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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0182, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394848

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction Ensuring healthy growth with high cultural quality in the population is an important part of Chinese revitalization. University students, as a group of high cultural quality, have the mission and responsibility entrusted by the state and the people. It is believed that these goals can be achieved by using sports dance, which has a wide range and high demands; dancers should have motor skills, physical qualities, understanding of the art of dress, and psychological balance as basic requirements. Objective To test and evaluate whether sports dance activities in physical education students are conducive to promoting students' healthy physical development. Methods This paper examines the influence of teaching sports dance on the physical health of female college students in Ethnic Colleges and its countermeasures. It also discusses the strategies for teaching sports dance to provide viable suggestions for follow-up dance instruction. Conclusion The combination of sports and femininity in exercise has a good fitness effect, improves the artistic feelings of college women, and is conducive to the healthy development of the physical quality of college women. Level of evidence III; Analysis based on alternatives and limited costs.


RESUMO Introdução Garantir o crescimento saudável com alta qualidade cultural na população é parte importante da revitalização chinesa. Estudantes universitários, como um grupo de alta qualidade cultural, possuem a missão e responsabilidade confiada pelo Estado e pelo povo. Acredita-se que essas metas possam ser alcançadas utilizando a dança esportiva, que tem um vasto leque e altas exigências nesse sentido, os dançarinos devem ter habilidades motoras, qualidades físicas, compreensão na arte de vestuário e equilíbrio psicológico, como requisitos básicos. Objetivo Testar e avaliar se as atividades de dança esportiva nos alunos de educação física são propícias na promoção do desenvolvimento físico saudável dos alunos. Métodos Este artigo analisa a influência do ensino de dança esportiva sobre a saúde física de universitárias em Faculdades Étnicas e suas contramedidas. Também se discute as estratégias de ensino da dança esportiva, a fim de fornecer sugestões viáveis para o ensino de dança de acompanhamento. Conclusão A combinação de esportes e feminilidade no exercício tem um bom efeito de aptidão física, melhora os sentimentos artísticos das universitárias e é propício ao desenvolvimento saudável da qualidade física das Universitárias. Nível de evidência III; Análises baseadas em alternativas e custos limitados.


RESUMEN Introducción Garantizar un crecimiento saludable con una alta calidad cultural en la población es una parte importante de la revitalización de China. Los universitarios, como grupo de alta calidad cultural, tienen la misión y la responsabilidad encomendadas por el Estado y el pueblo. Se cree que estos objetivos pueden alcanzarse mediante el uso de la danza deportiva, que tiene una amplia gama y altas exigencias en este sentido, los bailarines deben tener habilidades motoras, cualidades físicas, la comprensión en el arte de vestir y el equilibrio psicológico como requisitos básicos. Objetivo Comprobar y evaluar si las actividades de danza deportiva en los estudiantes de educación física favorecen el desarrollo físico saludable de los alumnos. Métodos Este trabajo analiza la influencia de la enseñanza de la danza deportiva en la salud física de las estudiantes universitarias de los colegios étnicos y sus contramedidas. También se analizan las estrategias de enseñanza de la danza deportiva con el fin de ofrecer sugerencias viables para el seguimiento de la enseñanza de la danza. Conclusión La combinación de deporte y feminidad en el ejercicio tiene un buen efecto de aptitud física, mejora los sentimientos artísticos de las universitarias y favorece el desarrollo saludable de la calidad física de las universitarias. Nivel de evidencia III; análisis basado en alternativas y costes limitados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Esportes/fisiologia , Dançaterapia , Dança/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes , Etnologia , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Modelos Teóricos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0239170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans life histories have been described as "slow", patterned by slow growth, delayed maturity, and long life span. While it is known that human life history diverged from that of a recent common chimpanzee-human ancestor some ~4-8 mya, it is unclear how selection pressures led to these distinct traits. To provide insight, we compare wild chimpanzees and human subsistence societies in order to identify the age-specific vital rates that best explain fitness variation, selection pressures and species divergence. METHODS: We employ Life Table Response Experiments to quantify vital rate contributions to population growth rate differences. Although widespread in ecology, these methods have not been applied to human populations or to inform differences between humans and chimpanzees. We also estimate correlations between vital rate elasticities and life history traits to investigate differences in selection pressures and test several predictions based on life history theory. RESULTS: Chimpanzees' earlier maturity and higher adult mortality drive species differences in population growth, whereas infant mortality and fertility variation explain differences between human populations. Human fitness is decoupled from longevity by postreproductive survival, while chimpanzees forfeit higher potential lifetime fertility due to adult mortality attrition. Infant survival is often lower among humans, but lost fitness is recouped via short birth spacing and high peak fertility, thereby reducing selection on infant survival. Lastly, longevity and delayed maturity reduce selection on child survival, but among humans, recruitment selection is unexpectedly highest in longer-lived populations, which are also faster-growing due to high fertility. CONCLUSION: Humans differ from chimpanzees more because of delayed maturity and lower adult mortality than from differences in juvenile mortality or fertility. In both species, high child mortality reflects bet-hedging costs of quality/quantity tradeoffs borne by offspring, with high and variable child mortality likely regulating human population growth over evolutionary history. Positive correlations between survival and fertility among human subsistence populations leads to selection pressures in human subsistence societies that differ from those in modern populations undergoing demographic transition.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Pan troglodytes/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia/métodos , Etnologia/métodos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Hominidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Tábuas de Vida , Longevidade/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pan troglodytes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crescimento Demográfico
3.
Memorandum ; 38: [1-29], jan.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352843

RESUMO

O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a representação dos ciganos no panteão umbandista e modos característicos de uso e o sentido psicológico da sua inclusão neste contexto. Para esse efeito foram realizadas pesquisa etnográfica e consulta a banco de dados com registros audiovisuais de rituais umbandistas e entrevistas com médiuns incorporados e não incorporados por espíritos da linha cigana. A análise de dados foi feita a partir da identificação dos pontos de convergência nas observações diretas e indiretas (registros audiovisuais),nas entrevistas e no diário de campo. Em seguida foi feita uma comparação com o que a literatura refere relativamente às outras categorias de espíritos. Encontrou-se que a chamada linha dos ciganos, de um ponto de vista etnopsicológico, não agrega novos conteúdos simbólicos à umbanda, mas reorienta sentidos previamente existentes, numa perspectiva de futuro.


The purpose of this paper is to describe the representation of gypsies in the Umbanda pantheon and the characteristic ways of using it and the psychological sense of its inclusion in this context. For this purpose, ethnographic research was carried out and a database was consulted with audiovisual records of Umbanda rituals and interviews with mediums incorporated and not incorporated by gypsy spirits. Data analysis was performed based on the identification of points of convergence, that is, the elements that were repeated in direct and indirect observations (audiovisual records), in interviews and in the field notes. Then a comparison was made with what the literature refers to in relation to other categories of spirits. It was found that the so-called gypsy line, from an ethnopsychological point of view, does not add new symbolic content to Umbanda, but rather redirects previously existing meanings in a perspective of the future.


Assuntos
Etnologia , Religião e Psicologia , Cidade de Roma , Comportamento Ritualístico
4.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 83: 101242, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950126

RESUMO

This article places the current high-profile and controversial scientific project that I call 'genetic ethnology' within the same two-century tradition of biologically classifying modern peoples as pre-1945 race anthropology. Similarities in how these two biological projects have combined political and scientific agendas raise questions about the liberalism of genetics and stimulate concerns that genetic constructions of human difference might revive a politics of hate, division and hierarchy. The present article however goes beyond existing work that links modern genetics with race anthropology. It systematically compares their many similar practices and organisational features, showing that both projects were political-scientific syntheses. Studying how the origins, geography, filiations, 'travels and encounters of our ancestors' affect 'current genetic variation', both seem to have responded to a continuous public demand for biologists to explain the histories of politically significant peoples and give them a scientific basis. I challenge habitual contrasts between apolitical scientific genetics and racist pseudoscience and use race anthropology as a parable for how, in the era of Brexit and Trump, right-wing identity politics might infect genetic ethnology. I argue however that although biology-based identities carry risks of essentialism and determinism, the practices and organisation of classification pose greater political dangers.


Assuntos
Antropologia/história , Etnologia/história , Política , Grupos Raciais , História do Século XX , Humanos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1103, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antibiotic use is an important driver of antibiotic resistance. This study sought to explore inappropriate antibiotic use and confusing antibiotics with other medicines in Ghana using ethnomethodology research approach. METHODS: This was an explorative study involving 15 in-depth interviews among health professionals and private dispensers and eight focus group discussions among 55 community members. Qualitative data were coded using Nvivo 12, thematically analysed and presented as narratives with quotes to support the findings. RESULTS: Self-medication was common and antibiotics were used to treat specific diseases but respondents were not aware these were 'antibiotics'. Various antibiotics were used for indications that in principle do not require systemic antibiotics, like stomach ache and sores on the body. Antibiotics, in particular tetracycline and metronidazole, were poured into "akpeteshie" (local gin) to treat hernia and perceived stomach sores (stomach ulcer). These practices were copied/learnt from various sources like over-the-counter medicine sellers, family, friends, radio/television, drug peddlers, pharmacies and doctors. Medicines in capsules were referred to as 'topaye' or 'abombelt' in Twi (local dialect) and perceived to treat pain associated with diseases. Antibiotics in capsules were described with colours which appeared confusing as some capsules with different drugs in them have similar colours. CONCLUSION: Inappropriate antibiotic use were influenced by general lack of knowledge on antibiotics and identification of antibiotics by colours of capsules which leads to confusion and could lead to inappropriate antibiotic use. There is the need for public health education on appropriate antibiotic use and standardization of appearance of antibiotics and other drugs to optimize use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnologia , Automedicação/psicologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614836

RESUMO

Human societies exhibit a diversity of social organizations that vary widely in size, structure, and complexity. Today, human sociopolitical complexity ranges from stateless small-scale societies of a few hundred individuals to complex states of millions, most of this diversity evolving only over the last few hundred years. Understanding how sociopolitical complexity evolved over time and space has always been a central focus of the social sciences. Yet despite this long-term interest, a quantitative understanding of how sociopolitical complexity varies across cultures is not well developed. Here we use scaling analysis to examine the statistical structure of a global sample of over a thousand human societies across multiple levels of sociopolitical complexity. First, we show that levels of sociopolitical complexity are self-similar as adjacent levels of jurisdictional hierarchy see a four-fold increase in population size, a two-fold increase in geographic range, and therefore a doubling of population density. Second, we show how this self-similarity leads to the scaling of population size and geographic range. As societies increase in complexity population density is reconfigured in space and quantified by scaling parameters. However, there is considerable overlap in population metrics across all scales suggesting that while more complex societies tend to have larger and denser populations, larger and denser populations are not necessarily more complex.


Assuntos
Modelos Organizacionais , Política , Densidade Demográfica , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Civilização , Diversidade Cultural , Etnologia , Governo , Humanos , Liderança , Teoria Social
8.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 81: 101277, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238300

RESUMO

In recent years there have been several attempts to examine Ethnobiology from an evolutionary perspective. I discuss several potential sources of confusion in applying Evolutionary concepts to Ethnobiology. Ethnobiological discussions of evolution have focused more on changes in human populations, or on human impacts upon plants used by humans for a variety of purposes, than on the processes typically emphasized in discussions by biologists studying evolution. There has been little acknowledgment of how the field of biological evolution is changing in the 21st Century. In this article I focus on recent developments in evolutionary thinking that could be effectively integrated into Ethnobiological concepts. These include: 1) The increased importance of individual organisms in understanding both population dynamics and microevolutionary change (i.e. natural selection). This change in focus creates the potential for incorporating understandings from Indigenous people who recognize a different set of dynamics that govern how both plant and animal populations are regulated, leading to new insights into how conservation practices should be enacted; 2) Niche Construction, which is a 21st century concept that argues that organisms shape their own environments and those of other species. This approach creates a new way of looking at how Natural Selection can act upon a wide range of organisms; and finally, 3) Reticulate Evolution, in which different species exchange genetic material as a result of behavioral or physiological interactions with major evolutionary consequences. These concepts relate strongly to fundamental Indigenous conceptions of ecosystem functioning, including the ideas that All Things are Connected and that All Life Forms are Related. I argue that Ethnobiology and Indigenous Knowledge are strongest in dealing with phenomena linked to behavior and ecology, which are fields being neglected by many contemporary molecular approaches to understanding evolution. Attempts to deal with Conservation in a world subject to climate change would be greatly improved by working closely with Indigenous peoples and incorporating concepts from these traditions into practices on a global scale.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Etnologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plantas
9.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 868-876, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180206

RESUMO

Kasumi-1 has played an important role in an experimental model with t(8;21) translocation, which is a representative example of leukemia cell lines. However, previous studies using Kasumi-1 show discrepancies in the genome profile. The wide use of leukemia cell lines is limited to lines that are well-characterized. The use of additional cell lines extends research to various types of leukemia, and to further explore leukemia pathogenesis, which can be achieved by uncovering the fundamental features of each cell line with accurate data. In this study, ten Kasumi cell lines established in Japan, including five that were previously unknown, have been characterized by SNP microarray and targeted sequencing. SNP genotyping suggested that the genetic ancestry in four of the ten Kasumi cell lines was not classified as Japanese but covered several different east-Asian ethnicities, suggesting that patients in Japan are genetically diverse. TP53 mutations were detected in two cell lines with complex array profiles, indicating chromosomal instability (CIN). A quantitative assessment of tumor genomes at the chromosomal level was newly introduced to reveal total DNA sizes and Scales of Genomic Alterations (SGA) for each cell line. Kasumi-1 and 6 derived from relapsed phases demonstrated high levels of SGA, implying that the level of SGA would reflect on the tumor progression and could serve as an index of CIN. Our results extend the leukemia cellular resources with an additional five cell lines and provide reference genome data with ethnic identities for the ten Kasumi cell lines.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Leucemia/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 8, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi constitute a source of income as well as proper food with considerable nutritional value. Although edible EcM fungi are highly diverse and expected to host considerable nutritional attributes, only few studies focus on their use and promotion in the province of Tshopo (DR Congo). This study provides original ethnomycological and diversity data on edible ectomycorrhizal rainforest fungi from the Man-and-Biosphere reserve of Yangambi and the reserve of Yoko. METHODS: The list of edible fungi follows the current taxonomy. Taxa were collected in plots situated in different types of rainforests. Each taxon is supported by herbarium reference specimens. Ethnomycological data on locally consumed EcM fungi were collected from randomly selected people living near the Man-and-Biosphere reserve of Yangambi and the Yoko reserve. People were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The interview campaign involved 160 informants, all randomly selected from 6 different ethnic communities. RESULTS: The results reveal that rainforests from the Yangambi Biosphere reserve and Yoko forest reserve provide a relatively high number of edible fungi, more than local people actually use. Mixed forest stands hold the highest diversity in saprotrophic edible fungi (p value < 0.001) while no significant difference (p value > 0.05) was observed in the number of saprotrophic and EcM fungi within monodominant forests. In spite of being accessible, this renewable natural resource is underexploited. Although a wide array of EcM fungi is available in primary forests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees, local people's major interest goes to the saprotrophic fungi from areas with degraded mixed forests. CONCLUSION: The lack of local interest for EcM fungi is probably related to the considerable distance people have to cover to collect them. As a result, the edible EcM fungi from the Tshopo area represent a potentially interesting but underutilized resource.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Micorrizas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Congo , Etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Floresta Úmida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191060

RESUMO

O artigo analisa a participação da zoóloga alemã Emília Snethlage (1868-1929), pesquisadora e depois diretora do Museu Goeldi, em Belém, Brasil, na rede de conhecimento que se estabeleceu no início do século XX na região amazônica, destinada à investigação etnológica e à coleta de artefatos indígenas, e que teve, entre seus mais conhecidos atores, os alemães Theodor Koch-Grünberg (1872-1924) e Curt Nimuendajú (1883-1945). Ambos são reconhecidos pelo trabalho em prol dos povos indígenas do Brasil e pelo legado científico nos campos da antropologia, arqueologia e linguística. Menos conhecida, Snethlage teve, entretanto, decisiva participação na inserção de Nimuendajú no meio científico. A partir de uma extensa pesquisa em fontes documentais localizadas no Brasil e na Alemanha, demonstra-se que, no primeiro período em que Nimuendajú esteve vinculado ao Museu Goeldi, entre 1913 e 1921, Snethlage viabilizou suas primeiras expedições e publicações científicas, além de articular suas relações com museus e etnólogos alemães, incluindo aquele que viria a ser seu dileto amigo e interlocutor, Koch-Grünberg, de maneira a lhe permitir trabalhar também como coletor profissional


The article analyses the participation of the German zoologist Emilia Snethlage (1868-1929), researcher and later director of the Goeldi Museum, in Belém, Brazil, in the network of knowledge that was established in the early 20th century in the Amazonian region, aimed at ethnological research and to the collection of indigenous artifacts, and among its best known actors were Germans Theodor Koch-Grünberg (1872-1924) and Curt Nimuendajú (1883-1945). Both are recognized for working for the indigenous peoples of Brazil and for the scientific legacy in the fields of anthropology, archaeology and linguistics. Less well-known, Snethlage had, however, decisive participation in the insertion of Nimuendajú in the scientific environment. From an extensive research on documentary sources located in Brazil and Germany, it is shown that in the first period when Nimuendajú was linked to the Goeldi Museum between 1913 and 1921, Snethlage made possible his first expeditions and scientific publications, in addition to articulating his relations with German museums and ethnologists, including the one who would become his beloved friend and interlocutor, Koch-Grünberg, in order to allow him to work as a professional collector


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Coleções como Assunto , Etnologia/métodos , Construção Social da Identidade Étnica , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , História do Século XX , Ecossistema Amazônico/história , Brasil , Gestão do Conhecimento , Alemanha
13.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(3): 227-236, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188140

RESUMO

Los estudios que indagan en el funcionamiento psicológico de los inmigrantes ponen de relevancia el impacto negativo de la discriminación sobre el bienestar psicológico. Así también existe consenso respecto de la importancia del trabajo en su ajuste en países receptores; no obstante, escasamente se ha estudiado el efecto de la empleabilidad en su bienestar. Este trabajo indaga en las relaciones entre la discriminación percibida, la empleabilidad y el bienestar psicológico de 100 inmigrantes latinoamericanos asentados en Chile. Se buscó determinar la contribución de la discriminación y la empleabilidad en la explicación del bienestar y establecer la incidencia de la empleabilidad en la relación entre discriminación y bienestar psicológico. La discriminación percibida y la empleabilidad explicaron el 31.5% de la variabilidad del bienestar y la empleabilidad medió la relación entre discriminación y bienestar. Se discute acerca de la empleabilidad como recurso psicosocial en el contexto de la inmigración


Research about immigrants' psychological functioning emphasizes the negative impact of discrimination on psychological well-being. Although there is agreement about the relevance of job access to immigrants' adjustment to host countries, employability's effects on immigrants' well-being have been scarcely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived discrimination, employability, and psychological well-being in a sample of 100 Latin-American immigrants settled in Chile. We aimed to determine the contribution of discrimination and employability on well-being's explanation, and to establish the incidence of employability on the relation between discrimination and well-being. Perceived discrimination and employability explained the 31.5% of well-being's variability, and employability mediated the relation between discrimination and well-being. Employability's role as a psychosocial resource in a migratory context is discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Sociedade Receptora de Migrantes , Estresse Psicológico/classificação , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnologia/métodos , Chile/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , 57354 , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 31(spe): 249-255, set.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1056230

RESUMO

A Etnopsiquiatria, fundada por Geroges Devereux, surge enquanto possibilidade de refletir o encontro intercultural e seus desdobramentos quanto à compreensão do adoecimento psíquico e à coerência entre terapêuticas e etiologias deste adoecimento. A síntese teórica que levou à criação da disciplina emerge de inflexões baseadas principalmente nos estudos de Freud, Malinowski, Róheim e de contribuições posteriores de Lévi-Strauss e Bastide. Tobie Nathan é responsável pela criação do modelo de intervenção que coloca em prática a aplicação da teoria. Este artigo visa apresentar o histórico dos princípios precursores que levaram Devereux à síntese teórica e à criação da Etnopsiquiatria e expor as considerações da experiência adquirida na aplicação da disciplina pelo modelo proposto por Nathan e multiplicado por outros clínicos. Do postulado da universalidade do psiquismo que se constitui na particularidade da cultura, compreende-se uma relação intrínseca existente entre cultura e psiquismo, em que a cultura utiliza-se dos mesmos elementos, processos e mecanismos de defesa do psiquismo. Adotando o duplo discurso - Psicanálise e Etnologia - a disciplina define-se complementarista. A Etnopsiquiatria surge enquanto possibilidade diante da lacuna que a lógica da psiquiatria ocidental deixou para explicar o adoecimento psíquico e seu modelo de intervenção viabiliza o posicionamento de aprendiz no encontro intercultural.(AU)


The Ethnopsychiatry founded by Geroges Devereux emerged as a possibility to reflectabout the intercultural encounter and its unfolding regarding the understanding of psychological disorders and the coherence between therapeutics and etiologies of this psychopathological states. The theoretical thesis that led to the creation of the discipline arises from inflections based mainly on the studies from Freud's, Malinowski's and Rheheim's theory, along with later contributions by Lévi-Strauss and Bastide. Tobie Nathan is later credited for creating an intervention clinical model and a practice. This article aims to present the history of the precursory principles that led Devereux to the theoretical thesis and the resulting creation of Ethnopsychiatry and also to make considerations about the experience acquired in the application of the model of practice proposed by Nathan and multiplied by other clinicians. From the postulate of the universality of the psychological structure which is particularily constituted by culture, the discipline comprises an intrinsic relation existing between culture and the psychic functioning, in which culture uses the same elements, processes and defense mechanisms as the psyche. Adopting the double discourse method - Psychoanalysis and Ethnology -the discipline defines itself as complementary. Ethnopsychiatry emerges as a possibility to look at the gap that Western psychiatry left to explain psychological disorders, as well as to show how its model of intervention advocates to position the discipline as an apprentice in the intercultural encounter.(AU)


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Cultura , Etnologia
15.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25049, jan.- dez. 2019. Figuras
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048489

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene como objetivo clarificar y ordenar el proceso de institucionalización de la Expresión Corporal en España ante la escasez y fragmentación de investigaciones sobre los aspectos históricos que incidieron en las principales situaciones político-educativas y autores que la han configurado. Para ello, en primer lugar se ha realizado un análisis de documentos científicos y legales para profundizar en nuestro objeto de estudio. En segundo lugar, se han utilizado las entrevistas informales realizadas durante una observación etnográfica no participante y 16 entrevistas semiestructuradas. Como conclusión, la Expresión Corporal en España se encuentra condicionada por la situación histórica y por su sistema educativo. Además, se identifican geográficamente la Expresión Corporal del Noreste y la Expresión Corporal del Centro-Suroeste. A su vez, los autores han sido clasificados en dos generaciones que contribuyeron al proceso de creación, institucionalización y consolidación de la disciplina


Este artigo tem como objetivo esclarecer o processo de institucionalização da Expressão Corporal na Espanha perante a escassez e a fragmentação das investigações sobre aspectos históricos que incidam sobre as principais situações políticas educativas e autores que a configuraram. Para isso, em primeiro lugar realizou-se uma análise de documentos científicos e jurídicos que permitem aprofundar o nosso tema de estudo. Em segundo lugar, recorreu-se às entrevistas informais realizadas durante uma observação etnográfica não participante e 16 entrevistas semiestruturadas. Como conclusão, a Expressão Corporal na Espanha encontra- se condicionada pela situação histórica e pelo seu sistema educativo. Além disso, identificam-se geograficamente a Corporação do Noroeste e a Corporação do Centro-Sudoeste. Por seu turno, os autores foram classificados em duas gerações que contribuíram para o processo de criação, institucionalização e consolidação da disciplina


This article explains and organizes the process of institutionalization of Bodily Expression in Spain considering the absence and fragmentation of research on historical aspects that impacted on the main political and educational situations and the authors that shaped it. To that end, scientific and legal documents were examined in order to elaborate on the object of study. Secondly, the study used informal interviews conducted during non-participant ethnographic observation and 16 semi-structured interviews. It found that Bodily Expression in Spain has been influenced by the country's historical context and educational system. Furthermore, it identified a Bodily Expression of the NorthEast and a Body Expression of the Centre and South-West. its authors were classified into two generations that contributed to the process of creation, institutionalization and consolidation of the discipline


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Política Pública , Cinésica , Sociologia , Etnologia
16.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(3): 287-294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515988

RESUMO

Background: It seems that one of the factors affecting the way of nutrition in Poland was the dietary habits of countries that in the late 18th century made partitions, ie. Russia, Prussia and Austria. Therefore, nutrition models in the areas of individual partitions have undergone significant changes. Objective: The aim of the study was to check whether after 85 years after regaining independence there were still differences in the way of feeding indigenous inhabitants of areas previously under Austrian, Prussian and Russian annexation. Material and methods: The data collected during the WOBASZ survey carried out in the years 2003-2005 were used for the analysis. Results: The greatest differences in the way of feeding were found in the area that was previously under the rule of Prussia. The nutrition model was still largely reminiscent of typical German cuisine. There was a large consumption of sausages and spreads, and small vegetables and fruit. Nutrition models in other areas were less characteristic. Conclusions: The way of feeding indigenous people living in areas that were once partitions of Poland is still diverse and similar to the cuisine of the occupying country.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Prússia , Federação Russa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(4): 941-962, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949847

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to illustrate the efficiency of correlation analysis of musical and genetic data for certain common ethnic and ethno-musical roots of mankind. The comparison of the results to archaeogenetic data shows that correlations of recent musical and genetic data may reveal past cultural and migration processes resulting in recent connections. The significance tests verified our hypothesis supposing that propagation of oral musical traditions can be related to early human migration processes is well-founded, because the multidimensional point system determined by the inverse rank vectors of correlating Hg-UCT pairs has a very clear structure. We found that associations of Hgs jointly propagating with associations of UCTs (Unified Contour Type) can be identified as significant complex components in both modern and ancient populations, thus, modern populations can be considered as admixtures of these ancient Hg associations. It also seems obvious to conclude that these ancient Hg associations strewed their musical "parent languages" during their migrations, and the correlating UCTs of these musical parent languages may also be basic components of the recent folk music cultures. Thus, we can draw a hypothetical picture of the main characteristics of ancient musical cultures. Modern and prehistoric populations belonging to a common Hg-UCT association are located to very similar geographical areas, consequently, recent folk music cultures are basically determined by prehistoric migrations. Our study could be considered as an initial step in analysis of the correlations of prehistoric and recent musical and genetic characteristics of human evolution history.


Assuntos
Etnicidade/genética , Etnologia , Genética Populacional/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Cultura , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Europa (Continente) , Migração Humana , Humanos , Música , Filogenia
19.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(73): 119-136, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183157

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en desvelar en dos contextos europeos en qué medida se incorporan rasgos etnomotores del deporte en los juegos de los siglos XVI y XVII. Se aplican los fundamentos de praxiología motriz y se realiza un estudio comparado de 117 juegos recogidos en la obra de Brueghel (Bélgica, 1560) y Rodrigo Caro (España, 1626). Se analizan cuatro dimensiones etnomotrices de la lógica interna (13 categorías) y la lógica externa o institucional (8 categorías) del deporte moderno: codificación (presencia o ausencia de reglas); enfrentamiento motor (tipo de interacción motriz); contabilidad (existencia o ausencia de marcador final); materialidad (acondicionamiento del terreno y objetos de juego). Los resultados muestran un patrón de cambio hacia rasgos etnomotores del deporte moderno, con mayor presencia de: exhaustividad de reglas (codificación); duelos simétricos sin agresividad corporal (control del enfrentamiento motor); marcador final (contabilidad); uso de zonas y objetos específicos (materialidad)


The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which the ethnomotor features of sport were incorporated into games of the 16th and 17th centuries within two European contexts. Motor praxeology concepts were applied and a comparative study of 117 games contained in the works of Bruegel (Belgium, 1560) and Rodrigo Caro (Spain, 1626) was conducted. Four ethnomotor dimensions of the internal logic (13 categories) and the external or institutional logic (8 categories) of modern sport were analysed: codification (presence or absence of rules); motor confrontation (type of motor interaction); counting (presence or absence of a final score); and materiality (preparation of playing field and equipment). The results show a pattern of change towards the ethnomotor features of modern sport, with a higher presence of: comprehensive rules (codification); symmetrical matches without bodily aggression (control of motor confrontation); final score (counting); and use of specific areas and objects (materiality)


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Esportes/história , Etnologia
20.
Rev. Kairós ; 22(1): 421-435, mar. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1022484

RESUMO

Em busca de aprofundamento de algumas das representações do velho na sociedade brasileira, propusemos este trabalho que tem como objetivo estudar o Arquétipo do Velho na perspectiva de uma religião tipicamente brasileira: a Umbanda. Dois Orixás, Nanã Buruquê e Obaluaê, e as Entidades chamadas de Pretos Velhos, são aqueles que melhor representam o Arquétipo do Velho. A própria manifestação corporal de tais energias nos rituais de Umbanda traz, de modo inequívoco, símbolos ligados à velhice. É comum que os participantes dos rituais incorporem conhecimentos simbólicos e significados relativos aos Orixás e Entidades nela cultuados. O Arquétipo do Velho nessa religião representa o conhecimento adquirido ao longo do tempo, as experiências vividas, a sabedoria adquirida, a maturidade e a paciência. Estes são alguns de seus traços mais marcantes. A Umbanda lida com o envelhecimento e o Arquétipo do Velho como elementos essenciais para o processo de evolução da vida e sua importância no processo de individuação de cada um de nós. Neste estudo buscamos fazer uma correlação desse princípio arquetípico com o Arquétipo Puer-Senex da teoria de Carl Gustav Jung. No desenvolvimento da Psicologia Analítica, Jung mostra esse Arquétipo como elemento fundamental para a constituição do sujeito no seu processo de individuação.


In order to deepen some of the representations of the old in Brazilian society, we proposed this work that aims to study the Archetype of the Old from the perspective of a typical Brazilian religion: Umbanda. Two Orixás, Nanã Buruquê and Obaluaê, and the Entities called Old Blacks are the ones that best represent the Old Archetype. The very bodily manifestation of such energies in Umbanda rituals unmistakably carries symbols linked to old age. It is common for ritual participants to incorporate symbolic knowledge and meanings concerning the Orixás and Entities worshiped there. The Old Man Archetype in this religion represents knowledge gained over time, lived experience, acquired wisdom, maturity, and patience. These are some of its most striking traits. Umbanda deals with aging and the Old Archetype as essential elements in the process of life evolution and its importance in the individuation process of each of us. In this study we seek to correlate this archetypal principle with the Puer-Senex Archetype of Carl Gustav Jung's theory. In the development of Analytical Psychology, Jung shows this Archetype as a fundamental element for the constitution of the subject in his individuation process.


Para profundizar algunas de las representaciones de lo antiguo en la sociedad brasileña, propusimos este trabajo que tiene como objetivo estudiar el Arquetipo de lo Antiguo desde la perspectiva de una religión típica brasileña: Umbanda. Dos Orixás, Nanã Buruquê y Obaluaê, y las Entidades llamadas Viejos Negros son las que mejor representan el Arquetipo Antiguo. La manifestación muy corporal de tales energías en los rituales de Umbanda lleva inequívocamente símbolos relacionados con la vejez. Es común que los participantes en rituales incorporen conocimiento simbólico y significados relacionados con los Orixás y las Entidades adoradas allí. El arquetipo del anciano en esta religión representa el conocimiento adquirido con el tiempo, la experiencia vivida, la sabiduría adquirida, la madurez y la paciencia. Estos son algunos de sus rasgos más llamativos. Umbanda se ocupa del envejecimiento y del arquetipo antiguo como elementos esenciales en el proceso de evolución de la vida y su importancia en el proceso de individualización de cada uno de nosotros. En este estudio buscamos correlacionar este principio arquetípico con el Arquetipo de Puer-Senex de la teoría de Carl Gustav Jung. En el desarrollo de la Psicología Analítica, Jung muestra este Arquetipo como un elemento fundamental para la constitución del sujeto en su proceso de individuación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Religião , Envelhecimento , Religião e Medicina , Religião e Psicologia , Comportamento Ritualístico , Etnologia
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