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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(11): 1037-1040, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729738

RESUMO

Clinical practice of Medical Genetics involves application of various genetic techniques for the diagnosis of genetic disorders and subsequent genetic counseling and treatment. The principles of Medical Ethics must be fully taken into account when applying genetic knowledge for medical practice. Medical Ethics education is therefore essential for the standardized training of resident doctors in medical genetics department. With a basic system of Medical Genetics Physician Training established, our hospital has made a preliminary exploration for the development of Medical Ethics teaching in resident training through various teaching practices including seminar, network teaching, case study, scene teaching and outpatient teaching, with an aim to strengthen Medical Ethnics knowledge, professionalism and communication skills, and implement Medical Ethics principles throughout clinical practice.


Assuntos
Genética Médica , Currículo , Escolaridade , Ética Médica , Humanos
2.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(4): 777-785, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756296

RESUMO

Fetal analysis uses noninvasive and invasive methods to obtain images and tissues for interpretation that supports risk assessment and/or diagnosis of the fetus's condition. This article provides ethically justified, clinically applicable guidance for supporting the pregnant patient's decision making about fetal analysis. Topics include ethical reasoning using key ethical concepts, confidentiality, clarity about the pregnant woman as ultimate decision maker, offering fetal analysis, counseling about results, counseling about accepted maternal-fetal intervention, and counseling about innovation and research on maternal-fetal intervention. Professional ethics is an essential component of counseling pregnant patients about fetal analysis and referral for investigative maternal-fetal intervention.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Feto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal
4.
Can Vet J ; 62(10): 1045-1046, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602631
6.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 30(5): 151098, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635283

RESUMO

Peer review is an essential tool for institutions and providers to meet the modern goals of safety and quality in health care. It is a mechanism that leads to a just culture within a health care institution whereby errors and complications are considered products of the system rather than isolated actions by an individual. The benefits and potential drawbacks of peer review are outlined in this review with a special emphasis on the interface between peer review and principles of medical ethics. It is argued that peer review, in the ideal setting, is founded upon the principles of beneficence and justice, and to varying levels on non-maleficence and autonomy.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Justiça Social , Beneficência , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Revisão por Pares
7.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 30(5): 151105, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635285

RESUMO

Application of Quality Improvement methodology to nuanced clinical scenarios may be useful to ensure consistent delivery of equitable and comprehensive care. The purpose of this article is to inform the pediatric surgical readership of opportunities where quality improvement methodology may aid in navigating ethical nuances of complex surgical care. We present three case scenarios and discuss how quality improvement methodology could be utilized to address issues of provider autonomy, patient autonomy, and justice.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Melhoria de Qualidade , Criança , Humanos
8.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 64(4): 933-940, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668890

RESUMO

As fetal gene therapies move from experimental animal models to human in utero phase I clinical trials, there is a need to consider the ethical, legal, and social implications. While fetal gene therapies are attracting more regulatory oversight than previous fetal interventions such as fetal surgery, old sociological questions should be applied to this new context. As health care pathways around fetal therapy are shaped by the ways in which a pregnant person and the fetus are constituted, and as risks and benefits are evaluated, we cannot afford to lose sight of long-term consequences, especially those pertaining to social inclusion.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Terapias Fetais , Feminino , Feto , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
9.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102885, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the hidden curriculum of professionalism in the emergency department. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a qualitative study that consisted of six in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group with psychiatry residents of a teaching hospital program about their perception of professionalism in emergency department. A simple content analysis method has been conducted for the extraction of findings. FINDINGS: Common themes that were detected in the hidden curriculum were "Disregarding the priority of the patients"; "Overriding patient autonomy"; "Non-empathetic care"; "Breaching Confidentiality"; "Injustice in providing care"; and "Dishonesty" PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Professional behaviors are mostly learned through the hidden curriculum. The hidden and formal curricula of professionalism are different in several domains. Paying attention to organizational culture and social environment is critical for promoting professionalism.


Assuntos
Profissionalismo , Psiquiatria , Currículo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ética Médica , Humanos , Psiquiatria/educação
10.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(9): E702-704, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710030

RESUMO

Many US patients will have an implantable device during their lives. The AMA Code of Medical Ethics offers guidance for weighing need for patient-subjects' safety against health care sector demand for innovation.


Assuntos
American Medical Association , Códigos de Ética , Ética Médica , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 31(3): 247-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565744

RESUMO

Legal standards of disclosure in a variety of jurisdictions require physicians to inform patients about the likely consequences of treatment, as a condition for obtaining the patient's consent. Such a duty to inform is special insofar as extensive disclosure of risks and potential benefits is not usually a condition for obtaining consent in non-medical transactions.What could morally justify the physician's special legal duty to inform? I argue that existing justifications have tried but failed to ground such special duties directly in basic and general rights, such as autonomy rights. As an alternative to such direct justifications, I develop an indirect justification of physicians' special duties from an argument in Kant's political philosophy. Kant argues that pre-legal rights to freedom are the source of a duty to form a state. The state has the authority to conclusively determine what counts as "consent" in various kinds of transactions. The Kantian account can subsequently indirectly justify at least one legal standard imposing a duty to inform, the reasonable person standard, but rules out one interpretation of a competitor, the subjective standard.


Assuntos
Revelação/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Obrigações Morais , Direitos do Paciente , Filosofia , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Médicos/ética , Revelação/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética Médica , Liberdade , Governo , Humanos , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Risco
13.
Can Vet J ; 62(9): 917-918, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475577
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 616-617, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475598

RESUMO

Gary Humphreys talks to Kazuto Kato about the ethical and societal challenges posed by biotechnologies that allow for the editing of the human genome.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Biotecnologia/ética , Ética Médica , Edição de Genes/ética , Temas Bioéticos/história , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Teoria Ética , Ética Médica/história , Edição de Genes/história , História do Século XXI , Características Humanas , Humanos
17.
Orthopedics ; 44(5): 264-272, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590941

RESUMO

The Hippocratic oath is traditionally taken by medical school graduates at the time of their graduation, either in its original form or in a modern variation. It is considered the earliest expression of medical ethics, establishing principles of ethics that remain of paramount significance today. However, it was written in antiquity, whereas medicine has been constantly evolving. This article reviews, analyzes, and interprets each section of the oath to determine to what extent it remains relevant to contemporary medicine. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(5):264-272.].


Assuntos
Juramento Hipocrático , Ortopedia , Ética Médica , Humanos
18.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1343-1348, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497225

RESUMO

Medical ethics are important for medical professionals and can be classified into two subcategories, which are: "Research Ethics," referring to the norms that researchers should follow when engaging in research activities, and "Clinical Ethics," which are mainly norms that should be followed in routine clinical practice. Rules are the basic component of ethics and are an agreement that is enacted after the fact. On the other hand, the development of new medical care strategies requires novelty and originality. Research includes unknown and unpracticed topics; therefore, new problems arise, which are often not possible to deal with by simply following the established rules. Medical professionals need to be ethical so that they can anticipate new problems and make decisions without the rules. This can be done by understanding the background against which the rules have been formed and its preamble.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos
20.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 27(5): 61, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480239

RESUMO

A number of Artificial Intelligence (AI) ethics frameworks have been published in the last 6 years in response to the growing concerns posed by the adoption of AI in different sectors, including healthcare. While there is a strong culture of medical ethics in healthcare applications, AI-based Healthcare Applications (AIHA) are challenging the existing ethics and regulatory frameworks. This scoping review explores how ethics frameworks have been implemented in AIHA, how these implementations have been evaluated and whether they have been successful. AI specific ethics frameworks in healthcare appear to have a limited adoption and they are mostly used in conjunction with other ethics frameworks. The operationalisation of ethics frameworks is a complex endeavour with challenges at different levels: ethics principles, design, technology, organisational, and regulatory. Strategies identified in this review are proactive, contextual, technological, checklist, organisational and/or evidence-based approaches. While interdisciplinary approaches show promises, how an ethics framework is implemented in an AI-based Healthcare Application is not widely reported, and there is a need for transparency for trustworthy AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Atenção à Saúde , Ética Médica , Organizações , Tecnologia
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