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1.
Appetite ; 168: 105690, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600944

RESUMO

The classification of red meat as "probably carcinogenic" and processed meat as "carcinogenic" was followed by pleas to place warning labels, akin to those used for tobacco products, onto meat products. These labels educate people about the health risks associated with the target behavior and are typically accompanied by graphic imagery that elicits disgust (e.g., a picture of blackened lungs). Although the emotion of disgust has been shown to be an effective tool to affect consumer attitudes toward meat, it remains unclear whether such graphic warning labels that recruit disgust would also affect people's intentions to reduce their meat consumption. Two experiments reveal that graphic warning labels, by recruiting disgust, can increase people's intention to reduce their current levels of meat consumption. However, by eliciting disgust, graphic warning labels can simultaneously trigger reactance: graphic images can make people feel they are being manipulated, thereby ironically decreasing meat-reduction intentions. In a final experiment, we aimed to circumvent reactance by providing disgusting information under the guise of trivia, thereby avoiding the perception that the disgusting information was meant to manipulate. Via this route, disgust becomes a potent tool to influence consumers' intentions to consume meat. Ethical concerns are discussed.


Assuntos
Asco , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Intenção , Carne , Rotulagem de Produtos
2.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107121, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research has highlighted the role of cognitive and affective mediators in facilitating the effectiveness of pictorial warning labels (PWLs). This study examines smokers' responses towards PWLs after 10 days of use and their associations with changes in quitting attitudes, beliefs, and intentions during this period. METHODS: Non-treatment-seeking, daily smokers completed a randomized, parallel design trial. Participants were randomized to either a PWL or control (i.e., text only or no warning label) group and received their preferred brand cigarettes affixed with their assigned label for 10 days. We assessed quitting attitudes, intentions, and beliefs at the onset and end of the study. At study end, smokers rated their PWL on a 5-point scale for 8 cognitive and emotional attributes: memorable, understandable, shocking, informative, offensive, boring, relevant, and interesting. RESULTS: Mean ratings of the PWLs were high for memorable, understandable, informative, relevant, and interesting (range = 3.4 to 4.0), moderate for shocking (2.9), and low for offensive (1.7), and boring (1.5). Among the PWLs, quitting-related attitudes, positive beliefs, and intentions increased over the study period (p < .001) and these changes were positively associated with most attributes except offensive and boring (p < .05). For the text-only label group, attitudes and intentions increased significantly but these changes were not associated with any attributes. CONCLUSION: Smokers generally have favorable evaluations of PWLs following repeated exposures. Further, these evaluations are associated with increased quitting attitudes and intentions, which may facilitate cessation attempts over longer periods of exposure.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948557

RESUMO

Over the last decades, human activities prompted the high production and widespread use of household chemical products, leading to daily exposure of humans to several chemicals. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of chemicals' use by children and parents in Greece and estimate the level of risk awareness and understanding among them. A total of 575 parents and children were asked to answer an anonymous, closed-ended, validated, and self-administered questionnaire. One-third of the children and almost half of the parents participating in the study believed that commonly used chemical products do not pose any risk to human health or to the environment, despite the product labelling. The majority of both children (61.8%) and parents (70.6%) were informed about product safety via the product labelling. Around 20% in both groups could not differentiate between systemic toxicity and acute lethal effects depicted by pictograms on the label and milder hazards, such as skin irritation. Moreover, the information on hazard and precautionary statements appearing on the label was very poorly perceived. Therefore, as both children and parents seem not to clearly identify the hazards and risks arising from the use of everyday chemical products, targeted awareness policies should be implemented to support the safe use of household products.


Assuntos
Produtos Domésticos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Criança , Grécia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E742-E750, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909503

RESUMO

One of the major smoking prevention strategies has been to educate the public and increase people's awareness, using health-warning messages. However, many young people continue smoking without paying attention to health risk messages on cigarette packets in Iran. Hence, this study was conducted to examine the processing route of anti-smoking messages and influencing cognitive factors based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model. This cross-sectional study was correlational in nature. The non-probability sample consisted of 387 tobacco smokers in the age range of 18 to 30 years old. The study was conducted between July and November of 2018 in Tabriz, Iran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used for the purpose of data collection. No causal inferences were drawn due to the non-experimental nature of the investigation. It was found that tobacco smokers often processed the health warning messages through the central route. Perceived severity, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and psychological dependence were predictors of message processing through the central route. The results supported the conceptual model of cognitional predictors of the processing route. To design and execute effective health warning messages to quit smoking, it is recommended to consider cognitive factors as a means to enhance critical thinking about the content of the health-warning message.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate, based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) and the legislation of the Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT - National Agency for Terrestrial Transport), the hazards arising from chemical waste generated in research laboratories in the health area. METHODS: Chemical residues generated in two medical research laboratories of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo were inventoried, from November 2017 to April 2019, and classified according to the GHS (hazard statements) and the ANTT transport legislation (risk classes), to determine the dangers coming from the respective substances and mixtures. RESULTS: In total, we identified 40 substances or mixtures with classification by the GHS indicating 36 hazard statements, 27 of which related to human health. According to the legislation established by ANTT, we found 16 cases of hazard associated with flammability, 15 cases related to toxicity and 12 cases related to corrosivity. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical residues generated in the laboratories studied are diversified in terms of their hazard characteristics, implying the possibility of exposure to severe risks to workers, students and the environment. The correct identification of these residues is a primary factor for reducing exposure to risks.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Laboratórios , Brasil , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Reagentes de Laboratório , Rotulagem de Produtos
6.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(5): 298-305, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between packaged product label and medication package insert reading habits of parents and their children's oral/dental health. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire including demographic characteristics and label/insert reading habits was filled by parents of 301 children who referred to the Pediatric Dentistry Department. The children were examined intraorally and dmft/DMFT and ICDAS II scores were recorded. The data were evaluated statistically. RESULTS: Label and medication package insert reading were found in 71.4% and 88.4% of the parents, respectively. Label reading increased as the age of the child and the number of children in the family increased. Medical package insert reading increased as the mother's education and SLS/paraben knowledge increased. Decrease of 1 point in ICDAS II resulted in the 1.410 times increase in the rate of medical package insert reading of the parents. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that improving the label and medical insert reading rate of the parents would be effective for providing better oral and dental health for their children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Rotulagem de Produtos , Criança , Hábitos , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740476, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646806

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco consumption produces a heavy disease burden worldwide, and tobacco price increase, an advertisement for tobacco-induced harm, graphic warning labels on cigarette packages and advice of physicians for quitting are policies that have been proved as effective smoking cessation measures. But evidence on the estimated effect of advice of physicians for quitting and assumed tobacco retail price increase on smoking cessation intention among smokers is still limited in China. Methods: From January to April of 2021, we recruited 664 current smokers in Songjiang district of Shanghai by a multistage sampling design. We implemented a logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to explore how smoking cessation intention would be influenced by the assumed tobacco retail price increase as well as advice of physicians for quitting, and used the paired tabulation method to identify the salient tobacco control measures among smokers as well. Results: A total of 664 current smokers included 548 males (82.53%), with an average smoking duration of 22.50 years (SD: 11.52 years). About 68.79 and 43.67% of current smokers reported smoking cessation intention due to advice of physicians for quitting and the assumed tobacco retail price increase, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that female smokers (OR = 2.85 and 4.55), smokers with previous smoking cessation attempt (OR = 3.71 and 3.07), longer smoking duration (OR = 2.26 and 2.68), lower smoking intensity (OR = 1.82 and 1.69), and heavier tobacco burdens (OR = 1.67 and 2.22) had the higher intention of smoking cessation both due to advice of physicians for quitting and due to assumed tobacco price increase, respectively. Meanwhile, the advice of physicians for quitting was more effective and acceptable (over 80%) than the assumed tobacco price increase for inducing smokers to consider quitting in Shanghai. Conclusions: Smokers have a high intention of smoking cessation in Shanghai, and the advice of physicians for quitting is a potentially more salient tobacco control measure than the assumed tobacco retail price increase. Incorporating smoking duration, intensity, personal burden as well as noncommunicable disease (NCD) status of smokers into the implementation of tobacco control measures is beneficial for descending smoking prevalence.


Assuntos
Médicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Rotulagem de Produtos , Fumantes , Tabaco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639792

RESUMO

Current text-only cigarette warning labels (long-term, loss-framed messages) may not motivate positive changes in smoking behavior. The current project was a cross-sectional study examining the effects of tailored cigarette warnings on perceived message effectiveness (PME) in adult smokers (n = 512) conducted using Amazon Mechanical Turk (M-Turk) in January-February 2020. Participants were an average age of 40.7 (SD = 11.6), with the majority of the sample being female (62.2%) and White (88.9%). Participants reported smoking an average of 14.6 cigarettes/day (SD = 9.2) with an average FTND score of 4.6 (SD = 2.2). Participants were asked to complete a tobacco use history questionnaire, and mixed gambles and delay discounting tasks before random assignment to one of five message groups. The groups were based on a 2 (gain versus loss framing) ×2 (short-term versus long-term framing) between-subject design; a fifth group served as the control group. All experimental messages reported higher PME scores than the control (p values < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.88-2.48). Participants with shallower delayed reward discounting and lower loss aversion rates reported higher total PME scores, p values < 0.05. Our findings also suggest that loss aversion rates vary widely among smokers and that individuals are more responsive to messages congruent with their behavioral economic profile. Specifically, smokers who viewed messages congruent with their loss aversion and delay discounting rates reported higher PME scores than those who viewed incongruent messages (p = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.24). These preliminary findings suggest that anti-smoking campaigns may best impact smokers by tailoring messages based on individual loss aversion and delay discounting rates versus a one-size-fits-all approach.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
9.
Skin Therapy Lett ; 26(5): 1-6, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524780

RESUMO

Consumers of personal care products must be made aware of the potential pitfalls that arise from current labeling practices and regulations. For example, terms such as "hypoallergenic", "sensitive skin", and "baby product" lack legal definitions, and terms such as "fragrance-free" are frequently misinterpreted. Personal care products are a general category that includes such items as cosmetics, drugs, dietary supplements, and consumer goods. This overview of current US FDA regulations of products in this category reviews pertinent regulatory policies and highlights potential consumer pitfalls when evaluating product labels. In particular, current labeling laws permit the use of language that may be incomplete, misinterpreted, or applied solely for marketing purposes. It is important that consumers understand the meaning of labeling terms, the regulations that govern them, and especially understand the potential pitfalls related to these terms.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Perfumes , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Marketing , Odorantes , Rotulagem de Produtos
10.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 96, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health messages on e-cigarette packs emphasise nicotine addiction or harms using similar wording to warnings on cigarette packs. These may not be appropriate for e-cigarettes which constitute a reduced risk alternative for smokers. This research aimed to (1) develop and test a selection of relative risk messages for e-cigarette products; (2) compare these to the two current EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) nicotine addiction messages; and (3) explore differences between smokers, non-smokers and dual users. METHOD: Twenty-six messages focusing on either harm-reduction or cessation were developed and rated by multidisciplinary experts for accuracy, persuasiveness and clarity. The eight highest ranking messages were compared alongside the TPD messages in a sample of 983 European residents (316 smokers, 327 non-smokers, 340 dual users) on understandability, believability and convincingness. RESULTS: On all three constructs combined, the two TPD messages rated the highest, closely followed by four relative risk messages "Completely switching to e-cigarettes lowers your risk of smoking related diseases", "Use of this product is much less harmful than smoking", "Completely switching to e-cigarettes is a healthier alternative to smoking", and "This product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes" which did not differ statistically from the TPD messages. Non-smokers rated TPD1 significantly higher overall than dual users. Dual users rated "This product is a safer alternative to smoking" significantly higher than non-smokers. Messages did not differ on understandability. CONCLUSIONS: These alternative messages provide a useful resource for future research and for policy makers considering updating e-cigarette product labelling.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Risco , Fumantes
11.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578942

RESUMO

Alcohol is toxic to human health. In addition to providing nutritional information, labels on alcohol products can be used to communicate warnings on alcohol-related harms to consumers. This scoping review examined novel or enhanced health warning labels to assess the current state of the research and the key studied characteristics of labels, along with their impact on the studied outcomes. Four databases (Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL) were searched between January 2010 and April 2021, and 27 papers were included in the review. The results found that most studies were undertaken in English-speaking populations, with the majority conducted online or in the laboratory setting as opposed to the real world. Seventy percent of the papers included at least one cancer-related message, in most instances referring either to cancer in general or to bowel cancer. Evidence from the only real-world long-term labelling intervention demonstrated that alcohol health warning labels designed to be visible and contain novel and specific information have the potential to be part of an effective labelling strategy. Alcohol health warning labels should be seen as tools to raise awareness on alcohol-related risks, being part of wider alcohol policy approaches.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Humanos
12.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 07 01.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346661

RESUMO

When patients are treated with a drug that is not registered for the intended indication the prescriber must inform the patient on the benefits and risks of this off-label prescription. In the patient file the prescriber should make a note that the patient was informed. In daily practice prescribers are reluctant to do this, with the motivation that informing patients on benefits and risks of pharmacotherapy is done for all drug treatments, and that this is not different for off-label prescriptions.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso Off-Label , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prescrições , Rotulagem de Produtos
13.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(9): 455-465, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452655

RESUMO

Objectives To review the availability of information specific to older people in the product labeling for novel US Food and Drug Administration drug approvals in 2019. Design Descriptive report. Methods Product labeling for the 48 novel new drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2019 were analyzed for the presence of information specific to older people. The "Geriatric Use" section, Section 8.5 in the product labeling, was categorized based on the information available. Each product label was further searched using the terms "geriatric," "elderly," "old," and "year." Searches of the term "old" and "year" focused on information that mentioned adults 65 years of age or older. The sections of the product label that contained additional information related to older people was identified. Results Information was available in the "Geriatric Use" section (Section 8.5) for 46 of the 48 novel new drugs approved in 2019; 2 did not include a "Geriatric Use" section. Four product labels indicated that the drugs were not used in older people. One of the 2 medications whose labeling omitted the "Geriatric Use" section was also not indicated for use in older people. These labels were excluded from analysis.Of the remaining 42 drugs, there was insufficient numbers of patients 65 years of age and older to determine whether older patients responded differently than younger patients for 18 medications. Labeling for 15 medications indicated that there was no difference in safety and/or efficacy between younger and older persons. Product information for 6 medications indicated that the incidence of adverse events was higher for older people. The product label for 2 medications indicated that no dosage adjustment was required in older patients. One medication's product labeling indicated that there were insufficient numbers of patients 65 years of age or older for 1 indication but that there was no difference in safety and/or efficacy for the medication's second indication. Additional sections that referred to people 65 years of age and older included warnings and precautions, clinical trial experience, pharmacokinetics for special populations, and clinical studies. The "Geriatric Use" section of 1 product label referred to the dosage recommendations in patients with renal impairment. Conclusion Despite efforts to increase the enrollment of older people in clinical trials, 43% of the novel new drugs approved in 2019 lacked information on differences in response between older and younger populations because of insufficient numbers of study subjects. This paucity of information translates into therapeutic uncertainty regarding the safety and efficacy of these new medications in older people. An additional concern is that 14% of novel new drug labels indicated that older people are at greater risk for adverse events. Limited information specific to older people is available in other parts of the product labeling. More useful information related to older persons needs to be included in new drug labeling.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas , Rotulagem de Produtos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(7-8): 201-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Product labelling and health warnings are important components of regulatory frameworks for consumer products such as tobacco, alcohol and food. However, evidence in the cannabis domain is limited. This study aimed to examine the reach of mandated health warnings on cannabis products using a natural experimental design. METHODS: Data are from the online International Cannabis Policy Study 2018 and 2019 surveys. Respondents were men and women aged 16 to 65 years in Canada and US states with illegal and legal nonmedical cannabis ("illegal" and "legal" states, respectively) (n = 72 549). Regression models tested differences in noticing health warnings on cannabis packages pre- and post-legalization in Canada, with comparisons to US states, adjusting for cannabis use, cannabis source and sociodemographics. RESULTS: Respondents in Canada showed a greater increase in noticing warnings (+8.9%) in 2019 (14.7%) versus 2018 (5.8%) than respondents in US "illegal" states (+2.8%) and "legal" states (+3.2%). In 2019, consumers residing in jurisdictions with legal recreational cannabis who purchased from legal retail sources were more likely to report noticing warnings than consumers who obtained cannabis from illegal/unstated sources (Canada: 40.4% vs. 15.3%; US "legal" states: 35.3% vs. 17.0%). Regular cannabis consumers were more likely to notice warnings than less frequent consumers. CONCLUSION: Mandating warning labels on cannabis products may increase exposure to messages communicating the health risks of cannabis, especially among frequent consumers and those who access the legal market.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Canadá , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Marketing , Rotulagem de Produtos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445006

RESUMO

Evidence for effective government policies to reduce exposure to alcohol's carcinogenic and hepatoxic effects has strengthened in recent decades. Policies with the strongest evidence involve reducing the affordability, availability and cultural acceptability of alcohol. However, policies that reduce population consumption compete with powerful commercial vested interests. This paper draws on the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation (CAPE), a formal assessment of effective government action on alcohol across Canadian jurisdictions. It also draws on alcohol policy case studies elsewhere involving attempts to introduce minimum unit pricing and cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. Canadian governments collectively received a failing grade (F) for alcohol policy implementation during the most recent CAPE assessment in 2017. However, had the best practices observed in any one jurisdiction been implemented consistently, Canada would have received an A grade. Resistance to effective alcohol policies is due to (1) lack of public awareness of both need and effectiveness, (2) a lack of government regulatory mechanisms to implement effective policies, (3) alcohol industry lobbying, and (4) a failure from the public health community to promote specific and feasible actions as opposed to general principles, e.g., 'increased prices' or 'reduced affordability'. There is enormous untapped potential in most countries for the implementation of proven strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. While alcohol policies have weakened in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may now also be more accepting of public health-inspired policies with proven effectiveness and potential economic benefits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá , Comércio/economia , Comércio/normas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Programas Governamentais , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Pandemias , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-08-05.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54593

RESUMO

This summary report provides a synopsis of the key messages and the agreed set of strategic actions to advance the enactment, implementation, and enforcement of NCD risk factor policies through laws and regulations in the Caribbean at the country and regional levels. It should be read together with the full Subregional Workshop Report available at https://iris.paho.org/handle/10665.2/53821.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Obesidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Rotulagem de Produtos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Avaliação da Deficiência , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Diabetes Mellitus , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Região do Caribe
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette consumption remains high and increasing in Indonesia. The government implemented a pictorial health warnings requirement of 40% cover of the pack (front and back) using fear appeal messages. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of cigarette pictorial health warnings by message and size. METHODS: We conducted a mixed factorial experiment online study using three messaging approaches (fear vs. guilt vs. financial loss) and two picture sizes (40% vs. 75%) among 209 smoking participants. Sociodemographic variables included gender, education, income, employment status, and marital status. Data analysis used a mixed model ANOVA to see the main effect and interaction effect on dependent variables. For subgroup analysis, we used t-test and one-way ANOVA. All analyzes were in SPSS 22. RESULTS: We found significant differences in the three message types, in which fear and guilt have higher effectiveness than financial loss. By subgroup, the guilt message was more compelling among female smokers and married smokers. The financial loss message was effective among lower-income smokers. We found no difference in pictorial health warning effectiveness by image size, potentially because participants could zoom in/out the cigarette pack image on the screen. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding supports more diverse message types in pictorial health warnings in Indonesia and other countries.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Fumantes , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1420, 2021 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational evidence suggests that cigarette pack size - the number of cigarettes in a single pack - is associated with consumption but experimental evidence of a causal relationship is lacking. The tobacco industry is introducing increasingly large packs, in the absence of maximum cigarette pack size regulation. In Australia, the minimum pack size is 20 but packs of up to 50 cigarettes are available. We aimed to estimate the impact on smoking of reducing cigarette pack sizes from ≥25 to 20 cigarettes per pack. METHOD: A two-stage adaptive parallel group RCT in which Australian smokers who usually purchase packs containing ≥25 cigarettes were randomised to use only packs containing either 20 (intervention) or their usual packs (control) for four weeks. The primary outcome, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day, was measured through collecting all finished cigarette packs, labelled with the number of cigarettes participants smoked. An interim sample size re-estimation was used to evaluate the possibility of detecting a meaningful difference in the primary outcome. RESULTS: The interim analysis, conducted when 124 participants had been randomised, suggested 1122 additional participants needed to be randomised for sufficient power to detect a meaningful effect. This exceeded pre-specified criteria for feasible recruitment, and data collection was terminated accordingly. Analysis of complete data (n = 79) indicated that the mean cigarettes smoked per day was 15.9 (SD = 8.5) in the intervention arm and 16.8 (SD = 6.7) among controls (difference - 0.9: 95%CI = - 4.3, 2.6). CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether reducing cigarette pack sizes from ≥25 to 20 cigarettes reduces cigarette consumption. Importantly, the results of this study provide no evidence that capping cigarette pack sizes would be ineffective at reducing smoking. The limitations identified in this study can inform a more efficient RCT, which is urgently required to address the dearth of experimental evidence on the impact of large cigarette pack sizes on smoking. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN34202533.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Austrália , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Embalagem de Produtos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281125

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the perceived effectiveness of waterpipe (WP) tobacco specific health warning labels (HWLs) among young adult WP smokers and nonsmokers in Lebanon. Before participating in focus group discussions, participants (n = 66; WP smokers n = 30; nonsmokers n = 36; age 18-33) completed a brief survey to rate the effectiveness of 12 HWLs' and rank them according to four risk themes (WP health effects, WP harm to others, WP-specific harm, and WP harm compared to cigarettes). Differences in HWLs ratings by WP smoking status were examined and the top-ranked HWL in each theme were identified. HWLs depicting mouth cancer and harm to babies were rated as the most effective by both WP smokers and non-smokers. WP smokers rated HWLs which depicted harm to children and infants as more effective than non-smokers. The top-ranked HWLs for perceived overall effectiveness were those depicting "oral cancer", "harm to babies", "orally transmitted diseases" and "mouth cancer". HWLs depicting oral lesions and harm to babies were rated as most effective, while HWLs showing the harmful effects of WP secondhand smoke on infants and children were rated as less effective by nonsmokers compared to smokers. Our study provides evidence on the potential effectiveness of HWLs for further evaluation in Lebanon and the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results will inform and guide the development and implementation of tobacco control policy.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Líbano , Rotulagem de Produtos , Política Pública , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3761-3770, 2021 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236947

RESUMO

Despite ample evidence of the safety and efficacy of the influenza vaccine and the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy, two-thirds of pregnant women do not receive these vaccines. Providers have a significant role in increasing prenatal vaccine uptake. It is important to understand how different sources of vaccine prescribing information, such as Food and Drug Administration package inserts, influence provider recommendations. We aimed to examine the role of vaccine package inserts in provider recommendations and perceptions of safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random, weighted sample of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Fellows living in the United States in March 2019. Providers were asked about their attitudes toward package inserts, and to evaluate sample package insert statements following two different labeling rules. Their evaluations of each rule were then compared. Of the 321 respondents, the majority (90%, 288/321) recommended and/or administered maternal vaccinations. Few respondents (7.8%, 25/321) read package inserts for information regarding vaccination. Respondents were less likely to recommend sample vaccines with Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule-complying inserts (46.1%, 148/321) than vaccines with Pregnancy Category inserts (87.5%, 282/321). Although most providers did not actively utilize vaccine package inserts to inform recommendations, the previous Pregnancy Categories rule was preferred compared to the Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule. Collaborative efforts to update inserts with current clinical practices for pregnancy would be valuable in reducing apprehensiveness around package inserts to generate safer and more cogent recommendations for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular , Vacinas contra Influenza , Coqueluche , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Gravidez , Rotulagem de Produtos , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
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