedented importance in recent years, especially in emerging economies. Pharmaceutical companies play a very important role in a population's well-being and health through the CSR and corporate governance practices that they apply. METHODS: We used an exploratory approach to measure compliance with the Corporate Governance Code of pharmaceutical companies listed on the Romanian capital market and with practices declared through CSR. RESULTS: The results show that pharmaceutical companies are involved in actions that consider the well-being of society by offering financial support and managing various sustainable projects, targeting social and economic issues, leading public health awareness campaigns, and investing in health projects. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the increasingly important role played by corporate governance and corporate social responsibility in pharmaceutical companies in improving public health in countries with emerging economies.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Saúde Pública , Responsabilidade Social , Ética nos Negócios , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Organizações , Preparações Farmacêuticas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750071

RESUMO

Whereas governments are increasingly considering affirmative action programs to increase corporate board diversity, the effect of such programs can be superficial as they do not address the underlying problem, which is women's access to and inclusion in relevant corporate networks. To address this issue, we study the relationship among affirmative action programs (binding gender quotas and non-binding gender targets), director networks, and the number of board positions individual directors hold given their gender. We use personal, professional, and network characteristics of 25,127 unique directors from 2,435 public firms in 32 European countries over the period of 2000 through 2017. We find that in the absence of affirmative action programs, women directors benefit less from their networks than men directors suggesting the existence of a gender gap in network benefits. After the passage of binding gender quotas, this gender gap in network benefits narrows between women and men directors. Overall, this research suggests that binding gender quotas make director networks a more salient tool for hiring women and may help in leveling the playing field in the way these networks are used for achieving top management positions.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Ética nos Negócios , Cultura Organizacional , Corporações Profissionais/organização & administração , Política Pública , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Am J Law Med ; 46(2-3): 275-296, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659196

RESUMO

Corporate influence is one of the most pressing issues in public health. It cuts across many of our most intractable problems-from obesity to the opioid epidemic. Companies develop close relationships with public health agencies, research universities, academic medical centers, professional societies, and patient advocacy organizations-often funding medical research and public health interventions intended to address the very challenges these corporations are creating or exacerbating. How we view relationships with industry, including how these relationships are framed in ethical discourse, shapes our legal and policy responses to them. In recent years, fueled in part by the opioid epidemic, the ethical framing of industry relationships has begun to evolve in significant ways. But legal and policy responses have not yet caught up. In this article, I develop a temporal account of corporate influence, and legal and policy responses to corporate influence. This account clarifies the limitations and adverse effects of conflicts of interest disclosure, especially when implemented as the sole legal or policy response. Disclosure can illuminate corporate influence-but policymakers cannot and should not rely on disclosure to eliminate corporate influence or its effects. Nor should we allow disclosure to crowd out structural and systemic responses to corporate influence-including sequestration of and separation from private-sector entities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Revelação/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética nos Negócios , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Conflito de Interesses , Humanos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
6.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(12): 746-755, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875625

RESUMO

Objectives Multinational R&D pharmaceutical companies operating in many countries and regions have deep ties with patient groups that are recipients of their corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR activities are diverse and range from direct funding (including donations and sponsorships) to indirect funding (such as expenses associated with company-sponsored lectures); there are rewards for CSR requests for patient groups (writing, supervision, and surveys), and labor is provided by company employees. In developing pharmaceutical products, R&D companies can provide greater benefits to patients by listening to them. It is therefore important for all stakeholders to ensure transparency regarding the relationship between companies and patient groups. This study aimed to identify trends in information disclosure toward ensuring transparency of relations between CSR activities and patient groups based on industry groups regulations in Japan, the United States, and Europe.Methods The contents described in regulations by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA), Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), and the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) concerning such transparency were qualitatively and inductively analyzed in terms of four concepts: transparency, equal partnership, mutual benefit, and independence.Results Most of the descriptions relate to transparency. The EFPIA regulation is the most detailed; it states that there should be no influence on patient groups' work or on events and activities organized by companies or patient groups. The rules of the three associations also impose the need to maintain records concerning the purpose and contents of financial support and activity items. However, information disclosure to secure transparency is not required in the PhRMA regulation. The JPMA regulation does not specify a clear update schedule; the EFPIA regulation requires disclosure information to be updated once a year. In terms of equal partnership, such terms as "mutual respect," "equal value," and "establishing a trust relationship" appeared in searches with all three regulations. None of the regulations referred to "mutual benefit." All the regulations either respected or validated the independence of patient groups.Conclusion Each pharmaceutical association set its own regulations and recommended voluntary information disclosure by member companies; however, the extent of such disclosure differed with each association. The regulations of industry associations form the basis for the policies of member companies; thus, it is desirable that the contents and regulations related to mutual information disclosure be established in great detail worldwide.


Assuntos
Revelação , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ética nos Negócios , Internacionalidade , Organizações , Pacientes , Responsabilidade Social , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Japão , Estados Unidos
8.
Food Res Int ; 123: 135-143, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284961

RESUMO

Counterfeiting of food and beverage products is rife and premium brands are often targeted by fraudsters. Such is the case with Scotch whisky, a global, reputable brand revered for its heritage and tradition. Using Scotch whisky as a case study, the aim of this paper is to review existing literature and industry information to determine the market and personal consequences of counterfeiting activities and consider the packaging related anti-counterfeiting measures that can be employed within a wider anti-counterfeiting strategy. A typology of counterfeiting activities is developed including: tear-down counterfeiting, product overruns, malicious activities and document counterfeiting. Anti-counterfeiting measures are used to deter, detect and control counterfeiting activities and different packaging related approaches include the use of smart covert and overt technology. Most smart packaging-related anti-counterfeit technologies are stand-alone systems and this presents a vulnerability. An integrated anti-counterfeiting measures strategy, employed by business, the supply chain and the government is required to reduce the risk of the sale of counterfeit food and beverage products.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Ética nos Negócios , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Legislação sobre Alimentos/ética , Política Nutricional
10.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(1): 3-5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919806

RESUMO

The report by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) on the international medical device industry adds to the growing documentation of health scandals in India in recent years. A comprehensive picture emerges of manufacturers selling untested products at usurious rates; criminally negligent doctors and medical establishments; and a regulatory system focused on the industry's growth with little regard for patient safety.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões/ética , Ética nos Negócios , Ética Médica , Indústrias/ética , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamentos e Provisões/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos
11.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(1): 1-31, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129014

RESUMO

The development of efficient and strategic anti-corruption measures can be better achieved if a deeper understanding and identification of the causes of corruption are established. Over the past years, many studies have been devoted to the research of corruption in construction management (CM). This has resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge on the subject matter, including the causative factors triggering these corrupt practices. However, an apropos systematic assessment of both past and current studies on the subject matter which is needful for the future endeavor is lacking. Moreover, there is an absence of unified view of the causative factors of corruption identified in construction project management (CPM). This paper, therefore, presents a comprehensive review of the causes of corruption from selected articles in recognized construction management journals to address the mentioned gaps. A total number of 44 causes of corruption were identified from 37 publications and analyzed in terms of existing causal factors of corruption, annual trend of publications and the thematic categorization of the identified variables. The most identifiable causes were over close relationships, poor professional ethical standards, negative industrial and working conditions, negative role models and inadequate sanctions. A conceptual framework of causes of corruption was established, after categorizing the 44 variables into five unique categories. In descending order, the five constructs are Psychosocial-Specific Causes, Organizational-Specific Causes, Regulatory-Specific Causes, Project-Specific Causes and Statutory-Specific Causes. This study extends the current literature of corruption research in construction management and contributes to a deepened understanding of the causal instigators of corruption identified in CPM. The findings from this study provide valuable information and extended knowledge to industry practitioners and policymakers as well as anti-corruption agencies in the formulation and direction of anti-corruption measures. To corruption researchers in CM, this study is vital for further research.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/ética , Ética nos Negócios , Ética Profissional , Humanos , Princípios Morais
12.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(2): 559-581, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383559

RESUMO

Due to the economic globalization which is characterized with business scandals, scholars and practitioners are increasingly engaged with the implementation of codes of ethics as a regulatory mechanism for stimulating ethical behaviours within an organization. The aim of this study is to examine various organizational practices regarding the effective implementation of codes of ethics within construction contracting companies. Views on ethics management in construction organizations together with the recommendations for improvement were gleaned through 19 semi-structured interviews, involving construction practitioners from various construction companies in Hong Kong. The findings suggested some practices for effective implementation of codes of ethics in order to diffuse ethical behaviours in an organizational setting which include; introduction of effective reward schemes, arrangement of ethics training for employees, and leadership responsiveness to reported wrongdoings. Since most of the construction companies in Hong Kong have codes of ethics, emphasis is made on the practical implementation of codes within the organizations. Hence, implications were drawn from the recommended measures to guide construction companies and policy makers.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Indústria da Construção/ética , Ética nos Negócios , Organizações/ética , Hong Kong , Humanos , Liderança , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
13.
Med Law Rev ; 27(2): 267-294, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272190

RESUMO

This article explores the relationship between obligation and publicly funded healthcare. Taking the National Health Service (NHS) as the focal point of discussion, the article presents a historical analysis of the shifting nature and function of obligation as it relates to this institution. Specifically, and drawing inspiration from recent literature that takes seriously the notion of the tie or bond at the core of obligation, the article explores how the forms of social relation and bonds underpinning a system like the NHS have shifted across time. This is undertaken via an analysis of Aneurin Bevan's vision of the NHS at its foundation, the importance today of the patient (and the individual generally) within publicly funded healthcare, and the role of contract as a contemporary governance mechanism within the NHS. A core feature of the article is its emphasis on the impact that a variety of economic factors-including privatisation, marketisation, and the role of debt and finance capital-are having on previously settled understandings of obligation and the forms of social relation underpinning them associated with the NHS. It is therefore argued that an adequate analysis of obligation in healthcare law and related fields must extend beyond the doctor-patient relationship and that of state-citizen of the classical welfare state in order to incorporate new forms of relation, such as that between creditor and debtor, and new actors, including private healthcare providers and financial institutions.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/economia , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/ética , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Responsabilidade Social , Contratos , Atenção à Saúde/história , Economia/tendências , Ética nos Negócios , Ética Institucional , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/ética , Financiamento Governamental/história , Financiamento Governamental/tendências , História do Século XX , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais/ética , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/história , Privatização , Reino Unido
14.
J Law Med ; 26(2): 311-321, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574720

RESUMO

The 2018 export ban of recyclables to China provides an additional important reason for Australia in particular to act internationally and domestically to reduce its plastic waste. The problems Australia faces from single-use non-biodegradable plastics are replicated in every nation on Earth. Focusing on the Australian context, this article examines regulatory approaches to the problem of plastic production, consumption and disposal and its negative impact on public and ecosystem health. It scrutinises the current legal framework for managing plastic waste at Commonwealth, State and international levels, advocating greater regulation. Its regulatory recommendations include a Pigouvian tax in the form of an excise on plastic production to alter consumer behaviour and raise revenue for further investment in reusable alternatives. They also involve mandatory corporate responsibility obligations, a concept we term "corporate marriage". Other alternative and additional measures to combat single-use plastic waste as utilised in other jurisdictions are proposed for Australian implementation.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Plásticos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Austrália , Ética nos Negócios , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/legislação & jurisprudência , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Am Univ Law Rev ; 67(6): 1947-87, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296018

RESUMO

This Comment will focus on Uber and its obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). While it may seem logical that Uber should adhere to the same ADA regulations as taxis, the relevant ADA provision only applies to private entities that are primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. To avoid these regulations, Uber asserts that it is primarily a technology company, rather than primarily a transportation company. However, the more expansive approach, consistent with the ADA's purpose of eliminating discrimination against persons with disabilities, is to classify Uber's services as public accommodations. While the ADA's public accommodation provision governs physical spaces such as restaurants, shopping centers, and offices, some jurisdictions have recently decided that web-based entities and services are public accommodations. Thus, even if a court were to accept Uber's claim that it is primarily a technology company rather than a transportation company, Uber would still be required to adhere to the ADA's public accommodation provision. This Comment presents and analyzes three rationales for defining Uber as a public accommodation under the ADA: (1) web-based activities are distinct public accommodations, (2) the physical vehicles that Uber operates are places of public accommodation, and (3) Uber is a "travel service" or "other service establishment" as defined in the ADA.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Discriminação Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Transportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Automóveis , Ética nos Negócios , Humanos , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
16.
AMA J Ethics ; 20(9): E864-872, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242818

RESUMO

Granular personal data generated by mobile health (mHealth) technologies coupled with the complexity of mHealth systems creates risks to privacy that are difficult to foresee, understand, and communicate, especially for purposes of informed consent. Moreover, commercial terms of use, to which users are almost always required to agree, depart significantly from standards of informed consent. As data use scandals increasingly surface in the news, the field of mHealth must advocate for user-centered privacy and informed consent practices that motivate patients' and research participants' trust. We review the challenges and relevance of informed consent and discuss opportunities for creating new standards for user-centered informed consent processes in the age of mHealth.


Assuntos
Comércio/ética , Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Privacidade , Tecnologia/ética , Telemedicina/ética , Comunicação , Compreensão , Ética nos Negócios , Humanos , Tecnologia/métodos
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 25: 133-138, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-level marketing (MLM) of nutrition products has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades. 'Wellness' is the second most popular niche in the MLM industry and represents 35% of sales among all the products in 2016. This category includes dietary supplements, weight management and sports nutrition products. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether this practice is legal and ethical. METHODS: An analysis of available documentary information about the legal aspects of Multi-level marketing business was performed. Ethical reflexion was based on the "principlism" approach. RESULTS: We argue that, while being a controversial business model, MLM is not fraudulent from a legal point of view. However, it is an unethical strategy obviating all the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and autonomy. What is at stake is the possible economic scam and the potential harm those products could cause due to unproven efficacy, exceeding daily nutrient requirements and potential toxicity. The sale of dietary and nutrition supplements products by physicians and dieticians presents a conflict of interests that can undermine the primary obligation of physicians to serve the interests of their patients before their own. CONCLUSION: While considering that MLM of dietary supplements and other nutrition products are a legal business strategy, we affirm that it is an unethical practice. MLM products that have nutritional value or promoted as remedies may be unnecessary and intended for conditions that are unsuitable for self-prescription as well.


Assuntos
Comércio/ética , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/ética , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética nos Negócios , Indústria Alimentícia/ética , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/ética , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Conflito de Interesses/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/ética , Fraude/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Revelação da Verdade/ética
20.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 3(3): 234-239, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550750

RESUMO

Corruption in healthcare generally and specifically in the pharmaceutical arena has recently been highlighted in reports by Transparency International. This article focuses on four areas of corruption: legislative/regulatory, financial, ideological/ethical, and communications. The problems identified and the solutions considered focus on structural considerations affecting how pharmaceuticals are discovered, developed, distributed, and ultimately used in clinical settings. These include recourse to user fees in the regulatory sphere, application of intellectual property rights to medical contexts (patents and access to research data), commercial sponsorship of ghost writing and guest authors, linkage/delinkage of the funding of research and overall health objectives to/from drug pricing and sales, transparency of payments to healthcare professionals and institutions, and credible regulatory sanctions. In general, financial and other incentives for all actors in the system should be structured to align with desired social outcomes - and to minimise conflicts of interest among researchers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Comércio/ética , Conflito de Interesses , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Comunicação , Custos de Medicamentos , Ética nos Negócios , Ética Clínica , Ética em Pesquisa , Gastos em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Motivação , Patentes como Assunto , Editoração/ética , Controle Social Formal , Responsabilidade Social
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