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2.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 86(2): ajpe8503, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228198

RESUMO

All pharmacy faculty members should have a general understanding of the field of ethics, regardless of whether they have received any formal training, since instruction and training in ethical decision-making is an accreditation expectation. Additionally, whether they recognize it or not, pharmacy faculty members are involved in ethical decision-making on an almost daily basis. The aims of the current commentary are to expand on a basic approach to ethical decision-making using examples involving students or faculty members in each of the triad areas of teaching, research, and service, and serve as a starting point to enable all faculty to teach students how to work through an ethical dilemma. This commentary will focus on the initial steps involved in determining whether an ethical dilemma exists, determining the facts related to the dilemma by identifying technical facts and legal constraints, and identifying the principles and values that play a role in the situation and decide which are in conflict. References are provided for more in-depth review of ethics subject matter beyond the scope of this commentary.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Ética Farmacêutica , Docentes , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Estudantes , Ensino
3.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(2): 1-7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908370

RESUMO

The paradigm shift to a patient-centred pharmacy practice model has resulted in dramatic increases in the number and variety of ethical and other dilemmas that confront pharmacists in their routine practice. However, ethical problems may go undetected by many pharmacists in most developing countries. Hence, there is a huge need for sound educational preparation of future pharmacists before they are faced with an urgent decision. This paper highlights the urgent need for pharmacy ethics to be adequately taught in schools of pharmacy, especially at the undergraduate and professional levels, so that future pharmacists can begin their professional careers with adequate ethical knowledge, skills, competencies and experience to detect and resolve ethical dilemmas of the contemporary patient-centred pharmacy practice.


Assuntos
Ética Farmacêutica , Farmácia , África , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Farmacêuticos
4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(2): 372-380, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have explored community pharmacy ethical dilemmas; however, limited research exists on hospital pharmacy ethical issues and pharmacists' ethical decision-making processes. Research exploring this is timely, considering developments in hospital pharmacy practices, new hospital pharmacist roles, and evolving responsibilities. AIM/OBJECTIVES: To explore hospital pharmacists' ethical decision-making and processes for managing ethical challenges in the context of evolving Australian hospital pharmacy practices. METHODS: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 purposively-selected hospital pharmacists from four Queensland Health hospitals. An interview guide with 11 open-ended questions and prompts was developed, validated, and trialed. Pharmacists who consented received the guide prior to interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and compared with field notes. Transcribed data were imported into NVivo 12 to facilitate coding and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants were interviewed January to April 2019; median interview duration was 17.45 min. Data saturation was reached. Participants' experiences ranged from junior level pharmacists to senior management positions, in clinical and non-clinical roles. Emerging themes were: 1) influences on the development of ethical decision-making skills, 2) ethical decision-making is an integral part of the hospital pharmacist's role, and 3) institutional requirements and settings impact on ethical exposure. A wide range of contemporary ethical issues unique to hospital pharmacy practice, mostly involving complex medication management safety, supply, and cost scenarios, were identified. Junior pharmacists indicated they would benefit from additional training, mentorship, and availability of hospital-specific targeted ethics resources. CONCLUSION: The findings highlighted that hospital pharmacists are regularly faced with ethical issues unique to the hospital pharmacy practice context. Application of sound and structured ethical reasoning and decision-making is, therefore, required in this setting. Participants identified many interrelated factors that impacted their ethical reasoning and behaviour. This study identified gaps that, once addressed, will better support ethical reasoning in hospital pharmacy settings.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmácias , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Ética Farmacêutica , Hospitais , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional
5.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 79(4): 446-456, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ethics are at the heart of pharmacy practice. METHOD: This is a literature review. The main objective is to carry out a review of studies relating on the evaluation of ethics in pharmacy practice. Documentary research on Pubmed was carried out from 1990 to 2020. All studies relating to pharmaceutical ethics that may be applied to the pharmacy practice in pharmacies or in health establishments and that conducted a qualitative or quantitative evaluation of pharmaceutical ethics (e.g. surveying pharmacists or pharmacy students, using a measurement tool, quantifying or qualifying a perception or behaviour) were included. RESULTS: The studies come mainly from Anglo-Saxon countries (29/38). Studies related to pharmacy practice, mainly target pharmacists (n=27) and pharmacy students (n=16), and more often have a quantitative component of (n=28). The main ethical dilemmas observed dealt with emergency oral contraception (EOC), voluntary termination of pregnancy with drugs, euthanasia, commercial practices of the pharmaceutical industry, refusal to dispense a prescription in a broader context and plagiarism or dishonesty in academic settings. CONCLUSION: Few studies have been conducted on the review of ethics of pharmacy practices from 1990 to 2020. Pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists are regularly exposed to ethical dilemmas and respond to these dilemmas with due consideration, taking into account six principles, eight values and other factors. Exposure to these dilemmas creates inaction, stress and distress. A few possible solutions have been identified.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Ética Farmacêutica , Humanos , Farmacêuticos
6.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 61(2): e68-e70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229186

RESUMO

The American Pharmacists Association Code of Ethics ("Code") was established in 1852 and has undergone 5 modifications, most recently in 1994. As point of care shifts from product to cognitive clinical service, pharmacists are expected to encounter an increasing quantity and complexity of ethical and moral dilemmas. In view of this professional transformation and current worldwide challenges, this seems an appropriate time for dialogue on a modification of the Code. The 3 important questions before the profession are as follows: (1) Is the scope of available ethical guidance adequate? (2) Are pharmacists competent in ethical decision-making? (3) Is current pharmacy education and training adequately preparing students for ethical decision-making? The first question is included as part of the Pharmacy Law, Ethics, and Risk course at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy. The following commentary is based on a student's persuasive paper that the Code should remain unmodified owing to the following factors: greater detail does not ensure improved guidance, and modification may lead to confusion in professional role and responsibilities and may not consider patients' values and preferences in decision-making. To improve ethical decision-making in the pharmacy profession, this commentary further suggests that questions 2 and 3 are key to facilitating improved readiness and competency in pharmacists' ethical decision-making. Pharmacy students should be given a more thorough education in ethics, and practicing pharmacists should continually expand their knowledge and continued professional development in ethics.


Assuntos
Farmácias , Farmácia , Códigos de Ética , Ética Farmacêutica , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Farmacêuticos
8.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1095-1097, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151876

RESUMO

A detailed analysis of the clinical benefit for 47 approved cancer drugs, using two internationally recognized assessment systems, shows essentially no correlation between clinical benefit and weekly treatment costs. This is true both in the USA and in four European countries, although prices are dramatically lower in Europe.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Medicamentos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Ética Farmacêutica , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 26(5): 2809-2834, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533448

RESUMO

Patient-centered pharmacy practice involves increased pharmacist engagement in patient care. This increased involvement can sometimes require diverse decision-making when handling various situations, ranging from simple matters to major ethical dilemmas. There is literature about pharmacy ethics in developed Western countries. However, little is known about pharmacists' practices in many developing countries. For example, there is a paucity of research conducted in the area of pharmacy ethics in Jordan. This study aimed to explore the manner in which ethical dilemmas were handled by Jordanian pharmacists, the resources used and their attitudes towards them. Semi-structured, face to face interviews were carried out with 30 Jordanian registered pharmacists. The transcribed interviews were thematically analysed for emerging themes. Four major themes were identified: legal practice; familiarity with the code of ethics; personal judgement, cultural and religious values; and Experience. Findings showed that ethical decision-making in pharmacy practice in Jordan was decisively influenced by pharmacists' personal moral values, legal requirements and managed by exercising common sense and experience. This pointed to gaps in Jordanian pharmacists' understanding and application of basic principles of pharmacy ethics and highlighted the need for professional ethics training, incorporating pharmacy ethics courses in pharmacy undergraduate curricula, as well as professional development courses. This study highlighted that paternalism, personal values and legal obligations were major drivers influencing decision-making processes of Jordanian pharmacists. Findings also highlighted an inclination towards lack of respect for patient autonomy. This illuminated the need for increasing pharmacists' literacy in professional ethics.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmácias , Farmácia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Ética Farmacêutica , Humanos , Jordânia , Princípios Morais , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional
10.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(2): 365-375, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137092

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo buscou identificar e discutir problemas éticos vivenciados por farmacêuticos na atenção básica à saúde. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 19 farmacêuticos, no município de Florianópolis/SC. O conteúdo das falas foi analisado por abordagem temático-categorial, à luz de referenciais teóricos da bioética. Identificaram-se dez problemas éticos ligados à dimensão política do trabalho e da produção do cuidado, envolvendo questões relativas à estrutura dos serviços, a processos de gestão e à forma de organização da atenção à saúde. Conclui-se que a análise ética comprometida com a resolução dos problemas apontados é importante estratégia para qualificar os serviços farmacêuticos na atenção básica à saúde.


Abstract This study aimed to identify and discuss ethical problems experienced by pharmacists in primary health care. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The content of interviews was analyzed through thematic-categorical analysis in the light of bioethics references. Ten ethical problems were identified related to the political dimension of the working process and health care, involving issues related to the structure of services and work environment, and management of health services. An ethical analysis to solve these questions is an important strategy to improve pharmaceutical services in primary health care.


Resumen Este estudio tuvo por objetivo identificar y discutir los problemas éticos vivenciados por farmacéuticos en la atención primaria de salud. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 19 farmacéuticos, en el municipio de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se hizo un análisis temático-categorial de los relatos recopilados utilizando referenciales teóricos bioéticos. Se identificaron diez diferentes problemas éticos entrelazados con la dimensión política del trabajo y la producción del cuidado, envolviendo cuestiones sobre la estructura de los servicios, los procesos de gestión y las formas de organización de la atención de la salud. Se concluye que el análisis ético comprometido con la resolución de problemas es una importante estrategia para la calificación de los servicios farmacéuticos en la atención primaria de salud.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Bioética , Saúde Pública , Ética , Ética Farmacêutica
11.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(3): 7452, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313274

RESUMO

Objective. To explore models of teaching in, resources available to, and delivery of a standardized course in pharmacy ethics. Methods. An email invitation was sent to the educator responsible for teaching pharmacy ethics at each of 19 institutions in Australia and New Zealand. Over a six- to eight-week period, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person, by email, or by phone, and were audio-recorded where possible, transcribed verbatim, and entered into data analysis software. Using an inductive analysis approach, themes related to the topics and issues discussed in the interview process were identified. Results. Of the educators invited to participate, 17 completed an interview and were included in this study. Participants reported a paucity of resources available for teaching pharmacy ethics at schools in Australia and New Zealand. Compounding this issue was the lack of expertise and ad-hoc process educators used to create their courses. Assessment methods varied between institutions. Participants felt schools needed to move toward a more standardized pharmacy ethics course with clear and defined guidelines. Conclusion. This study identified many areas in pharmacy ethics that need improvement and revealed the need to develop resources and course structure that adhere to the highest level of Miller's pyramid, while using known frameworks to evaluate ethical competency.


Assuntos
Ética Farmacêutica/educação , Austrália , Currículo , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Educadores em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Nova Zelândia , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia , Ensino
12.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 42(2): 418-435, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277402

RESUMO

Background Healthcare ethics have been profoundly influenced by principles of bioethics that emerged post-World War II in the Declaration of Geneva 1948. 'Beneficence' (to do good), 'Non-Maleficence' (to do no harm), 'Justice' (fairness and justice in access) and 'Respect for Autonomy' (respect for patient individuality, including decision making, privacy, and right to refuse), have become foundational principles of contemporary medical codes of ethics. These principles are well reflected in most professional pharmacy code of ethics globally. This domain remains relatively unexplored in most developing countries and the majority of what has been published in this area relates to western cultures. There have been no attempts to pool findings from a similar scope of research emanating in developing countries. Aim of the review This study aims to explore the scope of pharmacy ethics in the literature pertaining to developing countries. Methods An extensive search of three relevant (Scopus, CINAHL, IPA) databases was conducted from Jan 2000 to Feb 2020, in order to identify relevant studies conducted in or focussed on ethics in pharmacy in developing countries. A separate Google Scholar search was carried out in an effort to locate supplementary articles, hand-searched articles were also included to achieve an exhaustive investigation of all current relevant studies. Results The full text of 20 relevant articles that met inclusion criteria were critically analysed and qualitatively categorised into three emerging themes; Ethical challenges in pharmacy practice, Approaches used in teaching pharmacy ethics, and Code of ethics analysis and implementation. Conclusions: Findings of this literature review illuminated a gap in pharmacy ethics literacy in developing countries and variances in pharmacists' ethical attitudes in handling ethical dilemmas, as well as a lack of familiarity with ethical principles and codes of ethics. Pharmacists' lack of respect for patients' autonomy and pharmacists being prone to financial pressure were found to have a significant impact on pharmacy practice in most of developing countries. However, attempts are being made to rectify this gap by efforts to incorporate ethical and professional education in undergraduate curricula, and by studies in which new codes of ethics are being implemented.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Ética Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos/ética , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Temas Bioéticos , Códigos de Ética , Humanos , Ensino
13.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(8): 952-955, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329404

RESUMO

Early reports of potential treatment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have raised concerns related to pharmaceutical distribution. Despite the lack of high-quality evidence, the mere hope of effectiveness of potential treatments, such as hydroxychloroquine, has led to surges in demand for these products, and many pharmacists are already informally reporting shortages through social channels. As manufacturers and wholesale distributors struggle to fulfill orders for drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, short-term price increases may seem reasonable in a free market when demand increases. However, any price increases by manufacturers, wholesale distributors, and pharmacies might be seen as exploitive gouging of consumers during a declared emergency. In addition to concerns of price gouging, increases in prescription drug utilization during the pandemic may lead to increases in spending for all payers as members may be treated for COVID-19. This article explores pharmaceutical supply chain and drug pricing nuances that may cause problems for payers and pharmacies as the country battles this global pandemic. DISCLOSURES: No funding supported the writing of this article. Mattingly reports unrelated consulting fees from the National Health Council, Bristol Myers Squibb, G&W Laboratories, Allergy and Asthma Foundation of American, and the Massachusetts Health Policy Commission. Hogue has nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Custos de Medicamentos/ética , Pandemias , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Farmácia/tendências , Pneumonia Viral , COVID-19 , Ética Farmacêutica , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica , Estados Unidos
14.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 29(2): 308-316, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159493

RESUMO

This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a complex methotrexate ethics case used in teaching a Pharmacy Law and Ethics course. Qualitative analysis of student reflective writings provided useful insight into the students' experience and comfort level with the final ethics case in the course. These data demonstrate a greater student appreciation of different perspectives, the potential for conflict in communicating about such cases, and the importance of patient autonomy. Faculty lessons learned are also described, facilitating adoption of this methotrexate ethics case by other healthcare profession educators.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Educação em Farmácia , Ética Farmacêutica/educação , Metotrexato , Currículo , Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal , Desenvolvimento de Programas
15.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2020. 233 p. il, fots, tabs^c23 cm.(Coleção história e saúde).
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369879

RESUMO

Expõe caminhos, alianças e disputas por meio dos quais farmacêuticos paulistas buscaram criar espaços de fala, atuação e ensino separados da medicinam, a partir de 1895


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos/história , Faculdades de Farmácia/história , Educação em Farmácia/história , Ética Farmacêutica
16.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2020. 233 p. ils, fots, tabs.(História e Saúde).
Monografia em Português | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-44417

RESUMO

Permite a compreensão da ligação entre o naturalismo científico de não humanos e a naturalização de gênero das mulheres, avançando a compreensão de que nãos e forma nem se mantém comunidade científica sem a consideração de tantos agentes e fenômenos não humanos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Farmácia , Farmacêuticos , Faculdades de Farmácia , Ética Farmacêutica , História do Século XIX , Brasil
17.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190567, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101211

RESUMO

As metodologias ativas (MA), apoiadas em abordagens construtivistas de educação, são importantes ferramentas que permitem tecer redes de formação individual e coletiva. O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar a vivência do uso de MA e do webfólio como ferramentas de formação construtivista em saúde, visando contribuir como dispositivo educativo para o ensino da Deontologia Farmacêutica. Trata-se de um relato de experiência entre educador e educandos do curso de Farmácia. As MA foram: Acolhimento: o colar diversidade; Deontocinéfilos: viagem educacional e formação construtivista; "Quero olhar pelo seu olhar": compartilhamento dos significados percebidos; Plenária ética simulada: construção da ética profissional farmacêutica; e Uso de mapas conceituais. A utilização desses dispositivos de aprendizagem permitiu a materialização do conteúdo ministrado, a aquisição de competências e, dessa maneira, tornou mais fácil compreender o sentido das práticas sanitárias e, consequentemente, sua aplicabilidade na vida profissional.(AU)


Active education methodologies supported by constructivist education approaches are important tools that enable to build individual and collective education networks. The objective of this article was to report the experience of using active learning methodologies and a webfolio with constructivist health education tools to assist teaching in Pharmaceutical Deontology. It is a teacher-student experience report of the Pharmacology course. The active methodologies were: Embracement: the diversity necklace; Deontocinephile: educational trip and constructivist education; "I want to look through your eyes": Sharing perceived meanings; Mock ethical plenary: building a professional pharmaceutical ethics; Using conceptual maps. These learning devices helped materialize the content and develop competencies, being easier to understand the sanitary practices' meaning and their applicability in professional life.(AU)


Las metodologías activas (MA), apoyadas en abordajes constructivistas de educación, son importantes herramientas que permiten tejer redes de formación individual y colectiva. El objetivo de este artículo fue relatar la vivencia del uso de MA y del webfólio como herramientas de formación constructivista en salud, buscando contribuir como dispositivo educativo para la enseñanza de la deontología farmacéutica. Se trata de un relato de experiencia entre educador y educandos del curso de farmacia. Las MA fueron: Acogida: el collar diversidad; Deontocinéfilos: Viaje educativo y formación constructivista; "Quiero mirar por su mirada": Compartición de los significados percibidos; Plenaria ética simulada: construcción de la ética profesional farmacéutica; Uso de mapas conceptuales. La utilización de esos dispositivos de aprendizaje permitió la materialización del contenido dictado y la adquisición de competencias y, de tal forma, se hizo más fácil comprender el sentido de las prácticas sanitarias y, por lo tanto, su aplicabilidad en la vida profesional.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino/educação , Teoria Ética , Ética Farmacêutica/educação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Farmácia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e028868, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate Australian pharmacists' views about their role in physician-assisted suicide (PAS), their ethical and legal concerns and overall thoughts about PAS in pharmacy. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews of pharmacists incorporating a previously validated vignette and thematic analysis. SETTING: Australia (face to face or phone call). PARTICIPANTS: 40 Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency registered pharmacists, majority women (65%) with varied experiences in community, hospital, industry, academia, government and other fields. RESULTS: Emergent themes from the interviews were: legal and logistical framework, ethical framework, training and guidance and healthcare budget. More than half the participants supported the role of pharmacists in the supply of medicines for PAS, while less than half were either against or unsure of the legislation of PAS in Australia. Shared concerns included transparency of prescribing practices and identification of authorised physicians involved in PAS, which were consistent with existing literature. Religious faith, emotion and professional autonomy were key indicators for the implementation of conscientious objection to the supply of medicines in PAS. Re-evaluation of current guidelines, pharmacist training and government reimbursement was also of significance from participants' perspectives. CONCLUSION: This study revealed current concerns of practising pharmacists in Australia, including previously undocumented perspectives on the pharmacoeconomic impact of and barriers relating to PAS. The need for training of all healthcare professionals involved, the provision of clear guidelines, including regulation around storage, administration and disposal of medicines dispensed for PAS and the updating of current therapeutic guidelines around end-of-life care were all issues delineated by this study. These findings highlighted the need for current and future policies to account for all stakeholders involved in PAS, not solely prescribers.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Ética Farmacêutica , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Austrália , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Papel do Médico , Religião , Responsabilidade Social , Suicídio Assistido/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Anesth Hist ; 5(2): 32-35, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400833

RESUMO

A comprehensive investigation was undertaken to find evidence of the frequently reported, but never authenticated, "purchase of 150 inmates" from Auschwitz concentration camp by Bayer to test a new narcotic, resulting in the death of all investigated inmates. The archives of Auschwitz camp, Bayer, and the so-called former Soviet Union, where evidence of this alleged misconduct could have been saved, were investigated, but no evidence was found. Many records concerning concentration camp experiments on humans had been destroyed, but given the Nazis' meticulous record-keeping, the death of 150 inmates should have been recorded somewhere. Unethical medical research was indeed undertaken by physicians in concentration camps in many medical specialties, but no records regarding anesthesia-related medical misconduct during the Nazi period were found despite the allegations to the contrary that have been investigated here.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/história , Campos de Concentração/história , Indústria Farmacêutica/história , Ética Médica/história , Ética Farmacêutica/história , Experimentação Humana/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Anestesiologia/ética , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Experimentação Humana/ética , Humanos
20.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 8(2): 64-61, abr.-jun.2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016282

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar el delito de ejercicio ilegal de las profesiones de farmacia y medicina en Costa Rica. Metodología: Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en libros y artículos del área jurídica, se analizó la legislación promulgada en Costa Rica, Argentina y España, además de las sentencias de tribunales penales, emitidas en Costa Rica desde el año 1980. Resultados: se determinó la legislación que ha regulado el delito de ejercicio ilegal de la profesión, así como los principales aspectos considerados en las sentencias para establecer los elementos que configuran el delito. Conclusión: El profesional en farmacia podría incurrir en el delito de ejercicio ilegal de la medicina en caso de que prescriba medicamentos, así como, el profesional en medicina podría cometer el delito de ejercicio ilegal de la farmacia si despacha medicamentos. El ejercicio de las profesiones médicas o farmacéuticas por personas no autorizadas debe ser analizado en sede penal, sin embargo, se asume el criterio que la sanción debería ser pecuniaria y no privativa de libertad. (AU).


Objective: to analyze the crime of illegal exercise of the professions of pharmacy and medicine in Costa Rica. Methodology: a bibliographic research was carried out in books and articles of the legal area; the legislation promulgated in Costa Rica, Argentina and Spain was analyzed, as well as the sentences of criminal courts, issued in Costa Rica since 1980. Results: creation of a legislation that regulated the crime of illegal exercise of the profession, as well as the main aspects considered in the sentences to establish the elements that make up the offense. Conclusion: the professional in pharmacy could incur in crime of illegal exercise of medicine in case he or she prescribes a medication, as well as, the medical professional could commit the crime of illegal exercise of the pharmacy if it dispenses medication. The exercise of the medical or pharmaceutical professions by unauthorized persons must be analyzed at the criminal court, however, it is assumed that the sanction should be pecuniary and not custodial. (AU).


Objetivo: analisar o crime de exercício ilegal das profissões de farmácia e medicina na Costa Rica. Método: uma pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada em livros e artigos na área jurídica, a legislação promulgada em Costa Rica, Argentina e Espanha, bem como as sentenças de tribunais criminais, emitido em Costa Rica desde 1980. Resultados: determinou-se a legislação que regulamenta o crime de exercício ilegal da profissão, bem como os principais aspectos considerados nas sentenças para estabelecer os elementos que compõem o delito. Conclusão: o farmacêutico profissional pode incorrer no crime de prática ilegal da medicina se prescrever medicamentos, bem como o profissional médico pode cometer o crime de exercício ilegal da farmácia se despachar medicamentos. O exercício de profissões médicas ou farmacêuticas por pessoas não autorizadas deve ser analisado em um tribunal criminal, no entanto, a pena deve ser de pecuniária. (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Prática Profissional/ética , Costa Rica , Má Conduta Profissional , Ética Médica , Ética Farmacêutica , Ética Profissional
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