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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(4): 1713-1721, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427950

RESUMO

AIMS: The French Ministry of Health scheduled opioid cough suppressants as prescription-only drugs on 12 July 2017. The present study assessed the impact of this regulation on the diversion modalities of the concerned drugs and the related drug pholcodine by analysing the national OSIAP (Ordonnances Suspectes Indicateur d'Abus Possible) database. METHODS: Medical prescriptions with at least 1 mention of codeine, dextromethorphan, ethylmorphine, noscapine or pholcodine for cough suppression recorded in 2013-2019 were extracted from OSIAP. Annual mentioning rates were estimated by dividing numbers of mentions over those of prescriptions recorded the year considered. A descriptive analysis compared the characteristics of prescriptions before and after 12 July 2017. RESULTS: Overall, 832 mentions of the requested drugs were retrieved on 827 prescription forms. Codeine was the most frequent (n = 809, 8.7%) with 6 additional mentions of codeine/ethylmorphine combination, followed by dextromethorphan (n = 11, 0.1%) and pholcodine (n = 6, 0.1%). There was no mention of noscapine. Annual mentioning rates varied between 0 and 0.3% for all drugs except codeine. Codeine mentioning rates ranged between 0.3% (n = 2) and 0.7% (n = 9) before 12 July 2017 and increased to 10.1% (n = 61) thereafter in 2017, 16.1% (n = 314) in 2018, and 19.8% (n = 414) in 2019. The profile of subjects evolved accordingly with an increased male/female ratio (10.0 vs. 1.5 before) and decreased age (23 vs. 40 y before, P < .001). DISCUSSION: The sharp increase of recourse to falsified prescription forms indicates that codeine diversion continues despite restricted access, whereas the other drugs studied do not seem to have been impacted.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos , Noscapina , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Codeína , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Dextrometorfano , Etilmorfina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prescrições
2.
Drug Test Anal ; 14(2): 388-392, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652878

RESUMO

Ethylmorphine is permitted internationally for therapeutic purposes where morphine is not indicated across the globe. Nor-ethylmorphine a major metabolite of ethylmorphine. To differentiate the intake of morphine from ethylmorphine, nor-ethylmorphine stable reference material is desirable. There is no available commercial source and no data for reference material context for this substance. Therefore, nor-ethylmorphine HCl was synthesized and characterized, and purity and potency were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TGA), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purity and potency were found to be 98.29% and 96.40%, respectively, providing a fit for purpose reference material for doping control analysis in sports.


Assuntos
Etilmorfina , Morfina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 244, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856114

RESUMO

Ethylmorphine hydrochloride (EtM) is a derivative of morphine used as analgesic to treat severe pain in case of cancer and bone injury. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate core in cup tablets containing 2 doses of EtM, the cup was formulated as lyophilized oro-dispersible tablet (ODT) for immediate release (IR), and the core was formulated as directly compressed tablet for sustained release (SR). Factorial design was adopted for the optimization of tablets prepared via lyophilized form and direct compression techniques: a 41.22 design was used for the former, while a 32 one was used for the latter. All prepared tablets showed acceptable physical properties which were in accordance with pharmacopeial standards. Two lyophilized ODTs (F9 and F10) formulae were selected as the cup for instant release. While one directly compressed tablet formula (S6) was selected based on the in vitro release profile to represent the sustained core, the outcome was 2 core in cup tablets, namely B1 and B2 which were evaluated for their in vivo absorption and showed a maximum plasma concentration (Cpmax) of 354.12 ± 17.55 ng/mL and 350.82 ± 12.15 ng/mL respectively attained after 3.0 h which were twofolds significantly higher in comparison to the market tablet with Cpmax of only 172.05 ± 12.53 ng/mL attained after 2.20 ± 0.24 h.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Etilmorfina/química , Etilmorfina/farmacocinética , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos , Etilmorfina/uso terapêutico , Liofilização , Masculino , Ratos , Comprimidos
5.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; 34(3): 215-23, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27404326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether information regarding potentially alcohol-related health incidents recorded in electronic patient records might aid in earlier identification of alcohol use disorders. DESIGN: We extracted potentially alcohol-related information in electronic patient records and tested if alcohol-related diagnoses, prescriptions of codeine, tramadol, ethylmorphine, and benzodiazepines; elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), and mean cell volume (MCV); and new sick leave certificates predicted specific alcohol use disorder. SETTING: Nine general practitioner surgeries with varying size and stability. SUBJECTS: Totally 20,764 patients with active electronic patient record until data gathering and with a history of at least four years without a specific alcohol use disorder after turning 18 years of age. METHODS: The Cox proportional hazard analysis with time-dependent covariates of potential accumulated risks over the previous four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time from inclusion until the first specific alcohol use disorder, defined by either an alcohol specific diagnostic code or a text fragment documenting an alcohol problem. RESULTS: In the unadjusted and adjusted Cox-regression with time-dependent covariates all variables were highly significant with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.25 to 3.50. Addictive drugs, sick leaves, GGT, MCV and International Classification for Primary Care version 2 (ICPC-2), and International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10) diagnoses were analyzed. Elevated GGT and MCV, ICD-10-diagnoses, and gender demonstrated the highest hazard ratios. CONCLUSIONS: Many frequent health problems are potential predictors of an increased risk or vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. However, due to the modest hazard ratios, we were unable to establish a clinically useful tool. KEY POINTS Alcohol is potentially relevant for many health problems, but current strategies for identification and intervention in primary health care have not been successful. Many frequent clinical problems recorded in electronic patient records may indicate an increased risk for alcohol related health problems. The hazard ratios were modest and the resulting predictive model was unsatisfactory for diagnostic purposes. If we accepted a sensitivity as low as 0.50, the specificity slightly exceeded 0.75. With a low prevalent condition, it is obvious that the false positive problem will be vast. In addition to responding to elevated blood levels of liver enzymes, general practitioners should be aware of alcohol as a potentially relevant factor for patients with repeated events of many mental and psychosocial diagnoses and new sick leaves and repeated prescriptions of addictive drugs.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Codeína/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Índices de Eritrócitos , Etilmorfina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Licença Médica , Tramadol/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , gama-Glutamiltransferase
6.
Mol Pharm ; 11(9): 3145-63, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25036525

RESUMO

Morphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine are important drug compounds whose free bases and hydrochloride salts form stable hydrates. These compounds were used to systematically investigate the influence of the type of functional groups, the role of water molecules, and the Cl(-) counterion on molecular aggregation and solid state properties. Five new crystal structures have been determined. Additionally, structure models for anhydrous ethylmorphine and morphine hydrochloride dihydrate, two phases existing only in a very limited humidity range, are proposed on the basis of computational dehydration modeling. These match the experimental powder X-ray diffraction patterns and the structural information derived from infrared spectroscopy. All 12 structurally characterized morphinane forms (including structures from the Cambridge Structural Database) crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P212121. Hydrate formation results in higher dimensional hydrogen bond networks. The salt structures of the different compounds exhibit only little structural variation. Anhydrous polymorphs were detected for all compounds except ethylmorphine (one anhydrate) and its hydrochloride salt (no anhydrate). Morphine HCl forms a trihydrate and dihydrate. Differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry were employed to estimate the heat of the hydrate ↔ anhydrate phase transformations, indicating an enthalpic stabilization of the respective hydrate of 5.7 to 25.6 kJ mol(-1) relative to the most stable anhydrate. These results are in qualitative agreement with static 0 K lattice energy calculations for all systems except morphine hydrochloride, showing the need for further improvements in quantitative thermodynamic prediction of hydrates having water···water interactions. Thus, the combination of a variety of experimental techniques, covering temperature- and moisture-dependent stability, and computational modeling allowed us to generate sufficient kinetic, thermodynamic and structural information to understand the principles of hydrate formation of the model compounds. This approach also led to the detection of several new crystal forms of the investigated morphinanes.


Assuntos
Etilmorfina/química , Morfina/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Umidade , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Água/química , Difração de Raios X/métodos
7.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 21(14): 4233-49, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23719288

RESUMO

A novel series of 6-benzyl substituted 4-aminocarbonyl-1,4-diazepane-2,5-diones were explored as human chymase inhibitors using structure-based drug design according to the X-ray cocrystal structure of chymase and compound 1. The optimization focused on the prime site led to the attainment of compounds that showed potent inhibitory activity, and among them, 18R shows a novel interaction mode.


Assuntos
Azepinas/síntese química , Quimases/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Etilmorfina/síntese química , Azepinas/química , Azepinas/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Etilmorfina/química , Etilmorfina/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 21(12): 3531-5, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21601455

RESUMO

Naphtho[2,1-α]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-5,7(6H,12H)-dione (NPCD) is known to be a very potent and selective cyclin D1-CDK4 inhibitors and could induce strong G1 phase arrest in breast tumor cell lines. In this work, the synthesis of five NPCD glycosides and their cytotoxic activities against eight tumor cell lines are presented, as well as the investigation of their cell cycle arrest profiles. The results showed that the introduction of a sugar moiety onto NPCD did not affect much of their cytotoxic activities, while the subtle structure of the sugar moiety affected the underlying mechanism strongly. In addition, NPCD showed distinct cell-cycle arrest profiles in BxPC3 prostate cells and MCF-7 breast cells, while NPCD glycosides shared similar cell cycle arrest profiles in MCF-7 and BxPC3 cells, which also indicated that not only the indolocarbazole framework as well known before but the sugar moiety can have a profound impact on the mechanism of action for these types of compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Carbazóis/síntese química , Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Etilmorfina/síntese química , Etilmorfina/química , Etilmorfina/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Naftóis/síntese química , Naftóis/química , Naftóis/farmacologia , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacologia
9.
J Anal Toxicol ; 35(5): 280-93, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21619723

RESUMO

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for screening of drugs in whole blood has been developed and validated. Samples were prepared by supported liquid-liquid extraction on ChemElute(®) columns with ethyl acetate/heptane (4:1). LC separation was achieved with an Acquity HSS T3-column (2.1 100 mm, 1.8-µm particle). Mass detection was performed by positive ion mode electrospray MS-MS and included the following drugs/metabolites: morphine, codeine, ethyl morphine, oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, cocaine, methylphenidate, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), fentanyl, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, nordiazepam, 3-OH-diazepam, fenazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, zopiclone, zolpidem, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. The cycle time was 9 min, and within- and between-day relative coefficients of variation varied from 1% to 33% and 2% to 58%, respectively. Extraction recoveries from whole blood were > 50% except for morphine and THC. The limit of quantitation was 0.1 to 521 ng/mL, depending on the drug.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/sangue , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Buprenorfina/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Cocaína/sangue , Codeína/sangue , Dronabinol/sangue , Etilmorfina/sangue , Humanos , Metadona/sangue , Morfina/sangue , Oxicodona/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 33(3): 295-303, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20557447

RESUMO

The intestinal mucosa plays a capital role in dictating the bioavailability of a large array of orally ingested drugs and toxicants. The activity and the expression of several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were measured in subcellular fractions from the duodenal mucosa of male veal calves and beef cattle displaying a functional rumen but differing in both age (about 8 months vs. 18 to 24 months) and dietary regimens (i.e., milk replacer plus hay and straw vs. corn and concentrated meal). Intestinal microsomes showed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B, 2C- and 3A-mediated activities and the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins, but no proof of CYP1A expression and/or functions could be provided. Intestinal microsomes were also active in performing reactions typically mediated by carboxylesterases (indophenylacetate hydrolysis), flavin-containing monooxygenases (methimazole S-oxidation), and uridindiphosphoglucuronyltransferases (1-naphthol glucuronidation), respectively. Cytosolic fractions displayed the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; besides, the GST-mediated conjugation of ethacrinic acid (GSTpi) or cumene hydroperoxide (GSTalpha) was matched by the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins. Conversely, despite the lack of measurable activity with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a protein cross reacting with anti-rat GSTmu antibodies could be clearly detected. Although, as detected by densitometry, CYPs and GST isoenzymes tended to be more expressed in beef cattle than in veal calf preparations, there was a general poor correlation with the rate of the in vitro metabolism of the selected diagnostic probes.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Intestino Delgado/enzimologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Benzfetamina/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Western Blotting , Bovinos , Clorfeniramina/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Duodeno/enzimologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Etilmorfina/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Masculino , Microssomos/enzimologia
11.
J Forensic Sci ; 55(2): 551-3, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20158595

RESUMO

Ethylmorphine, an opiate that is partially metabolized to morphine, is a common ingredient in antitussive preparations. We present a case where a 10-month-old boy was administered ethylmorphine in the evening and found dead in bed the following morning. Postmortem toxicological analyses of heart blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of ethylmorphine and morphine at concentrations of 0.17 muM (0.054 mg/L) and 0.090 muM (0.026 mg/L), respectively. CYP2D6 genotyping showed that the deceased had an extensive metabolizer genotype, signifying a "normal" capacity for metabolizing ethylmorphine to morphine. The autopsy report concluded that death was caused by a combination of opiate-induced sedation and weakening of respiratory drive, a respiratory infection, and a sleeping position that could have impeded breathing. This is the first case report where the death of an infant has been linked to ethylmorphine ingestion.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Etilmorfina/efeitos adversos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Etilmorfina/administração & dosagem , Etilmorfina/sangue , Toxicologia Forense , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Morfina/sangue , Postura , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Sono
13.
Life Sci ; 83(5-6): 198-207, 2008 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18593589

RESUMO

An opioid tramadol more effectively inhibits compound action potentials (CAPs) than its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1). To address further this issue, we examined the effects of opioids (morphine, codeine, ethylmorphine and dihydrocodeine) and cocaine on CAPs by applying the air-gap method to the frog sciatic nerve. All of the opioids at concentrations less than 10 mM reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The sequence of the CAP peak amplitude reductions was ethylmorphine>codeine>dihydrocodeine> or = morphine; the effective concentration for half-maximal inhibition (IC(50)) of ethylmorphine was 4.6 mM. All of the CAP inhibitions by opioids were resistant to a non-specific opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone. The CAP peak amplitude reductions produced by morphine, codeine and ethylmorphine were related to their chemical structures in such that this extent enhanced with an increase in the number of -CH(2) in a benzene ring, as seen in the inhibitory actions of tramadol and M1. Cocaine reduced CAP peak amplitudes with an IC(50) value of 0.80 mM. It is concluded that opioids reduce CAP peak amplitudes in a manner being independent of opioid-receptor activation and with an efficacy being much less than that of cocaine. It is suggested that the substituted groups of -OH bound to the benzene ring of morphine, codeine and ethylmorphine as well as of tramadol and M1, the structures of which are quite different from those of the opioids, may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocaína/farmacologia , Codeína/análogos & derivados , Codeína/farmacologia , Etilmorfina/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Morfina/farmacologia , Naloxona/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ranidae , Receptores Opioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Opioides/fisiologia , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia
15.
J Anal Toxicol ; 32(4): 265-72, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18430293

RESUMO

Morphine and codeine are frequently identified in blood samples from impaired drivers. But whether these opiates reflect the use of prescription analgesics or abuse of the illicit drug heroin (diacetyl morphine) is not always obvious. Opiates, either alone or together with other drugs, were determined in 2,573 blood specimens from impaired drivers by sensitive and specific methods of analysis. The specific metabolite of heroin 6-acetyl morphine (6-AM) was quantifiable in only 52 cases (2%) at mean, median, and highest concentrations of 0.015, 0.010, and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The mean, median, and highest concentrations of morphine were 0.046, 0.03, and 1.13 mg/L, respectively (N = 2,029). The corresponding concentrations of codeine (N = 1,391) were 0.047, 0.01, and 2.40 mg/L. Ethyl morphine was identified in 63 cases at a mean concentration of 0.055 mg/L (median 0.03 mg/L). When 6-AM was present in urine (N = 324), the mean morphine/codeine ratio in blood was 7.5 (median 6.7), and this important ratio was less than unity in only two cases. This study finds compelling evidence that approximately 90% of apprehended drivers in Sweden with morphine and codeine in their blood had used heroin.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Codeína/sangue , Etilmorfina/sangue , Derivados da Morfina/urina , Morfina/sangue , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Derivados da Morfina/sangue , Suécia
17.
J Anal Toxicol ; 31(2): 81-6, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17536742

RESUMO

A method for the identification and quantification of morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine-6-glucuronide, ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide, and 6-acetylmorphine in human urine based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was validated for use as a confirmation procedure in combination with immunochemical screening for opiates. Three deuterium-labelled analogues were used as internal standards: morphine-3-glucuronide-d3, codeine-d3, and 6-acetylmorphine-d3. Fifty-microliter aliquots of urine were prepared by SPE using 30-mg Oasis HLB cartridges. The chromatographic system consisted of a 2.0 x 100-mm C18 column and the gradient elution buffers used acetonitrile and 25 mmol/L formic acid. The protonated molecular ions were monitored in the selected ion monitoring mode together with one qualifier ion for each analyte. The interassay variability was less than 10% at the reporting limit 30 ng/mL for 6-acetylmorphine and 300 ng/mL for the other analytes. The method was validated by comparison with a reference gas chromatographic (GC)-MS method using authentic urine samples. The two methods agreed completely regarding identified analytes, and for the quantitative results there were slightly lower levels when measuring glucuronides directly as compared to total determination after hydrolysis by GC-MS. This result was to be expected because the free compounds are not measured with the LC-MS method. This study concludes that the presented LC-MS method is robust and reliable, and suitable for use as a confirmation method in clinical urine drug testing for opiates.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Derivados da Morfina/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Codeína/urina , Etilmorfina/análogos & derivados , Etilmorfina/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucuronatos/urina , Entorpecentes/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Acta Pharm Hung ; 76(4): 173-80, 2006.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17575797

RESUMO

In our previous paper identification methods using chemical reactions and TLC are described for the active ingredients of pharmaceutical preparations in Formula Normales (FoNo VII.). Present paper introduces the development and validation of analytical methods suitable for quantitative determination of paracetamol containing dosage forms in FoNo VII. Titrimetric methods, UV spectroscopy and HPLC are used for assay of paracetamol and accompanying components (e.g. codeine, papaverine, caffeine and acetylsalicylic acid) in these preparations.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/normas , Química Farmacêutica/normas , Aspirina/normas , Cafeína/normas , Etilmorfina/normas , Hungria , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 15(1): 103-10, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15572279

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of classic and atypical neuroleptics on the activity of rat CYP2D measured as a rate of ethylmorphine O-deethylation. The reaction was studied in control liver microsomes in the presence of neuroleptics, as well as in microsomes of rats treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 1-day or 2-weeks (twice a day) with pharmacological doses of the drugs (promazine, levomepromazine, thioridazine, perazine 10 mg kg(-1); chlorpromazine 3 mg kg(-1); haloperidol 0.3 mg kg(-1); risperidone 0.1 mg kg(-1); sertindole 0.05 mg kg(-1)), in the absence of the neuroleptics in vitro. Neuroleptics added in vitro to control liver microsomes decreased the activity of the rat CYP2D by competitive or mixed inhibition of the enzyme. Thioridazine (Ki=15 microM) was the most potent inhibitor of the rat CYP2D among the drugs studied, whose effect was more pronounced than that of the other neuroleptics tested: phenothiazines (Ki=18-23 microM), haloperidol (Ki=32 microM), sertindole (Ki=51 microM) or risperidone (Ki=165 microM). The investigated neuroleptics-when given to rats in vivo-also seemed to exert an inhibitory effect on CYP2D via other mechanisms. One-day exposure of rats to the classic neuroleptics decreased the activity of CYP2D in rat liver microsomes. After chronic treatment with the investigated neuroleptics, the decreased CYP2D activity produced by the phenothiazines was still maintained, while that caused by haloperidol diminished. Moreover, risperidone decreased the activity of that enzyme. The obtained results indicate drug- and time-dependent interactions between the investigated neuroleptics and the CYP2D subfamily of rat cytochrome P-450, which may proceed via different mechanisms: (1) competitive or mixed inhibition of CYP2D shown in vitro, the inhibitory effects of phenothiazines being stronger than those of haloperidol or atypical neuroleptics, but weaker than the effects of the respective drugs on human CYP2D6; (2) in vivo inhibition of CYP2D, produced by both 1-day and chronic treatment with phenothiazines, which suggests inactivation of enzyme by intermediate metabolites; (3) in vivo inhibition of CYP2D by risperidone, produced only by chronic treatment with the drug, which suggests its influence on the enzyme regulation.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/classificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Etilmorfina/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 147(2): 151-61, 2004 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15013817

RESUMO

Tiamulin, a diterpene antibiotic, is used for treatment of pulmonary and gastrointestinal infections in swine and poultry. Combined administration of tiamulin and ionophores (e.g. monensin) to farm animals may lead to intoxication manifested in severe clinical symptoms. Tiamulin metabolite complex with cytochrome P450 has been suggested to be the basis of drug-interactions. However, the formation of metabolic intermediate complex is questionable. The effect of tiamulin-treatment on cytochrome P450 activities was investigated in rats. Ethylmorphine and aminopyrine N-demethylation activities as well as monensin metabolism (O-demethylation) increased in liver microsomes of tiamulin-treated (200 mg/kg) animals. CYP3A1 induction caused by tiamulin was confirmed by the results of Western blot analysis. To test metabolic intermediate complex formation as a result of tiamulin treatment, cytochrome P450 activities were also determined in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. The findings together with those of in vitro complex formation suggested that formation of metabolic intermediate complexes of tiamulin with cytochrome P450 could be excluded. On the other hand, the results of inhibition studies showed significant decrease of ethylmorphine or aminopyrine as well as monensin demethylation in the presence of tiamulin. Our results proved that tiamulin has dual effect on cytochromes P450. It is able to induce and directly inhibit CYP3A enzymes, which are predominantly responsible for monensin O-demethylation. The direct effect of tiamulin as an inhibitor might play a more important role in toxicity than its putative effect as a chemical inducer of CYP3A enzymes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ionóforos/toxicidade , Monensin/toxicidade , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes , Administração Oral , Aminopirina/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Dexametasona/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Indução Enzimática , Etilmorfina/metabolismo , Feminino , Ionóforos/metabolismo , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Monensin/metabolismo , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/metabolismo , Fenobarbital/metabolismo , Fenobarbital/farmacologia , Ratos , Troleandomicina/metabolismo
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